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TED2009

Kary Mullis: A next-gen cure for killer infections

キャリー マリスの危険な感染症に対する次世代治療法について

February 5, 2009

薬剤耐性菌の犠牲者は世界有数の病院でも報告されています。しかし、高い病原性をもつ黄色ブドウ球菌や炭疽菌などによる感染症は今後大いに驚くことになりそうです。強力な抗生物質の効果が無いまま死亡した友人を目の当たりにしたノーベル賞化学者キャリー・マリスは、驚くほど将来性のある、革新的な治療法を明らかにします。

Kary Mullis - Biochemist
Kary Mullis won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing a way to copy a strand of DNA. (His technique, called PCR, jump-started the 1990s' biorevolution.) He's known for his wide-ranging interests -- and strong opinions. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
So it was about four years ago, five years ago,
4、5年前の頃でした
00:18
I was sitting on a stage in Philadelphia, I think it was,
私は、こんな袋を持って、フィラデルフィアのステージに
00:21
with a bag similar to this.
いたんだと思います
00:23
And I was pulling a molecule out of this bag.
そして袋から分子模型を取り出し
00:26
And I was saying, you don't know this molecule really well,
言ったのです 「皆さんはこの分子をあまりご存知ないと思いますが
00:29
but your body knows it extremely well.
体はこれを非常に良く知っています」
00:32
And I was thinking that your body hated it, at the time,
その時、私たちの体がこれを嫌っているものだと考えていました
00:35
because we are very immune to this. This is called alpha-gal epitope.
なぜなら、これに対して免疫が働いているからです これはアルファ-ガル エピトープと呼ばれています
00:39
And the fact that pig heart valves have lots of these on them
豚の心臓弁に沢山これが存在するため
00:42
is the reason that you can't transplant a pig heart valve into a person easily.
人と豚の心臓弁の移植を簡単に行えません
00:46
Actually our body doesn't hate these.
実は体はこれを嫌っている訳ではありません
00:50
Our body loves these. It eats them.
これらが好物で、食べてしまうのです
00:52
I mean, the cells in our immune system are always hungry.
免疫システムの細胞は、いつもお腹を空かせています
00:55
And if an antibody is stuck to one of these things
もし抗体が細胞上でこれらの一つに結合すると
00:58
on the cell, it means "that's food."
それはつまり「これは食べ物だ」という意味です
01:02
Now, I was thinking about that and I said, you know, we've got this
この事を考えていた私は言いました
01:05
immune response to this ridiculous molecule
「自分の産生しないこの変な分子に私たちの免疫系は反応しますが
01:07
that we don't make, and we see it a lot in other animals and stuff.
同様な現象を他の動物にも見る事ができます
01:10
But I said we can't get rid of it,
でも私たちはこれから逃れる事はできません
01:14
because all the people who tried to transplant heart valves
なぜなら心臓弁の移植を試みた全ての人々は
01:17
found out you can't get rid of that immunity.
この免疫から逃れられないことを発見したからです」
01:19
And I said, why don't you use that?
そして私は、「これを利用してみようか」と言ったのです
01:21
What if I could stick this molecule,
もしこの分子を
01:23
slap it onto a bacteria
ちょうど肺に侵入してきた
01:26
that was pathogenic to me, that had just invaded my lungs?
病原菌にくっつけることが出来ればどうなるでしょうか
01:28
I mean I could immediately tap into
5、6日かけて準備することもなく、
01:32
an immune response that was already there,
即座に既存の免疫反応を
01:34
where it was not going to take five or six days to develop it --
引き起こすことができます
01:36
it was going to immediately attack whatever this thing was on.
これにくっついているありとあらゆるものに即座に攻撃をしかけるでしょう
01:39
It was kind of like the same thing that happens when you,
例えば、ロサンゼルスで交通違反の切符の為に
01:42
like when you're getting stopped for a traffic ticket in L.A.,
警察に止められて
01:44
and the cop drops a bag of marijuana in the back of your car,
警官が車の外の後ろにマリファナの袋を落とし
01:48
and then charges you for possession of marijuana.
マリファナの所持で告発することと同じような事です
01:51
It's like this very fast, very efficient way to get people off the street.
人々を非常に早く、効率的に道路からつまみ出すようなものなのです
01:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:58
So you can take a bacteria
これらを全く作り出さない
02:00
that really doesn't make these things at all,
細菌に
02:02
and if you could clamp these on it really well
これらをうまく結合させることが出来れば、
02:04
you have it taken off the street.
彼らをつまみだすことが出来ます
02:06
And for certain bacteria
そして特定の細菌では
02:08
we don't have really efficient ways to do that anymore.
それらを排除する効率的な手段はもうありません
02:10
Our antibiotics are running out.
細菌に対して抗生物質は効きにくくなっています
02:12
And, I mean, the world apparently is running out too.
というか、世界もだめになりつつあるので
02:14
So probably it doesn't matter 50 years from now --
恐らく、50年後は、連鎖球菌のような菌が蔓延し
02:17
streptococcus and stuff like that will be rampant --
私たちはこの世にいないので、関係ないかもしれませんが
02:20
because we won't be here. But if we are --
もしまだ生きているのだとしたら
02:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:25
we're going to need something to do with the bacteria.
細菌に対して何らかの対策を講じなければいけません
02:27
So I started working with this thing,
そこで私は大勢の共同研究者と
02:29
with a bunch of collaborators.
これに対する研究を始め
02:33
And trying to attach this to things that were
私たちが嫌いな細菌の特定のターゲット部位に
02:35
themselves attached to certain specific target zones,
結びついたものにこのエピトープを
02:38
bacteria that we don't like.
結合させようとしました
02:42
And I feel now like George Bush.
今、私はまるでジョージ ブッシュになって
02:44
It's like "mission accomplished."
「任務完了」と宣言する気分なので
02:48
So I might be doing something dumb, just like he was doing at the time.
私は彼が当時やっていたように、くだらないことをやっているのかもしれませんが
02:50
But basically what I was talking about there we've now gotten to work.
基本的に私がそこで話したことは、現在うまく機能しています
02:53
And it's killing bacteria. It's eating them.
この方法で免疫が実際に細菌を食べ始めているのです
02:57
This thing can be stuck, like that little green triangle up there,
あの図では、この分子は
03:01
sort of symbolizing this right now.
小さな緑色の三角形として表されています
03:05
You can stick this to something called a DNA aptamer.
これをDNAアプタマーと呼ばれるものに結合させることができます
03:08
And that DNA aptamer will attach specifically
そしてDNAアプタマーは、選択した特定のターゲットに対して
03:11
to a target that you have selected for it.
特異的に結合するのです
03:13
So you can find a little feature on a bacterium that you don't like,
次は好きじゃない細菌に対してそのターゲット部位を選び出します
03:15
like Staphylococcus -- I don't like it in particular,
私はブドウ球菌が特に好きではありません、なぜなら
03:19
because it killed a professor friend of mine last year.
私の友人である教授を昨年死なせたからです
03:22
It doesn't respond to antibiotics. So I don't like it.
抗生物質が効かなかったことから私はこの細菌が嫌いです
03:25
And I'm making an aptamer that will have this attached to it.
そこでこのエピトープと結合したアプタマーを作り
03:28
That will know how to find Staph when it's in your body,
それが体内におけるブドウ球菌の侵入を検知し
03:31
and will alert your immune system to go after it.
免疫システムに警告を発するようにしました
03:34
Here's what happened. See that line on the very top
実際こういう事が起きました 一番上の
03:37
with the little dots?
小さな点で表されている線が見えますか
03:40
That's a bunch of mice that had been poisoned
私たちの友人であるテキサスのブルックス空軍基地にいる
03:42
by our scientist friends down in Texas,
科学者達によって、炭疽菌に感染させられた
03:45
at Brooks Air Base, with anthrax.
マウス達を示しています
03:47
And they had also been treated with a drug that we made
また、それらのマウスは私たちが用意した
03:50
that would attack anthrax in particular,
炭疽菌のみを免疫システムの標的とする
03:53
and direct your immune system to it.
薬剤を投与されています
03:56
You'll notice they all lived, the ones on the top line --
一番上の線のマウスは、全て生存しました
03:58
that's a 100 percent survival rate.
これは100%の生存率を示しています
04:00
And they actually lived another 14 days,
そしてマウスは更に14日間生存し
04:02
or 28 when we finally killed them,
28日目に処分し、解剖して一体何が起きたのか
04:05
and took them apart and figured out what went wrong.
解析するまで生きたのです
04:07
Why did they not die?
なぜ彼らは死ななかったのでしょうか?
04:10
And they didn't die because they didn't have anthrax anymore.
彼らの体内に炭疽菌がいなくなっていたからです
04:12
So we did it. Okay?
ということで、私たちは成功したんです
04:15
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:17
Mission accomplished!
任務完了!
04:19
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:21
Translator:Yuki Okada
Reviewer:Masahiro Kyushima

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Kary Mullis - Biochemist
Kary Mullis won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing a way to copy a strand of DNA. (His technique, called PCR, jump-started the 1990s' biorevolution.) He's known for his wide-ranging interests -- and strong opinions.

Why you should listen

In the early 1980s, Kary Mullis developed the polymerase chain reaction, an elegant way to make copies of a DNA strand using the enzyme polymerase and some basic DNA "building blocks." The process opened the door to more in-depth study of DNA -- like the Human Genome Project. Mullis shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing this technique.

As he tells it, after winning the Nobel Prize, his next career move was to learn how to surf. It's typical of Mullis, whose scientific method is to get deeply curious about a topic, work it out from first principles, and then imagine the next giant leap forward. As he puts it in his Nobel autobiography, revised several times since 1993, "I read a lot, and think a lot, and I can talk about almost anything. Being a Nobel laureate is a license to be an expert in lots of things as long as you do your homework."

Most recently, he's been taking a hard look at immunity; a recent patent from his company Altermune describes the redirection of an existing immune response to a new pathogen.

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