10:22
TEDGlobal 2009

John Lloyd: An inventory of the invisible

ジョン・ロイドが挙げる、見えないものリスト

Filmed:

コメディアンで作家でタレントでもあるジョン・ロイドが見えないものの要素を探り、自然の不思議さについて、機転のきいた10分間の軽快で楽しいトークを繰り広げます。

- Producer
John Lloyd helps make some of the cleverest television in the UK. Full bio

So the question is, what is invisible?
見えないものには どういうものがあるでしょう?
00:12
There is more of it than you think, actually.
皆さんが思っているよりありますよ
00:17
Everything, I would say. Everything that matters
全てのもの つまり物質以外の全ての
00:20
except every thing and except matter.
本当に大切なものは目に見えません
00:23
We can see matter. But we can't see what's the matter.
物の姿は見えますが 問題の姿は見えません
00:29
As in this cryptic sentence I found in The Guardian recently:
最近ガーディアン新聞で こんなおかしな文章を読みました
00:33
"The marriage suffered a setback in 1965,
「1965年に夫が妻に殺された時
00:38
when the husband was killed by the wife."
夫婦問題が発生しました」
00:41
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:44
There's a world of invisibility there, isn't there?
裏には見えない物語があるでしょう
00:47
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:49
So, we can see the stars and the planets,
星や惑星は見えますが
00:51
but we can't see what holds them apart
それぞれの星を隔てる力も
00:53
or what draws them together.
引きあう力も見えません
00:56
With matter, as with people, we see only the skin of things.
人も物質も 見えるのは肌や外側だけです
00:58
We can't see into the engine room.
内側をのぞく事はできません
01:01
We can't see what makes people tick, at least not without difficulty.
簡単には人の行動の動機を知る事はできません
01:03
And the closer we look at anything, the more it disappears.
どんな物でも 近づけば近づくほど消えてしまいます
01:06
In fact, if you look really closely at stuff,
実は 非常に近くで
01:10
if you look at the basic substructure of matter,
物質の基本的な構造を見ると
01:12
there isn't anything there.
そこには何もありません
01:14
Electrons disappear in a kind of fuzz,
電子はぼんやりと消えていき
01:16
and there is only energy. And you can't see energy.
最後に残るのはエネルギーだけです でも私達にはエネルギーは見えません
01:18
So everything that matters, that's important, is invisible.
すべての重要なものは目に見えないのです
01:23
One slightly silly thing that's invisible
ちょっとばかばかしい
01:26
is this story, which is invisible to you.
目に見えない話をしましょう
01:29
And I'm now going to make it visible to you in your minds.
その話を頭の中でイメージできるようにしていきます
01:31
It's about an M.P. called Geoffrey Dickens.
ジェファリー ディキンズというイギリスの下院議員の話です
01:34
The late Geoffrey Dickens, M.P. was attending a fete in his constituency.
故ディキンズ議員は 後援会のパーティにいました
01:38
Wherever he went, at every stall he stopped he was closely followed
しかし例えようもなく醜い女性が どのテーブルにも
01:41
by a devoted smiling woman of indescribable ugliness.
笑顔でぴったりと彼についてくるのです
01:44
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:47
Try as he might, he couldn't get away from her.
どうやっても逃れられませんでした
01:49
A few days later he received a letter from a constituent
数日後 彼をすごく尊敬しており
01:51
saying how much she admired him,
サイン入りの写真が欲しいという
01:53
had met him at a fete and asking for a signed photograph.
パーティーに参加した後援者から手紙をもらいました
01:55
After her name, written in brackets was the apt description, horse face.
名前の後には (馬顔)と書いてありました
01:58
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:03
"I've misjudged this women," thought Mr. Dickens.
「誤解していた」と彼は思いました
02:04
"Not only is she aware of her physical repulsiveness,
「彼女は自分の見苦しさを知っていて
02:06
she turns it to her advantage.
敢えてそれをアピールした
02:09
A photo is not enough."
写真に何か付けて贈ろう」
02:11
So he went out and bought a plastic frame to put the photograph in.
彼は写真を入れる額を買ってきて
02:13
And on the photograph, he wrote with a flourish,
写真に美しい字で「感謝をこめて
02:16
"To Horse Face, with love from Geoffrey Dickens, M.P."
ジェフェリー ディキンズ議員より馬顔へ」と書きました
02:18
After it had been sent off, his secretary said to him,
手紙の郵送後 秘書が言いました
02:23
"Did you get that letter from the woman at the fete?
「あの女性の手紙を見ましたか?
02:25
I wrote Horse Face on her, so you'd remember who she was."
彼女を思い出せるように(馬顔)と書いたんですが」
02:27
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:31
I bet he thought he wished he was invisible, don't you?
彼は消えたかった事でしょうね
02:37
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:39
So, one of the interesting things about invisibility
見えないものが面白いのは
02:41
is that things that we can't see
見る事が出来なければ
02:43
we also can't understand.
理解ができないからでもあります
02:45
Gravity is one thing that we can't see
引力は 見えなくて
02:47
and which we don't understand.
分からないものの一つです
02:49
It's the least understood of all the four fundamental forces,
4つの基本的な力の中で一番
02:51
and the weakest.
理解されていなくて 弱い力です
02:53
And nobody really knows what it is or why it's there.
どんなものか だれも知りません
02:55
For what it's worth, Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist who ever lived,
科学者のアイザック ニュートンは
02:57
he thought Jesus came to Earth specifically to operate the levers of gravity.
キリストは引力を働かせるために地球に来たと信じていました
03:00
That's what he thought he was there for.
それがキリストの目的なのだと―
03:05
So, bright guy, could be wrong on that one, I don't know.
賢い人でしたが そこは違うかもしれません
03:07
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:10
Consciousness. I see all your faces.
意識― 皆さんの顔を見ても
03:12
I have no idea what any of you are thinking. Isn't that amazing?
何を考えているかは分かりません 不思議ですね
03:14
Isn't that incredible that we can't read each other's minds?
心を読み合えないなんて信じられない事です
03:17
But we can touch each other, taste each other perhaps, if we get close enough.
お互いに触りあい 十分に近づけば なめる事もできるのに
03:20
But we can't read each other's minds. I find that quite astonishing.
心を読みあうことはできない 不思議な事です
03:24
In the Sufi faith, this great Middle Eastern religion,
中東に 全ての宗教の源とも言われる
03:27
which some claim is the route of all religions,
スーフィー教という宗教があり
03:31
Sufi masters are all telepaths, so they say.
その師はみんなテレパシー能力を持っていると彼らは言います
03:33
But their main exercise of telepathy
彼らの主な目的は
03:38
is to send out powerful signals to the rest of us that it doesn't exist.
テレパシーなんて存在しないという強力な信号を送る事です
03:40
So that's why we don't think it exists,
私達はスーフィーの師に
03:45
the Sufi masters working on us.
テレパシーが存在しないと信じ込まされているのです
03:47
In the question of consciousness
人工知能―
03:50
and artificial intelligence,
つまり意識の研究は
03:52
artificial intelligence has really, like the study of consciousness,
なかなか進みません
03:54
gotten nowhere. We have no idea how consciousness works.
私達は意識の働き方を全く知りません
03:56
With artificial intelligence, not only have they not created artificial intelligence,
人工知能研究者は人工知能はおろか
03:59
they haven't yet created artificial stupidity.
人工馬鹿さえ作れません
04:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:06
The laws of physics: invisible, eternal, omnipresent, all-powerful.
物理学の法則は見えなくて 永遠で 偏在していて 万能です
04:11
Remind you of anyone?
誰か思い浮かびますか?
04:15
Interesting. I'm, as you can guess,
面白いですね ご想像通り
04:17
not a materialist, I'm an immaterialist.
私は 非物質主義者です
04:19
And I've found a very useful new word, ignostic. Okay?
そして面白い新語を見つけました
04:21
I'm an ignostic.
私は「疑神者」です
04:24
I refuse to be drawn on the question of whether God exists,
「神」がいったい何かを定義してもらえなければ
04:26
until somebody properly defines the terms.
神が存在するかの議論はお断りです
04:29
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:32
Another thing we can't see is the human genome.
もう一つの見えないものは人類のゲノムです
04:35
And this is increasingly peculiar,
これはますます不可解な事になっています
04:38
because about 20 years ago, when they started delving into the genome,
20年前 科学者がゲノムの研究をし始めたころは
04:41
they thought it would probably contain around 100,000 genes.
人間の遺伝子は10万ぐらいだと思われていました
04:46
Geneticists will know this, but every year since,
遺伝学者はご存知でしょうが
04:49
it's been revised downwards.
毎年その数字は下方修正されています
04:51
We now think there are likely to be only just over 20,000
今は人類のゲノムには2万の遺伝子しかないと
04:53
genes in the human genome.
考えられています
04:56
This is extraordinary. Because rice -- get this --
信じられないことです なぜなら
04:58
rice is known to have 38 thousand genes.
コメには3万8千の遺伝子があるからです
05:01
Potatoes, potatoes have 48 chromosomes. Do you know that?
ポテトには48の染色体があります ご存知でしたか?
05:05
Two more than people,
人間より二つ多くて
05:10
and the same as a gorilla.
ゴリラと同じです
05:12
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:14
You can't see these things, but they are very strange.
これらは見えません でも本当におかしいですね
05:16
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:19
The stars by day. I always think that's fascinating.
昼間の星をずっと不思議に思っていました
05:21
The universe disappears.
宇宙が消えるのです
05:24
The more light there is, the less you can see.
光があるほど見えなくなる
05:26
Time, nobody can see time.
時間― 誰にも時間は見えません
05:29
I don't know if you know this. Modern physics,
ご存じかはわかりませんが 現在
05:31
there is a big movement in modern physics
時間は実は存在しないと
05:33
to decide that time doesn't really exist,
主張する物理学者も随分います
05:35
because it's too inconvenient for the figures.
物理学の計算に不都合だからです
05:37
It's much easier if it's not really there.
時間を無視すれば計算が上手くいく
05:40
You can't see the future, obviously.
私達にはもちろん未来が見えません
05:42
And you can't see the past, except in your memory.
そして 思い出の中以外 過去も見えません
05:44
One of the interesting things about the past is
これは過去の面白い所の一つです
05:47
you particularly can't see. My son asked me this the other day,
数日前 私の息子がこう聞きました
05:49
he said, "Dad, can you remember what I was like when I was two?"
「2歳のボクを覚えてる?」
05:52
And I said, "Yes." And he said, "Why can't I?"
「ああ」と言うと「何でボクは覚えていないの?」
05:54
Isn't that extraordinary? You cannot remember
不思議ですね?2、3歳前の事を
05:57
what happened to you earlier than the age of two or three,
覚えていられられないのです
05:59
which is great news for psychoanalysts,
精神分析学者には好都合です
06:02
because otherwise they'd be out of a job.
そうでなければ 彼らは失業です
06:04
Because that's where all the stuff happens
お金をもうける出来事は全て3歳前に起こります
06:06
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:09
that makes you who you are.
人の自己を決める出来事ですから―
06:11
Another thing you can't see is the grid on which we hang.
魂と現実世界とのつながりも見えません
06:14
This is fascinating. You probably know, some of you,
それも驚く事です ご存じでしょうが
06:17
that cells are continually renewed. You can see it in skin and this kind of stuff.
皮膚などのように 細胞は常に再生されています
06:20
Skin flakes off, hairs grow, nails, that kind of stuff.
皮膚が落ちたり 髪や爪が伸びたりということです
06:23
But every cell in your body is replaced at some point.
体中のすべての細胞はいつか入れ替われる
06:27
Taste buds, every 10 days or so.
味覚は 10日間ごとに
06:30
Livers and internal organs sort of take a bit longer. A spine takes several years.
肝臓や他の内蔵はもうちょっと長く 髄は数年かかります
06:32
But at the end of seven years, not one cell in your body
7年後には 現在そこにある細胞は
06:36
remains from what was there seven years ago.
一つも残っていません
06:40
The question is, who, then, are we?
いったい私達は何者でしょう?
06:43
What are we? What is this thing that we hang on,
私達の正体は?心が宿るこの体は
06:45
that is actually us?
いったいどんなものなのでしょう?
06:48
Okay. Atoms, you can't see them.
さて 原子 これも光の波長より
06:52
Nobody ever will. They're smaller than the wavelength of light.
小さいため どうやっても見えません
06:54
Gas, you can't see that.
ガス(気体)も見えないでしょう
06:57
Interesting. Somebody mentioned 1600 recently.
「ガス」は1600年に
06:59
Gas was invented in 1600
バン ヘルモントという オランダ人の
07:01
by a Dutch chemist called Van Helmont.
科学者によって作られた単語だそうです
07:03
It's said to be the most successful ever invention
造語者が分かっている単語の中で
07:06
of a word by a known individual.
一番知られている単語だそうです
07:09
Quite good. He also invented a word called "blas,"
バンメルモントは「惑星放射」の意味で
07:11
meaning astral radiation.
「ブラース」という単語も作りましたが
07:14
Didn't catch on, unfortunately.
残念ながら流行りませんでした
07:16
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:18
But well done, him.
なかなかよかったんですがね
07:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:22
There is so many things that -- Light.
他にもたくさんあります ―光
07:23
You can't see light. When it's dark, in a vacuum,
光は見えません 真空の暗闇で
07:26
if a person shines a beam of light straight across your eyes,
光を目に当てても 見ることはできません
07:29
you won't see it. Slightly technical, some physicists will disagree with this.
ちょっと専門的で 同意しない物理学者もいますが―
07:32
But it's odd that you can't see the beam of light,
おかしな事に 光は見えないのに
07:35
you can only see what it hits.
光が当たるものだけ見える
07:37
I find that extraordinary, not to be able to see light,
光と同様 闇も見えないのは
07:39
not to be able to see darkness.
不思議なことです
07:41
Electricity, you can't see that.
電気も見えません
07:43
Don't let anyone tell you they understand electricity.
電気が分かっているなんて
07:45
They don't. Nobody knows what it is.
誰にも言わせてはいけませんよ
07:47
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:49
You probably think the electrons in an electric wire
皆さんはたぶん 電気をつけると
07:50
move instantaneously down a wire, don't you, at the speed of light
電子が光速で電線を走ると
07:52
when you turn the light on. They don't.
思っているでしょう 違います
07:55
Electrons bumble down the wire,
電子は蜂蜜の流れる速度で
07:57
about the speed of spreading honey, they say.
のろのろ電線を伝わるのです
07:59
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:02
Galaxies, 100 billion of them estimated in the universe.
宇宙の中には約千億の銀河があります
08:04
100 billion. How many can we see? Five.
千億― 肉眼で見えるのは5つです
08:07
Five out of the 100 billion galaxies, with the naked eye,
千億の銀河の中でたった5つだけ!
08:10
and one of them is quite difficult to see unless you've got very good eyesight.
その上 目が良くないと 1つは見にくいです
08:13
Radio waves. There's another thing.
もう一つは電波です
08:17
Heinrich Hertz, when he discovered radio waves in 1887,
1887年にハインリッヒ ハーツが電波を発見し
08:19
he called them radio waves because they radiated.
放射するから「ラジオ」(放射)と名付けました
08:22
And somebody said to him,
だれかがハーツにこう尋ねました
08:24
"Well what's the point of these, Heinrich?
「これで何ができるんだい?
08:27
What's the point of these radio waves that you've found?"
どうやって使うのか?」
08:29
And he said, "Well, I've no idea.
ハーツは「ぼくにも分からない
08:32
But I guess somebody will find a use for them someday."
いつかだれかが使い道を見つけるだろう」
08:34
And that's what they do, radio. That's what they discovered.
もちろん ハーツの発見は現在のラジオになりました
08:37
Anyway, so the biggest thing
とにかく 一番大事な見えないものは
08:41
that's invisible to us is what we don't know.
私達の知らないものなのです
08:44
It is incredible how little we know.
私達の知らない事がいかに多いか
08:46
Thomas Edison once said,
トマス エジソンは言いました
08:49
"We don't know one percent of one millionth
「私達が知っているのは
08:51
about anything."
物事の1万分の1だけなのだ」
08:53
And I've come to the conclusion --
さて 結論ですが
08:55
because you've asked this other question, "What's another thing you can't see?"
皆さんも知りたいでしょう 最後の見えないもの
08:58
The point, most of us. What's the point?
それは「要点」です
09:01
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:04
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:07
You can't see a point. It's by definition dimensionless,
面白いことに 点は定義上
09:08
like an electron, oddly enough.
電子のように次元がありません
09:11
But the point, what I've got it down to,
とにかく このスピーチの要点というのは
09:14
is there are only two questions really worth asking.
重要な質問は二つだけ ということです
09:17
"Why are we here?" and "What should we do about it while we are?
「私達はなぜここにいるのか?」そして 「私達は何をするべきか?」
09:19
And to help you, I've got two things to leave you with, from two great philosophers,
参考までに 20世紀の偉大な二人の哲学者の
09:24
perhaps two of the greatest philosopher thinkers of the 20th century,
言葉を述べましょう
09:29
one a mathematician and an engineer, and the other a poet.
数学者兼 エンジニアと もう一人は詩人です
09:32
The first is Ludwig Wittgenstein who said,
一人目はルドビッグ ビトゲンスタヤン
09:35
"I don't know why we are here.
「我々がなぜここにいるのか分からないが
09:39
But I'm pretty sure it's not in order to enjoy ourselves."
楽しむためではないと確信している」
09:41
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:44
He was a cheerful bastard wasn't he?
全く楽天的な人です
09:50
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:52
And secondly and lastly, W.H. Auden,
そして最後に
09:55
one of my favorite poets, who said,
私の好きな詩人の一人 WHオーデン
09:57
"We are here on earth
「私達は他人を助けるためにここにいる
09:59
to help others.
他人はなぜここにいるのか
10:02
What the others are here for, I've no idea."
私はまったくわからない」
10:04
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:07
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:09

▲Back to top

About the Speaker:

John Lloyd - Producer
John Lloyd helps make some of the cleverest television in the UK.

Why you should listen

John Lloyd seems to have known every brilliant and funny person in Britain, and his collaborations are legendary. He's been a fixture on the BBC for four decades, producing such classic comedies as Blackadder, Spitting Image, the BBC's Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and lately QI (short for "Quite Interesting"), hosted by Stephen Fry (read his Reddit AMA about it).

Lloyd has also written more than a dozen funny books -- including The Meaning of Liff, a collaboration with his friend Douglas Adams, which has been in print for 26 years.

More profile about the speaker
John Lloyd | Speaker | TED.com