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TED@State

Jacqueline Novogratz: A third way to think about aid

ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツ: 援助への第三の道

June 3, 2009

対外援助の議論において「慈善事業」に不信感を抱く人と「市場の信頼性」に不信感を抱く人はしばしば対立します。ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツは起業家精神あふれるイノベーションによる社会変革の有望な例を上げながら、彼女が寛容資本と呼ぶ中道を提案します。

Jacqueline Novogratz - Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Clearly, we're living in a moment of crisis.
明らかに 私たちは危機の瞬間を生きています
00:16
Arguably the financial markets have failed us
金融市場は私たちの期待を裏切り
00:19
and the aid system is failing us,
援助システムも期待を裏切ったといえるでしょう
00:22
and yet I stand firmly with the optimists
それでも私は かつてない刺激的な瞬間を
00:25
who believe that there has probably never been a more exciting moment to be alive.
生きているという楽観的確信を持っています
00:28
Because of some of technologies we've been talking about.
なぜなら ここで紹介されるテクノロジー
00:31
Because of the resources, the skills,
世界中にあふれる才能
00:34
and certainly the surge of talent we're seeing all around the world,
資源 技能 そして変化を引き起こそうという
00:36
with the mindset to create change.
熱い思いを感じるからです
00:39
And we've got a president who sees himself as a global citizen,
私たちの大統領は 自身を地球市民の一員と捉え
00:42
who recognizes that no longer is there a single superpower,
「唯一の超大国」はもはや存在せず
00:47
but that we've got to engage in a different way with the world.
世界と関わる違った方法を提唱しています
00:50
And by definition, every one of you who is in this room
それは定義上 ここにいる皆さん一人一人が
00:53
must consider yourself a global soul,
地球の魂であり
00:57
a global citizen.
地球市民だということです
00:59
You work on the front lines. And you've seen the best and the worst
最前線で働き 人が 互いに行う行為の
01:01
that human beings can do for one another and to one another.
最高と最悪を目にしてきました
01:03
And no matter what country you live or work in,
住む場所や働く場所に関係なく
01:07
you've also seen the extraordinary things that individuals are capable of,
まったく特別ではない平凡な個人の
01:09
even in their most ordinariness.
素晴らしい可能性を目にしてきました
01:13
Today there is a raging debate
今日 人々を貧困から救い出し
01:16
as to how best we lift people out of poverty,
彼らの活動力を開放する打開策は何か
01:19
how best we release their energies.
という議論が盛り上がっています
01:23
On the one hand, we have people that say
援助システムは崩壊しており
01:25
the aid system is so broken we need to throw it out.
援助を止めるべきだと言う人がいる一方
01:27
And on the other we have people who say
他方では 不十分な援助が
01:30
the problem is that we need more aid.
問題なのだという人がいます
01:32
And what I want to talk about is something that compliments both systems.
私は双方に敬意を示す方法をお話します
01:34
We call it patient capital.
それを寛容資本と呼びます
01:38
The critics point to the 500 billion dollars spent
援助に批判的な人は1970年以降アフリカに費やされた
01:40
in Africa since 1970
5000億ドルを指して こう尋ねます
01:43
and say, and what do we have but environmental degradation
その援助から得たものが環境劣化や
01:46
and incredible levels of poverty, rampant corruption?
とてつもない貧困や汚職の蔓延では?
01:49
They use Mobutu as metaphor.
彼らはモブツを比喩に出し
01:53
And their policy prescription is to
政策的処方として
01:56
make government more accountable,
政府にもっと説明責任をもたせ
02:00
focus on the capital markets,
資本市場に焦点をおき
02:02
invest, don't give anything away.
投資をして無駄をなくすことを提案します
02:04
On the other side, as I said, there are those who say
他方の もっとお金がいると
02:07
the problem is that we need more money.
言う人は
02:09
That when it comes to the rich, we'll bail out
富裕層には 政府救済策の施行で
02:11
and we'll hand a lot of aid,
多額の援助資金が支給され
02:14
but when it comes to our poor brethren,
貧しい同胞に対しては
02:16
we want little to do with it.
ほとんど何の救済もないと言います
02:18
They point to the successes of aid:
彼らは 援助の成功例をあげます
02:20
the eradication of smallpox,
天然痘の根絶と
02:22
and the distribution of tens of millions
何千万枚におよぶマラリア蚊帳や
02:24
of malaria bed nets and antiretrovirals.
抗レトロウイルス薬の配給
02:27
Both sides are right.
両者とも正しいのです
02:31
And the problem is that neither side is listening to the other.
問題はどちらも他方の話を聞かないこと
02:33
Even more problematic, they're not listening to
もっと問題なのは 貧しい人にも
02:36
poor people themselves.
耳を傾けません
02:39
After 25 years of working on issues of
25年間 貧困と革新の問題に
02:41
poverty and innovation,
取り組んできましたが
02:43
it's true that there are probably no more market-oriented
この地球上で低所得者ほど
02:45
individuals on the planet
市場志向の人はいないだろう
02:49
than low-income people.
というのは事実です
02:51
They must navigate markets daily,
毎日彼らは 社会で生き抜いていくために
02:53
making micro-decisions, dozens and dozens,
小さな決定を山ほど下しながら
02:56
to move their way through society,
市場を進まなくてはいけません
02:59
and yet if a single catastrophic health problem
それでも 深刻な健康問題ひとつで
03:01
impacts their family,
家族に影響が及び
03:04
they could be put back into poverty, sometimes for generations.
時には何世代にもわたる貧困へと引き戻されます
03:06
And so we need both the market
ですから 私たちには市場と援助の
03:10
and we need aid.
両方が必要なのです
03:12
Patient capital works between,
その中間で働く寛容資本は
03:15
and tries to take the best of both.
両方からメリットを得ようとしています
03:18
It's money that's invested in entrepreneurs who know their communities
そのお金は その地域に精通し
03:20
and are building solutions
低所得者を援助の受取人とは考えず
03:23
to healthcare, water, housing, alternative energy,
自分の生活にかかわる決定を自ら下す
03:25
thinking of low income people not as passive recipients of charity,
顧客 消費者 お客様として
03:28
but as individual customers, consumers, clients,
水 住居 医療 代替エネルギーなどの
03:33
people who want to make decisions in their own lives.
解決策を提供する起業家に投資されます
03:36
Patient capital requires that we have
寛容資本には
03:39
incredible tolerance for risk,
起業家が市場を
03:41
a long time horizon in terms of allowing those
最高の調査機関として活用し
03:44
entrepreneurs time to experiment,
実験できる時間をあたえ
03:46
to use the market as the best listening device that we have,
大きな社会的影響はあっても予想される市場利益は足りないので
03:48
and the expectation of below-market returns,
長期の展望と大幅なリスク許容度が
03:52
but outsized social impact.
必要とされます
03:55
It recognizes that the market has its limitation,
市場の限界を認識した上で
03:58
and so patient capital also works
寛容資本は
04:01
with smart subsidy to extend the benefits of a global economy
グローバル経済の利益を広げ すべての人を含んだ
04:04
to include all people.
賢い支援をします
04:07
Now, entrepreneurs need patient capital
起業家が寛容資本を必要とする
04:09
for three reasons.
理由は3つあります
04:11
First, they tend to work in markets
1つめは 彼らの働く市場では たいてい
04:13
where people make one, two, three dollars a day
人々は1日 1~3ドルを稼ぎ
04:15
and they are making all of their decisions within that income level.
その所得水準内ですべての意思決定を行います
04:17
Second, the geographies in which they work
2つめは 彼らが働く場所は
04:21
have terrible infrastructure --
インフラが全く整っていません
04:23
no roads to speak of, sporadic electricity
道と呼べるものや 安定した電気の供給はなく
04:25
and high levels of corruption.
汚職もはびこっています
04:27
Third, they are often creating markets.
3つめは そこでは頻繁に市場がつくられます
04:31
Even if you're bringing clean water
地方の村に初めてきれいな水を
04:33
for the first time into rural villages, it is something new.
持ってきたとしても それは真新しいものです
04:35
And so many low-income people
そして低所得者が経験した―
04:38
have seen so many failed promises broken
反故される沢山の約束
04:40
and seen so many quacks and sporadic medicines offered to them
沢山の偽医者 たまにしか手に入らない薬―
04:44
that building trust takes a lot of time,
信頼を築くには沢山の時間と
04:48
takes a lot of patience.
多くの忍耐が必要です
04:51
It also requires being connected to a lot of management assistance.
多くの管理援助とのつながりをもつことも必要です
04:53
Not only to build the systems,
低所得者が持続可能な
04:57
the business models that allow us
方法で利用できるビジネスモデルや
04:59
to reach low income people in a sustainable way,
システムを立ち上げるだけでなく
05:01
but to connect those business
これらの事業を
05:03
to other markets, to governments, to corporations --
他の市場や政府そして企業につないでいくこと-
05:05
real partnerships if we want to get to scale.
事業を軌道に乗せるには本当の協力関係が必要です
05:08
I want to share one story
細流灌漑と呼ばれる
05:12
about an innovation called drip irrigation.
技術革新について聞いてください
05:14
In 2002 I met this incredible entrepreneur
2002年に 私はインドのアミタバ サダンギ
05:16
named Amitabha Sadangi from India,
という素晴らしい起業家に出会いました
05:19
who'd been working for 20 years with some of the poorest farmers on the planet.
彼は最貧農民達と共に20年間働いていました
05:22
And he was expressing his frustration
彼は援助市場が低収入の農民全体を
05:26
that the aid market had bypassed low-income farmers altogether,
まったく念頭に置いていないという不満を訴えました
05:28
despite the fact that 200 million farmers
インドの農民2億人だけでも
05:31
alone in India make under a dollar a day.
1日1ドル未満の収入という事実にも関わらず
05:33
They were creating subsidies
インド政府は
05:36
either for large farms,
大きな農場のため もしくは
05:38
or they were giving inputs to the farmers
農民が実際に必要なものでなく
05:40
that they thought they should use, rather than
政府が考える必需品に
05:42
that the farmers wanted to use.
助成金を与えました
05:44
At the same time Amitabha was
同じ時期にアミタバは
05:46
obsessed with this drip irrigation technology
イスラエルで発明された
05:48
that had been invented in Israel.
細流灌漑技術のとりこになっていました
05:51
It was a way of bringing small amounts of water
それは植物の茎に直接
05:54
directly to the stalk of the plant.
少量の水を引く方法で
05:57
And it could transform
砂漠の一帯を
05:59
swaths of desert land into fields of emerald green.
エメラルドグリーンの農地に変えました
06:01
But the market also had bypassed low income farmers,
でもこの市場も低収入の農民向きではなく
06:04
because these systems were both too expensive,
これらのシステムはあまりにも高価で
06:08
and they were constructed for fields that were too large.
しかもその設備は彼らの土地には大きすぎたのです
06:10
The average small village farmer
平均な小さな村の農民は
06:13
works on two acres or less.
2エーカー(約2400坪)以下の土地で働きます
06:15
And so, Amitabha decided that he would take that innovation
そこでアミタバは革新する決心をかため
06:18
and he would redesign it from the perspective
貧しい農民の立場から
06:21
of the poor farmers themselves,
その設備を設計しなおしました
06:23
because he spent so many years listening to what they needed
彼は長い年月の間 農民が何を持つべきかではなく
06:25
not what he thought that they should have.
何を必要としているかに耳を傾けてきたからです
06:28
And he used three fundamental principles.
彼は3つの基本原則に従いました
06:30
The first one was miniaturization.
1つめは 小型化すること
06:32
The drip irrigation system
細粒灌漑システムは
06:35
had to be small enough that a farmer only had
農民のリスクが1/4エーカーで済むような
06:37
to risk a quarter acre,
大きさでなければいけません
06:39
even if he had two,
2エーカーを所有していたとしても
06:42
because it was too frightening, given all that he had at stake.
全てをつぎ込むのはリスクが大き過ぎるからです
06:44
Second, it had to be extremely affordable.
2つめは 簡単に手に入る値段でなければなりません
06:47
In other words, that risk on the quarter acre
言い換えると 1/4エーカーのリスクは
06:51
needed to be repaid in a single harvest,
一度の収穫で相殺されなければ
06:54
or else they wouldn't take the risk.
彼らはリスクを冒しません
06:57
And third, it had to be what Amitabha calls
そして3つめは アミタバ曰く
06:59
infinitely expandable.
拡張が無限に可能でなければなりません
07:01
What I mean is with the profits from the first quarter acre,
これは最初の1/4エーカーから得た利益で
07:03
the farmers could buy a second
農民が更に
07:06
and a third and a fourth.
買い足せるという意味です
07:08
As of today, IDE India, Amitabha's organization,
今日までにアミタバの組織 IDEインドは
07:10
has sold over 300,000 farmers these systems
これらのシステムを30万以上の農民に売り
07:13
and has seen their yields and incomes
彼らの収穫や収入が
07:16
double or triple on average,
平均して数倍になるのを見ました
07:18
but this didn't happen overnight.
これは一晩で起きたことではありません
07:20
In fact, when you go back to the beginning,
実際 最初を振り返ってみれば
07:23
there were no private investors
農業という大変リスクの高い部門で働き
07:25
who would be willing to take a risk on building a new technology
地球上で最もリスクを嫌う人々として知られる
07:27
for a market class that made under a dollar a day,
1日1ドル未満の収入クラス市場に
07:30
that were known to be some of the most risk-averse people on the planet
新しい技術を立ち上げるというリスクを負う
07:33
and that were working in one of the riskiest sectors, agriculture.
個人投資家はいませんでした
07:36
And so we needed grants. And he used significant grants
そこで私達は補助金を必要としました
07:40
to research, to experiment, to fail,
彼は調査し 実験し 失敗し 革新して
07:43
to innovate and try again.
また試すのに多額の補助金を費やしました
07:46
And when he had a prototype
そうして試作品が出来て
07:48
and had a better understanding of how to market to farmers,
農民にどうやって売り込むかという理解も深まったとき
07:51
that's when patient capital could come in.
寛容資本が参入できます
07:54
And we helped him build a company, for profit,
私たちは彼がIDEで得た知識を基に
07:56
that would build on IDE's knowledge,
売上高と輸出から判断することを始め
07:59
and start looking at sales and exports,
ほかの種類の資本が利用できる
08:02
and be able to tap into other kinds of capital.
利益ベースの会社を立ち上げるのを手伝いました
08:04
Secondarily, we wanted to see if we could export
第二に 私たちはこの細流灌漑を輸出して
08:08
this drip irrigation and bring it into other countries.
他の国でも利用できるか試そうと
08:11
And so we met Dr. Sono Khangharani in Pakistan.
パキスタンのソノ カンガラニ博士に会いました
08:14
And while, again, you needed patience
インドの貧しい人のための技術を
08:18
to move a technology for the poor
パキスタンに移行するための
08:20
in India into Pakistan,
許可を得るだけでも
08:22
just to get the permits,
また忍耐が必要でした
08:24
over time we were able to start a company
長い時間をかけて 私達は
08:26
with Dr. Sono, who runs a large
へんぴで最貧地域の一つである
08:29
community development organization in the Thar Desert,
タール砂漠で 大きな地域開発組織を運営する
08:31
which is one of the remote and poorest areas of the country.
ソノ博士と共に事業を始めることができました
08:34
And though that company has just started,
会社は立ち上がったばかりですが
08:37
our assumption is that there too
影響は莫大だろうと
08:39
we'll see the impact on millions.
私たちは想定しています
08:41
But drip irrigation isn't the only innovation.
細流灌漑が唯一の技術革新ではありません
08:44
We're starting to see these happening all around the world.
世界中で様々な試みが見られるようになりました
08:46
In Arusha, Tanzania, A to Z Textile Manufacturing
タンザニアのアルーシャにあるAtoZ繊維工場は
08:49
has worked in partnership with us,
私たちやユニセフや
08:54
with UNICEF, with the Global Fund,
世界基金と協力して 7000人を雇用する
08:56
to create a factory that now employs 7,000 people, mostly women.
工場をつくりました その大半は女性です
08:58
And they produce 20 million lifesaving bednets
そこではアフリカ人のために
09:01
for Africans around the world.
2000万の救命蚊帳が生産されます
09:03
Lifespring Hospital
ライフ スプリング 病院は
09:07
is a joint venture between Acumen and the government of India
低収入の女性達に
09:09
to bring quality, affordable maternal health care
低価格で高品質な医療サービスを提供するー
09:11
to low-income women,
アキュメンとインド政府の合弁事業です
09:15
and it's been so successful that it's currently building
この事業は大成功を収めていて
09:17
a new hospital every 35 days.
35日ごとに新しい病院を建設しています
09:19
And 1298 Ambulances decided that it was going to
1298救急車は
09:24
reinvent a completely broken industry,
壊滅状態にあったボンベイの
09:27
building an ambulance service in Bombay
救急車のサービス産業を再建し
09:30
that would use the technology of Google Earth,
グーグルアースの技術と
09:32
a sliding scale pricing system
スライディングスケール価格システムを利用して
09:35
so that all people could have access,
誰でもアクセス出来るようにし
09:37
and a severe and public decision
どんな形の汚職にも関わらないよう
09:39
not to engage in any form of corruption.
民衆の意思が厳格に守られるようになりました
09:42
So that in the terrorist attacks of November
11月のテロ攻撃では
09:45
they were the first responder,
現場に真っ先に駆けつけました
09:47
and are now beginning to scale, because of partnership.
現在 政府と提携して事業の展開を計っています
09:49
They've just won four government contracts to build off their 100 ambulances,
彼らは救急車100台を生産する契約4つを政府と結んだところで
09:51
and are one of the largest and most effective ambulance companies
インド最大で一番有力の
09:55
in India.
救急車会社のひとつです
09:59
This idea of scale is critical.
事業拡大は重要なのです
10:01
Because we're starting to see these enterprises
これらの起業家は増え続け
10:03
reach hundreds of thousands of people. All of the ones I discussed
数十万人にも達します 私が話した人達は
10:05
have reached at least a quarter million people.
全部で少なくとも25万人に達しました
10:08
But that's obviously not enough.
でも明らかに十分ではありません
10:10
And it's where the idea of partnership
そこで 連携という考えが
10:12
becomes so important.
重要になってきます
10:14
Whether it's by finding those innovations
それは 資本市場や政府自体または
10:16
that can access the capital markets,
企業との連携にアクセスできる
10:18
government itself, or partner with major corporations,
技術革新を見出すかどうかに関係なく
10:20
there is unbelievable opportunity for innovation.
素晴らしい技術革新を生み出す機会があります
10:23
President Obama understands that.
オバマ大統領はそれを理解しています
10:27
He recently authorized the creation of a Social Innovation Fund
彼は最近 アメリカではどのような事業が成り立ち
10:29
to focus on what works in this country,
どうやって基盤にのせていくかを見極めるため
10:32
and look at how we can scale it.
社会革新基金を認可しました
10:34
And I would submit that it's time to consider
そこで私は 世界規模での革新基金の
10:36
a global innovation fund
設立を提案します
10:39
that would find these entrepreneurs around the world
その地域だけではなく
10:41
who really have innovations, not only for their country,
先進国でも使える本物の技術革新をもつ
10:44
but ones that we can use in the developed world as well.
起業家を見いだし支援できるように
10:46
Invest financial assistance, but also management assistance.
財政援助はもちろん管理援助にも投資して
10:49
And then measure the returns,
その収益を
10:53
both from a financial perspective
財政面と社会的展望の両方から
10:55
and from a social impact perspective.
測定します
10:57
When we think about new approaches to aid,
援助への新しいアプローチを考えるとき
11:00
it's impossible not to talk about Pakistan.
パキスタンの話をせずにはいられません
11:03
We've had a rocky relationship with that country
私たちとその国の関係は不安定なものでした
11:07
and, in all fairness,
公平に見ても
11:09
the United States has not always been a very reliable partner.
アメリカは必ずしも信頼できるパートナーでありませんでした
11:11
But again I would say that this is our moment
でも 繰り返しますが 私たちは素晴らしいことが
11:14
for extraordinary things to happen.
起きる瞬間にいます
11:18
And if we take that notion of a global innovation fund,
そして世界的革新基金の概念から
11:20
we could use this time to invest
私たちは 今度は
11:23
not directly in government, though we would have government's blessing,
政府の賛同は得るけど 政府に直接ではなく
11:26
nor in international experts,
国際的な専門家でもなく
11:29
but in the many existing entrepreneurs
国中のすべての人に届く
11:32
and civil society leaders
素晴らしい技術革新を
11:35
who already are building wonderful innovations
既に立ち上げている既存の起業家や
11:37
that are reaching people all across the country.
市民社会のリーダーに投資することが出来ます
11:41
People like Rashani Zafar,
たとえばラシャニ ザファーのように
11:43
who created one of the largest microfinance banks in the country,
国最大のマイクロファイナンス銀行の一つを開設し
11:45
and is a real role model for women inside and outside the country.
国の内外で女性の本当の人生の手本となっている人
11:48
And Tasneem Siddiqui, who developed a way
そして漸増住宅と呼ばれる方法を開発した
11:52
called incremental housing,
タスネーン シディキは
11:54
where he has moved 40,000 slum dwellers
4万人のスラム居住者を
11:56
into safe, affordable community housing.
安全で妥当な集合住宅に引っ越しさせました
11:58
Educational initiatives like DIL and The Citizen Foundation
DILや市民財団のような教育機関は
12:01
that are building schools across the country.
国中に学校を建設しています
12:04
It's not hyperbole
これら市民団体と
12:07
to say that these civil society institutions
社会起業家たちが
12:09
and these social entrepreneurs
タリバン政権に代わる本物のものを
12:11
are building real alternatives to the Taliban.
作っていると言っても誇張ではありません
12:13
I've invested in Pakistan for over seven years now,
私は7年以上パキスタンに貢献してきました
12:16
and those of you who've also worked there
そこで働いたことがある人なら
12:19
can attest that Pakistanis are an incredibly hard working population,
パキスタン人が信じられないほど働き者だということを証明できます
12:21
and there is a fierce upward mobility in their very nature.
そして彼らには強い上昇志向がそなわっています
12:25
President Kennedy said that
ケネディ大統領は言いました
12:30
those who make peaceful revolution impossible
「平和的な革命を不可能にする者は
12:32
make violent revolution inevitable.
暴力的な革命を避けられなくする」
12:36
I would say that the converse is true.
私は真実は逆だと思います
12:39
That these social leaders
1日2ドル未満を稼ぐ
12:41
who really are looking at innovation
7割のパキスタン人への
12:43
and extending opportunity
好機へとつながる本物の革新を
12:45
to the 70 percent of Pakistanis who make less than two dollars a day,
見出せるこれらの社会的リーダーは
12:47
provide real pathways to hope.
本当に期待に満ちた経路をもたらします
12:50
And as we think about how we construct aid for Pakistan,
そして 私たちがパキスタンにどうやって援助をするかを考えるとき
12:53
while we need to strengthen the judiciary,
司法制度や より確かな安定性を
12:56
build greater stability,
強化する必要があると同時に
12:59
we also need to think about lifting those leaders
他の世界でも模範となれるこれらのリーダーを
13:01
who can be role models for the rest of the world.
世に出す必要があります
13:04
On one of my last visits to Pakistan,
パキスタンを訪問した際
13:08
I asked Dr. Sono if he would take me
私はソノ博士にタール砂漠の
13:10
to see some of the drip irrigation in the Thar Desert.
細流灌漑を見に行きたいとお願いしました
13:12
And we left Karachi one morning before dawn.
私たちは夜明け前にカラチを出発したとき
13:15
It was about 115 degrees.
およそ46度(115°F)でした
13:18
And we drove for eight hours
色のあまりない
13:20
along this moonscape-like landscape
月面のような場所を 灼熱の中
13:22
with very little color, lots of heat,
8時間にわたってドライブしました
13:25
very little discussion, because we were exhausted.
疲れきっていて会話もあまりなく
13:28
And finally, at the end of the journey,
旅の終わりにやっと
13:30
I could see this thin little yellow line across the horizon.
細い黄色い線が地平線の向こうに見えました
13:32
And as we got closer, its significance became apparent.
間近に来て それが何か明らかになりました
13:36
That there in the desert
それは 砂漠で
13:39
was a field of sunflowers growing seven feet tall.
約2mに育ったヒマワリの畑でした
13:41
Because one of the poorest farmers on Earth
この世で最も貧しい農民の1人が
13:44
had gotten access to a technology
テクノロジーを手に入れて
13:46
that had allowed him to change his own life.
人生が変わりました
13:49
His name was Raja,
彼の名前はラジャ
13:52
and he had kind, twinkly hazel eyes
彼はやさしい キラキラした茶色い目と
13:54
and warm expressive hands
暖かい表現力豊かな手の持ち主で
13:56
that reminded me of my father.
私の父を思わせました
13:59
And he said it was the first dry season
毎年 乾燥時期になると
14:01
in his entire life that he hadn't taken
彼は12人の子供と50人の孫を連れて
14:03
his 12 children and 50 grandchildren
2日間かけて砂漠のむこうの
14:06
on a two day journey across the desert
商業的農場へ1日50セントの出稼ぎに行っていましたが
14:08
to work as day laborers at a commercial farm
今年は人生で初めて出稼ぎに出なかった
14:11
for about 50 cents a day.
乾燥時期だと言いました
14:13
Because he was building these crops.
ヒマワリを育てていたからです
14:15
And with the money he earned he could stay this year.
彼はその稼いだお金で今年をしのぐことができます
14:17
And for the first time ever in three generations,
そして3世代目にして初めて
14:20
his children would go to school.
彼の子供たちは学校に行きます
14:23
We asked him if he would send his daughters as well as his sons.
彼に息子と同様 娘も学校に行かせるかと尋ねました
14:26
And he said, "Of course I will.
彼は言いました -- 「もちろんだとも
14:29
Because I don't want them discriminated against anymore."
もう彼らが差別されるのはまっぴらだ」
14:31
When we think about solutions to poverty,
貧困への解決策について考えるとき
14:36
we cannot deny individuals
個人の基本的な尊厳を
14:38
their fundamental dignity.
無視することはできません
14:40
Because at the end of the day,
結局のところ
14:42
dignity is more important to the human spirit than wealth.
尊厳は富よりも人間の精神にとって重要だからです
14:44
And what's exciting is to see so many entrepreneurs across sectors
様々な部門で革新を進める多くの起業家が
14:47
who are building innovations that recognize
尊厳の大切さを認識しているのは
14:51
that what people want is freedom
嬉しいことです
14:54
and choice and opportunity.
人々が望んでいるのは自由と選択肢と機会
14:56
Because that is where dignity really starts.
それが尊厳の本当の始まりだからです
14:58
Martin Luther King said that
マーティン ルーサーキングは
15:01
love without power is anemic and sentimental,
「力を伴わない愛は無気力で感傷的
15:03
and that power without love
そして愛を伴わない力は
15:08
is reckless and abusive.
無謀で残虐だ」と言いました
15:10
Our generation has seen both approaches tried,
私たちの世代は 両方のアプローチが試されては
15:12
and often fail.
失敗するのを何度も目にしました
15:15
But I think our generation also might be the first
でも 私たちは愛と力の両方を取り入れる
15:17
to have the courage to embrace both love and power.
勇気がある最初の世代でもあると思います
15:20
For that is what we'll need, as we move forward
私たちが先へ進むにあたって必要なのは
15:24
to dream and imagine what it will really take
すべての人を含むグローバル経済を本当に建設すると
15:27
to build a global economy that includes all of us,
夢見てイメージすることです
15:30
and to finally extend that fundamental proposition
そして最後にその延長線上に ヒトが平等に創られたという
15:33
that all men are created equal to every human being on the planet.
基本的定理は地上のすべての人に当てはまります
15:36
The time for us to begin innovating
部門を越えて革新し
15:40
and looking for new solutions, a cross sector, is now.
新しい解決法を模索する時は今です
15:43
I can only talk from my own experience,
私は自らの経験からしか話せませんが
15:47
but in eight years of running Acumen fund,
8年にわたってアキュメンファンドを経営し
15:49
I've seen the power of patient capital.
寛容資本の力を見てきました
15:53
Not only to inspire innovation and risk taking,
革新とリスクを追うことを示唆するだけでなく
15:55
but to truly build systems that have created
25,000以上の雇用を創出し
16:00
more than 25,000 jobs
何千万ものサービスと製品を
16:02
and delivered tens of millions of services and products
地上で もっとも貧しい人へと届ける
16:04
to some of the poorest people on the planet.
システムを実際に構築しました
16:07
I know it works.
出来るのです
16:10
But I know that many other kinds of innovation also work.
でもその他たくさんの革新もまた効果があります
16:12
And so I urge you, in whatever sector you work,
ですから あなたがどんな部門で働いていようが
16:15
in whatever job you do,
どんな仕事をしていようが
16:18
to start thinking about how we might
助けられる人の立場に立ち
16:20
build solutions that start
私たちが考える彼らの必需品ではなく
16:22
from the perspective of those we're trying to help.
どうやったら解決策をたてられるか
16:25
Rather than what we think that they might need.
考えることから始めてください
16:27
It will take embracing the world with both arms.
そこにあるのは両腕を広げて受け入れる世界です
16:32
And it will take living with the spirit of generosity and accountability,
それは誠実さと忍耐の感覚を伴う
16:35
with a sense of integrity and perseverance.
寛大で信頼感のある生活へと導きます
16:40
And yet these are the very qualities
これはまさに 男性も女性も
16:44
for which men and women have been honored
世代を通して受け継がれてきた
16:46
throughout the generations.
特性なのです
16:48
And there is so much good that we can do.
私たちができることはたくさんあります
16:50
Just think of all those sunflowers in the desert.
砂漠のヒマワリを思い出してください
16:53
Thank you.
ありがとう
16:56
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:58
Translator:Kayo Mizutani
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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Jacqueline Novogratz - Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

Why you should listen

One of the most innovative players shaping philanthropy today, Jacqueline Novogratz is redefining the way problems of poverty can be solved around the world. Drawing on her past experience in banking, microfinance and traditional philanthropy, Novogratz has become a leading proponent for financing entrepreneurs and enterprises that can bring affordable clean water, housing and healthcare, energy, agriculture and education to poor people so that they no longer have to depend on the disappointing results and lack of accountability seen in traditional charity and old-fashioned aid.

Acumen, which she founded in 2001, has an ambitious plan: to change the way the world tackles poverty. Indeed, Acumen has more in common with a venture capital fund than a typical nonprofit. Rather than handing out grants, Acumen invests in early stage companies and organizations that bring critical -- often life-altering -- products and services to the world's poor. Like VCs, Acumen offers not just money, but also infrastructure and management expertise. From drip-irrigation systems in India to high quality solar lighting solutions in East Africa to a low-cost mortgage program in Pakistan, Acumen's portfolio offers important case studies for entrepreneurial efforts aimed at the vastly underserved market of those making less than $4/day.

It's a fascinating model that's shaken up philanthropy and investment communities alike. Acumen manages more than $80 million in investments aimed at serving the poor. And most of their projects deliver stunning, inspiring results. Their success can be traced back to Novogratz herself, who possesses that rarest combination of business savvy and cultural sensitivity. In addition to seeking out sound business models, she places great importance on identifying solutions from within communities rather than imposing them from the outside. “People don't want handouts," Novogratz said at TEDGlobal 2005. "They want to make their own decisions, to solve their own problems.”

In her book, The Blue Sweater, she tells stories from the new philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

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