06:58
TED2009

Diane Benscoter: How cults rewire the brain

元統一教会信者のダイアナ・バンスコータ「カルトの考え方」

Filmed:

ダイアナ・バンスコータが、統一教会に加わった敬意とその中での長き5 年について、お話します。カルト内部からの意見、過激派に言及し、今日の悩ましい闘争について考える道筋を提案します。

- Deprogrammer
Diane Benscoter, an ex-Moonie, is now invested in finding ways to battle extremist mentalities and their potentially deadly consequences. Full bio

My journey to coming here today
今日私をここに導いた旅は
00:18
started in 1974.
1974年に始まりました
00:22
That's me with the funny gloves.
奇妙な手袋をしているのが私です
00:24
I was 17 and going on a peace walk.
当時17歳で平和運動に参加していました
00:27
What I didn't know though, was most of those people, standing there
周囲の人がほとんど統一教会信者ということは
00:30
with me, were Moonies.
気づいていませんでしたが
00:33
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:35
And within a week
それから1 週間の内に
00:39
I had come to believe
文 鮮明(ぶんせいめい)という
00:41
that the second coming of Christ had occurred,
第2 のキリストが現れ
00:43
that it was Sun Myung Moon,
私は神より特別に
00:46
and that I had been specially chosen and prepared by God
彼の奉仕者に選出される準備があったのだと
00:48
to be his disciple.
信じるようになりました
00:52
Now as cool as that sounds,
聞こえはいいですが
00:54
my family was not that thrilled with this.
家族は良く思いませんでした
00:56
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:58
And they tried everything they could to get me out of there.
あらゆる手で説得してきました
01:00
There was an underground railroad of sorts
当時地下で活動していた怪しい
01:02
that was going on during those years. Maybe some of you remember it.
秘密組織を覚えている方もいるでしょう
01:04
They were called deprogrammers.
彼らはディプログラマ(洗脳解除者)と呼ばれてました
01:07
And after about five long years
それから長い5 年程が経ち 私の家族は私の
01:10
my family had me deprogrammed.
洗脳解除を依頼しました
01:16
And I then became a deprogrammer.
それからは私自信がディプログラマになり
01:18
I started going out on cases.
5 年間にわたり
01:23
And after about five years of doing this,
ディプログラミング(洗脳解除行為)をしていましたが
01:25
I was arrested for kidnapping.
私は拉致の疑いで逮捕されました
01:29
Most of the cases I went out on
私の携わった事例はほとんどが
01:33
were called involuntary.
望まぬ行為と見なされました
01:35
What happened was that the family
1 週間程話をするために
01:37
had to get their loved ones some safe place somehow.
対象者の家族には安全な場所の確保を
01:39
And so they took them to some safe place.
お願いしていたのですが これが半ば強制的であると
01:42
And we would come in and talk to them, usually for about a week.
判断されてしまったようです
01:46
And so after this happened,
逮捕されたことは この仕事をやめる
01:49
I decided it was a good time to turn my back on this work.
ちょうどよい機会だと思いました
01:53
And about 20 years went by.
そして約20年が経つと
01:57
There was a burning question though that would not leave me.
ある疑問が頭の中を駆け巡っていました
02:02
And that was, "How did this happen to me?"
「なんでこんなことが私に起こったのか?」
02:05
And in fact, what did happen to my brain?
「実際 私の脳はどうなったのだろう?」
02:08
Because something did.
何かが起こっていたのは明らかです
02:11
And so I decided to write a book, a memoir,
私はこの10年についての
02:14
about this decade of my life.
自叙伝を書く決心をしました
02:16
And toward the end of writing that book
執筆活動が終盤にさしかかる頃
02:19
there was a documentary that came out.
ジョーンズタウンに関する
02:21
It was on Jonestown.
あるドキュメンタリに出会いました
02:23
And it had a chilling effect on me.
身の毛もよだつ光景が広がっていました
02:25
These are the dead in Jonestown.
これはジョーンズタウンの住民です
02:30
About 900 people died that day,
この日約900人が亡くなりました
02:33
most of them taking their own lives.
ほとんどの方が自殺をしました
02:35
Women gave poison to their babies,
女性は赤ん坊に毒をやり
02:38
and watched foam come from their mouths as they died.
泡を吹いて死ぬまで見届けました
02:42
The top picture is a group of Moonies
上の写真は文 鮮明より清めを受けた
02:47
that have been blessed by their messiah.
統一教会信者たちの写真です
02:50
Their mates were chosen for them.
彼らの同志は選ばれし者でした
02:53
The bottom picture is Hitler youth.
下はヒトラーユーゲントの写真です
02:56
This is the leg of a suicide bomber.
これは自爆テロをした子供の脚です
03:00
The thing I had to admit to myself,
私自信強い嫌悪を抱きながらも
03:04
with great repulsion,
この光景を理解できるということを
03:06
was that I get it.
認めざるを得ませんでした
03:09
I understand how this could happen.
なぜこんなことが起こるのか分かっていました
03:11
I understand how someone's brain,
人の脳や心がこの様なことを
03:14
how someone's mind can come to the place
是正すると 大量虐殺をせずに
03:17
where it makes sense --
世界を放置しておくことが
03:20
in fact it would be wrong, when your brain is working like that --
間違っているのだ、という思想を
03:22
not to try to save the world through genocide.
生み出すことは認識していました
03:25
And so what is this? How does this work?
これは一体どのように作用するのでしょう?
03:31
And how I've come to view what happened to me
私に起こったことをどうして
03:34
is a viral, memetic infection.
ウィルス性メーム伝達と思ったのでしょう?
03:38
For those of you who aren't familiar with memetics,
メーム学に馴染みのない方は
03:41
a meme has been defined as
その定義は人間の脳内に
03:43
an idea that replicates in the human brain
複製を作りウィルスの様に
03:45
and moves from brain to brain like a virus,
脳から脳へと移る思想だと思ってください
03:47
much like a virus. The way a virus works is --
まさにウィルスのように感染します
03:52
it can infect and do the most damage to someone
つまり脆弱な免疫系をお持ちの方に
03:55
who has a compromised immune system.
感染しては大きな被害を出すのです
04:00
In 1974, I was young, I was naive,
1974年当時私は若く無垢で
04:04
and I was pretty lost in my world.
自分の世界におぼれた
04:08
I was really idealistic.
真の理想主義者でした
04:10
These easy ideas to complex questions are very appealing
感情的に弱ってる時は、難問に対する
04:13
when you are emotionally vulnerable.
取っつきやすい解決策は魅力的なものです
04:17
What happens is that
すると循環論法が
04:20
circular logic takes over.
台頭してきます
04:23
"Moon is one with God.
「文は神の使いだ」
04:25
God is going to fix all the problems in the world.
「神が世界の問題を全て解決してくれる」
04:27
All I have to do is humbly follow.
「私はただ従えばいいのだ」
04:31
Because God is going to stop war and hunger --
「神は私の望んだとおり
04:33
all these things I wanted to do --
戦争や飢餓を全て正してくれる」
04:35
all I have to do is humbly follow.
「私は謙虚に従うだけ」
04:37
Because after all, God is [working through] the messiah. He's going to fix all this."
「最終的には使いを通じて神が世界を正してくれる」
04:39
It becomes impenetrable.
この思想が絶対のものとなります
04:42
And the most dangerous part of this
この思想の最も危険なところは
04:45
is that is creates "us" and "them,"
"私たち" と "他人" '"正" と "誤"
04:48
"right" and "wrong,"
"善" と "悪" の様な二極化を
04:51
"good" and "evil."
生み出してしまうことです
04:53
And it makes anything possible,
何もかもを可能にするのです
04:57
makes anything rationalizable.
全てが合理化されてしまいます
05:01
And the thing is, though,
私が統一教会に
05:08
if you looked at my brain
参加していた頃の脳を
05:10
during those years in the Moonies --
見てみたらどうなっているでしょう?
05:12
neuroscience is expanding exponentially,
昨日レイ・カーツワイルが「科学は拡大する」と
05:14
as Ray Kurzweil said yesterday. Science is expanding.
言った様に神経科学は拡大をしています
05:17
We're beginning to look inside the brain.
その研究範囲は脳内部に到達しました
05:19
And so if you looked at my brain, or any brain that's infected with
私の脳やこの様にメームに感染した
05:22
a viral memetic infection like this,
脳を観察して 会場の誰か もしくは
05:24
and compared it to anyone in this room,
日常的に批判的思考をする
05:27
or anyone who uses critical thinking on a regular basis,
人の脳と比較してみると
05:29
I am convinced it would look very, very different.
全く異なる様相をしているはずです
05:31
And that, strange as it may sound,
奇妙に聞こえるかもしれませんが
05:36
gives me hope.
このことに私は希望を感じています
05:39
And the reason that gives me hope
希望を見いだす理由は
05:41
is that the first thing is to admit
問題の認識こそが
05:43
that we have a problem.
初めの一歩だからです
05:46
But it's a human problem. It's a scientific problem, if you will.
これは人的問題ですが 科学的問題にもなりえます
05:49
It happens in the human brain. There is no evil force out there to get us.
脳内の問題であり 外部から悪が働きかけることはありません
05:52
And so this is something that, through research and education,
つまりこれは研究や教育を通じて解決が
05:56
I believe that we can solve.
可能な問題だと信じています
06:00
And so the first step is to realize
そこで最初のステップは"私たち"と”他人”といった二極化など
06:03
that we can do this together,
存在せずに皆共に取り組んでいく
06:11
and that there is no "us" and "them."
という認識を持つことです
06:13
Thank you very much. (Applause)
ご清聴ありがとうございました (拍手)
06:16
Translated by Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewed by Hidetoshi Yamauchi

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About the Speaker:

Diane Benscoter - Deprogrammer
Diane Benscoter, an ex-Moonie, is now invested in finding ways to battle extremist mentalities and their potentially deadly consequences.

Why you should listen

At 17, Diane Benscoter joined The Unification Church -- the religious cult whose members are commonly known as “Moonies.” After five long years, her distressed family arranged to have her deprogrammed. Benscoter then left The Unification Church, and was so affected by her experience that she became a deprogrammer herself. She devoted her time to extracting others from cults, until she was arrested for kidnapping. The shock of her arrest caused her to abandon her efforts for almost 20 years.

Now, after decades of research and study, Diane has begun to speak about her experiences. She recently completed a memoir describing her years as a member of The Unification Church and as a deprogrammer.

Furthermore, she has embarked on a new project to define “extremist viral memetic infections”. She believes that defining extremism as a memetic infection, from a cognitive neurological perspective, might allow us to develop better memes that would inoculate against the memes of extremist thought. These inoculating memes could prevent the spread of extremist viral memetic infections and their inherent dangers.

More profile about the speaker
Diane Benscoter | Speaker | TED.com