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TEDGlobal 2009

Beau Lotto: Optical illusions show how we see

ボー・ロット:目の錯覚が示す私たちの物の見方

July 23, 2009

ボー・ロットが行う色のゲームは視覚を混乱させますが、脳がどのように働くのかという普段は見えないことにも光を当てます。楽しみながら自分自身で視覚が持つさまざまな感覚を知ることで、進化がいかにして我々の知覚に色づけしているのかがはっきりします。

Beau Lotto - Neuroscientist, Artist
Beau Lotto is founder of Lottolab, a hybrid art studio and science lab. With glowing, interactive sculpture -- and old-fashioned peer-reviewed research--he's illuminating the mysteries of the brain's visual system. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I want to start with a game.
まず、ゲームをしてみたいと思います
00:13
And to win this game,
目の前の現実を
00:16
all you have to do is see the reality that's in front of you
そのまま見ることができれば
00:18
as it really is. All right?
勝ちです いいですか?
00:21
So, we have two panels here,
2枚のパネルに
00:23
of colored dots.
色のついた円が貼ってあります
00:25
And one of those dots is the same
一つだけどちらのパネルでも
00:27
in the two panels. Okay?
同じ色のものがあります
00:30
And you have to tell me which one.
それがどれだか当ててください
00:33
Now, narrow it down to
灰色、緑、オレンジの3つから
00:35
the gray one, the green one and, say, the orange one.
選ぶことにしましょう
00:38
So, by a show of hands -- we'll start with the easiest one --
手を挙げてください いちばん簡単な質問です
00:41
Show of hands: how many people think it's the gray one?
挙手ですよ 灰色だと思う人は?
00:44
Really? Okay.
そうですか
00:48
How many people think it's the green one?
緑だと思う人は?
00:50
And how many people think it's the orange one?
オレンジ色だと思う人は?
00:55
Pretty even split.
きれいに3つに分かれました
00:59
Let's find out what the reality is.
実際はどうか見てみましょう
01:02
Here is the orange one.
まず、オレンジ色
01:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:08
Here is the green one.
次に緑色
01:10
And here is the gray one.
そして灰色がこうです
01:13
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:17
So, for all of you who saw that, you're a complete realist. All right?
これを見たあなた方はまさに現実主義者です
01:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:24
So, this is pretty amazing, actually, isn't it?
驚いたでしょう
01:26
Because nearly every living system
ほとんど全ての生物が
01:28
has evolved the ability to detect light in one way or another.
光を感知する能力を発達させています
01:30
So, for us, seeing color is one of the simplest things the brain does.
だから、色を見ることは脳が行うもっとも単純な機能の一つなのです
01:33
And yet, even at this most fundamental level,
でも、こんなに基本的なレベルでさえ
01:38
context is everything.
状況が全てなのです
01:40
What I want to talk about is not that context is everything,
お伝えしたいのは、状況が全てだということではなく
01:43
but why is context everything.
なぜそうなのかということです
01:46
Because it's answering that question that tells us not only
その問いに答えることは、なぜ我々がそのように見るかだけでなく
01:48
why we see what we do,
個人として、そして社会として
01:52
but who we are as individuals,
自分たちが何者なのかということへの
01:54
and who we are as a society.
答えになるのです
01:56
But first, we have to ask another question,
でもまず別の問いを立てなくてはなりません
01:59
which is, "What is color for?"
"色は何のためにあるのか?"
02:01
And instead of telling you, I'll just show you.
お話しするよりもお見せしましょう
02:03
What you see here is a jungle scene,
ジャングルでの一場面です
02:05
and you see the surfaces according to the amount
反射する光の量が作り出す光景を
02:08
of light that those surfaces reflect.
見ています
02:10
Now, can any of you see the predator that's about to jump out at you?
自分に飛びかかろうとしてる捕食者が見えますか?
02:12
And if you haven't seen it yet, you're dead. Right?
見えなければ、やられています
02:17
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:19
Can anyone see it? Anyone? No?
わかる人?誰もいない?
02:21
Now, let's see the surfaces according to the quality of light that they reflect.
では、反射する光の質が作り出す光景を見てみましょう
02:23
And now you see it.
今度は見えますね
02:27
So, color enables us to see
物体が反射する光のスペクトラムを通して
02:30
the similarities and differences between surfaces,
色によって我々は外見の
02:33
according to the full spectrum of light that they reflect.
類似点や相違を見分けることができるのです
02:35
But what you've just done is, in many respects, mathematically impossible.
でもそれは多くの点で数学的に不可能です
02:38
Why? Because, as Berkeley tells us,
なぜならば、バークレーが言うように
02:42
we have no direct access to our physical world,
私たちは自らの感覚器官を通してしか
02:45
other than through our senses.
物質界に接することができないからです
02:48
And the light that falls onto our eyes
我々の目に入ってくる光は
02:50
is determined by multiple things in the world --
外界のいろいろな要素の影響を受けます
02:52
not only the color of objects,
物体の色ばかりでなく
02:54
but also the color of their illumination,
照明の色や
02:56
and the color of the space between us and those objects.
その物体と我々の間にある空間の色などです
02:58
You vary any one of those parameters,
そうしたパラメーターを一つでも変えると
03:01
and you'll change the color of the light that falls onto your eye.
目に入ってくる光の色が変わります
03:03
This is a huge problem because it means that
これは大きな問題です
03:08
the same image could have an infinite number
同じ色を作り出す光源に
03:10
of possible real-world sources.
無限の数の組み合わせが考えられるからです
03:13
So let me show you what I mean. Imagine that this is the back of your eye.
こういうことです これが自分の眼の中だと思ってください
03:16
And these are two projections from the world.
こちらの二つは外界を投影したもので
03:19
They are identical in every single way.
完全に同一です
03:22
Identical in shape, size, spectral content.
形も、大きさも、スペクトル成分も
03:25
They are the same, as far as your eye is concerned.
眼が感知する限り、同じです
03:29
And yet they come from completely different sources.
でもその二つは全く異なる光源から来たものです
03:33
The one on the right
右側は
03:38
comes from a yellow surface,
黄色い表面を持つ物体の
03:40
in shadow, oriented facing the left,
左側の影になっている部分を
03:43
viewed through a pinkish medium.
ピンク色の媒体を通して見たものです
03:45
The one on the left comes from an orange surface,
左側はオレンジ色の表面を持つ物体が
03:48
under direct light, facing to the right,
右側から直射日光を受けているところを
03:51
viewed through a sort of a bluish medium.
青っぽい媒体を通して見たものです
03:53
Completely different meanings,
全く違う意味合いのものですが
03:55
giving rise to the exact same retinal information.
網膜には同一の情報を与えます
03:58
And yet it's only the retinal information
そして我々に届くのは
04:01
that we get.
網膜への情報だけなのです
04:03
So how on Earth do we even see?
だとしたら、私たちは見ていると言えるのでしょうか?
04:05
So, if you remember anything in this next 18 minutes,
この18分の講演で覚えて欲しいことは
04:08
remember this: that the light that falls on to your eye,
眼に入ってくる情報は感覚的な情報であり
04:12
sensory information, is meaningless,
意味をなさない ということです
04:15
because it could mean literally anything.
文字通りどんな意味にもなり得るのです
04:17
And what's true for sensory information is true for information generally.
ほかの情報についても大抵同じことが言えます
04:20
There is no inherent meaning in information.
情報に固有の意味などないのです
04:23
It's what we do with that information that matters.
大事なのは、その情報を我々がどうするのかということです
04:25
So, how do we see? Well, we see by learning to see.
では我々はどうやって見るか? 見ることを学ぶことによってです
04:29
So, the brain evolved the mechanisms for finding patterns,
脳は、情報にパターンや関係性を見出し
04:32
finding relationships in information
外界と交わりながら
04:36
and associating those relationships
そうした関係性を
04:38
with a behavioral meaning,
行動の意味合いや重要性に
04:40
a significance, by interacting with the world.
結びつける仕組みを発達させてきました
04:42
We're very aware of this
言葉のように、より認知的な
04:45
in the form of more cognitive attributes, like language.
特性を持つものを考えればおわかりでしょう
04:47
So, I'm going to give you some letter strings. And I want you to read them out for me,
ここに文字列があります
04:50
if you can.
読んでみてください
04:52
Audience: "Can you read this?"
観客: "これを読めますか?"
04:54
"You are not reading this."
"これを読んでいるのではありません"
04:57
"What are you reading?"
"何を読んでいるのですか?"
04:59
Beau Lotto: "What are you reading?" Half the letters are missing. Right?
BL: "何を読んでいるのか"ですって?文字の半分は消えています
05:01
There is no a priori reason why an "H" has to go
"W"と"A"の間に"H"が来なければならない
05:04
between that "W" and "A."
演繹的な理由などありません
05:06
But you put one there. Why?
でもそうしました なぜ?
05:08
Because in the statistics of your past experience
過去の体験の積み重ねから
05:10
it would have been useful to do so. So you do so again.
それが有用だと思ったからです だからまたそうした
05:12
And yet you don't put a letter after that first "T."
でも最初の"T"の後には文字を入れませんでした
05:15
Why? Because it wouldn't have been useful in the past.
なぜか? 過去にそうしても役立たなかったからです
05:18
So you don't do it again.
だから今回もしなかった
05:21
So let me show you how quickly our brains can redefine normality,
脳がもっとも単純なこと、つまり色についてでさえ、どれほど早く正規性を
05:23
even at the simplest thing the brain does, which is color.
再定義してしまうのか お見せしましょう
05:27
So, if I could have the lights down up here.
照明を暗くして下さい
05:29
I want you to first notice that those two desert scenes are physically the same.
この2つの砂漠の景色は物理的に同じものです
05:32
One is simply the flipping of the other. Okay?
互いを反転させただけのものです
05:35
Now I want you to look at that dot
では緑と赤の間にある
05:40
between the green and the red. Okay?
点を見て下さい
05:42
And I want you to stare at that dot. Don't look anywhere else.
その点を凝視して下さい 目をそらさずに
05:45
And we're going to look at that for about 30 seconds,
30秒間そこを見続けてください
05:48
which is a bit of a killer in an 18-minute talk.
18分間の講演で30秒も使うのはなかなか大変なのですが
05:49
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:52
But I really want you to learn.
でも本当に知ってほしいのです
05:53
And I'll tell you -- don't look anywhere else --
- 目はそらさないで -
05:55
and I'll tell you what's happening inside your head.
頭の中ではこんなことが起きています
05:58
Your brain is learning. And it's learning that the right side of its visual field
脳が学習しています 右側の画像は
06:00
is under red illumination;
赤い明かりに照らされていて
06:03
the left side of its visual field is under green illumination.
左側は緑の照明がついていると
06:05
That's what it's learning. Okay?
脳がそう学習しているのです
06:08
Now, when I tell you, I want you to look at the dot between the two desert scenes.
合図をしたら2つの砂漠の景色の間にある点を見てください
06:11
So why don't you do that now?
はい どうぞ
06:16
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:18
Can I have the lights up again?
照明を上げてください
06:21
I take it from your response they don't look the same anymore. Right?
皆さんの反応から、その2つがもう同じには見えないことがわかりました
06:23
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:27
Why? Because your brain is seeing that same information
なぜか?右側の画像はまだ赤い光の下にあり
06:28
as if the right one is still under red light,
左側の画像はまだ緑の光の下にあるという
06:31
and the left one is still under green light.
情報を脳が見続けているからです
06:33
That's your new normal.
それが新しい標準になったのです
06:35
So, what does this mean for context?
つまりこういうことです
06:37
It means that I can take these two identical squares,
同一な四角が2つあります
06:39
and I can put them in light and dark surrounds.
一方は周囲を明るく、他方は暗くします
06:41
And now the one on the dark surround looks lighter than the one on the light surround.
すると周囲が暗い四角の方が周囲が明るい四角よりも明るく見えます
06:43
What's significant is not simply the light and dark surrounds that matter.
重要なのは、明るい囲みと暗い囲みだけが問題なのではなく
06:46
It's what those light and dark surrounds meant for your behavior in the past.
それらが自らの過去の行動にどんな意味を与えていたかということです
06:50
So I'll show you what I mean. Here we have
どういうことか、お見せします
06:54
that exact same illusion.
ここに完全に同じように見える幻覚があります
06:56
We have two identical tiles, on the left,
同一な2つのタイルです 左側には
06:58
one in a dark surround, one in a light surround.
周囲が暗いものと周囲が明るいものがあり
07:00
And the same thing over on the right.
右側にも同じものがあります
07:02
Now, what I'm going to do is I'm going to review those two scenes.
これからこの2つの場面をもう一度見ます
07:04
But I'm not going to change anything within those boxes,
でもタイルの中は何も変えません
07:07
except their meaning.
その意味合いを除いては
07:09
And see what happens to your perception.
自分の知覚に何が起きるかご確認ください
07:11
Notice that on the left
左側では
07:13
the two tiles look nearly completely opposite:
2つのタイルは完全に対照的に見えます
07:15
one very white and one very dark.
ひとつは白く、もうひとつは暗い
07:18
All right? Whereas on the right,
一方、右側では
07:20
the two tiles look nearly the same.
2つのタイルはほとんど同じに見えます
07:22
And yet there is still one on a dark surround and one on a light surround.
でも片方は周囲が暗くもう一方は周囲が明るいのです
07:24
Why? Because if the tile in that shadow
なぜでしょう? もし影の中にあるタイルが
07:28
were in fact in shadow,
実際影の中にあって
07:31
and reflecting the same amount of light to your eye
しかも影の外にあるタイルと同じ量の
07:33
as the one outside the shadow,
光を眼に届けているとしたら
07:35
it would have to be more reflective -- just the laws of physics.
それはより反射性が高いはずだからです-物理学の法則です
07:37
So you see it that way.
それで明るさが違って見えるのです
07:40
Whereas on the right, the information is consistent
一方右側では、情報は一貫していて
07:42
with those two tiles being under the same light.
2つのタイルは同じ光の下にあります
07:45
If they are under the same light, reflecting the same amount of light
同じ光の下で同じ量の光の反射が
07:47
to your eye,
眼に届いているのならば
07:49
then they must be equally reflective.
どちらも同じ反射を持っているはずです
07:51
So you see it that way.
それで同じ明るさに見えるのです
07:53
Which means we can bring all this information together
こうした情報を集めれば
07:55
to create some incredibly strong illusions.
非常に強力な幻覚を作り出すことができます
07:57
This is one I made a few years ago.
これは私が数年前に作ったものです
07:59
And you'll notice you see a dark brown tile at the top,
上の面にこげ茶のタイルがあって
08:01
and a bright orange tile at the side.
脇に明るいオレンジのタイルが見えますね
08:04
That is your perceptual reality. The physical reality
知覚的にはそれが現実です
08:07
is that those two tiles are the same.
でも物理的な現実ではその2つのタイルは同じなのです
08:09
Here you see four gray tiles on your left,
左側には灰色のタイルが4つあり
08:14
seven gray tiles on the right.
右側には7つあります
08:17
I'm not going to change those tiles at all,
タイルは何も変わりませんが
08:19
but I'm going to reveal the rest of the scene
他の部分を変えると
08:21
and see what happens to your perception.
知覚に変化が起こります
08:23
The four blue tiles on the left are gray.
左側の4つの青いタイルは実は灰色で
08:26
The seven yellow tiles on the right are also gray.
右の黄色い7つのタイルも同じく実は灰色です
08:30
They are the same. Okay?
みな、同じものです
08:33
Don't believe me? Let's watch it again.
信じられない?もう一度見てみましょう
08:35
What's true for color is also true for complex perceptions of motion.
色について言えることは、複雑な動作の知覚についても言えます
08:39
So here we have --
ここに
08:43
let's turn this around -- a diamond.
- これを裏返しましょう- ダイアモンドがあります
08:46
And what I'm going to do is, I'm going to hold it here,
ここを持って
08:51
and I'm going to spin it.
回転させます
08:53
And for all of you, you'll see it probably spinning this direction.
この方向に回転しているように見えると思います
08:57
Now I want you to keep looking at it.
ずっと見続けてください
09:00
Move your eyes around, blink, maybe close one eye.
眼を動かし、まばたきして、片目を閉じて
09:03
And suddenly it will flip, and start spinning the opposite direction.
突然動きが反転し、逆方法に回転し始めます
09:05
Yes? Raise your hand if you got that. Yes?
なりましたか?そうなったら手を挙げてください
09:09
Keep blinking. Every time you blink it will switch. Alright?
まばたきを続けて まばたきする度に方向が変わります そうですね?
09:12
So I can ask you, which direction is it rotating?
ではそれはどちらの方向に回転しているのでしょう
09:16
How do you know?
どうやってそれを知るのでしょう
09:20
Your brain doesn't know. Because both are equally likely.
脳にはわかりません どちらの方向も同じようにあり得るのですから
09:22
So depending on where it looks, it flips
どこを見るかによって2つの可能性の間を
09:25
between the two possibilities.
行き来するのです
09:27
Are we the only ones that see illusions?
幻覚を見るのは人間だけでしょうか?
09:30
The answer to this question is no.
違います
09:32
Even the beautiful bumblebee,
マルハナバチは
09:34
with its mere one million brain cells,
脳細胞が人間の網膜の250分の1の
09:36
which is 250 times fewer cells than you have in one retina,
100万個しかありませんが、幻覚を見ます
09:38
sees illusions, does the most complicated things
幻覚は非常に複雑な作用で
09:41
that even our most sophisticated computers can't do.
最先端のコンピュータでも実現できないのに
09:44
So in my lab, we of course work on bumblebees.
私の研究室ではマルハナバチを研究しています
09:47
Because we can completely control their experience,
彼らの体験を完全にコントロールし
09:49
and see how that alters the architecture of their brain.
脳の構造にどう影響を与えたかを見ることができます
09:51
And we do this in what we call the Bee Matrix.
"蜂のマトリックス"と呼ぶ箱の中で実験します
09:53
And here you have the hive. You can see the queen bee,
蜂の巣があり女王蜂がいます
09:56
that large bee in the middle there. Those are all her daughters, the eggs.
真ん中の大きい蜂です 周りにいるのは蜂の子や卵です
09:58
And they go back and forth between this hive
巣とえさ場の間を
10:01
and the arena, via this tube.
この管を通って行き来します
10:04
And you'll see one of the bees come out here.
1匹の蜂がやってきます
10:09
You see how she has a little number on her?
小さく番号がつけられているのがわかりますか?
10:11
Yeah there is another one coming out. She has another number on her.
もう1匹やってきました 別の番号がついています
10:14
Now, they are not born that way. Right?
生まれた時からそうだった訳ではありません
10:17
We pull them out, put them in the fridge, and they fall asleep.
彼らを連れ出して冷蔵庫で眠らせます
10:20
And then you can superglue little numbers on them.
そして瞬間接着剤で番号をつけるのです
10:22
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:24
And now, in this experiment they get rewarded if they go to the blue flowers.
実験では蜂は青い花に行くとご褒美がもらえます
10:26
And they land on the flower. They stick their tongue in there,
花に舞い降り、吻と呼ばれる舌を差し込むと
10:30
called a proboscis, and they drink sugar water.
砂糖水を吸うことができます
10:33
Now she is drinking a glass of water that's about that big to you and I,
この蜂はこれぐらいの大きさのコップから砂糖水を吸い
10:35
will do that about three times, and then fly.
3回ぐらい繰り返して飛び立ちます
10:38
And sometimes they learn not to go to the blue,
青い花に行くのではなく、他の蜂と
10:44
but to go to where the other bees go.
同じところに行くことを学ぶこともあります
10:46
So they copy each other. They can count to five. They can recognize faces.
互いに真似するのです 蜂は5までの数を数え、顔を見分けることもできます
10:48
And here she comes down the ladder.
蜂が階段を下りてきました
10:51
And she'll come into the hive, find an empty honey pot
巣に戻り、空の蜜壺を見つけて
10:54
and throw up, and that's honey.
吐き出しました これが蜂蜜です
10:56
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:58
Now remember -- (Laughter)
覚えておいてください-(笑)
10:59
-- she's supposed to be going to the blue flowers.
蜂は青い花に行かなくてはなりません
11:02
But what are these bees doing in the upper right corner?
でも右上の角では何が起きているでしょう
11:04
It looks like they're going to green flowers.
緑の花に向かっているように見えます
11:07
Now, are they getting it wrong?
間違っているのでしょうか?
11:09
And the answer to the question is no. Those are actually blue flowers.
いいえ あれは実は青い花なのです
11:12
But those are blue flowers under green light.
緑の光が当たっている青い花です
11:15
So they are using the relationships between the colors to solve the puzzle,
蜂たちはパズルを解くために色の関係性を使っているのです
11:19
which is exactly what we do.
正に我々が行っていることと同じです
11:23
So, illusions are often used,
幻覚は、特にアートの世界で、
11:25
especially in art, in the words of a more contemporary artist,
現代芸術家の言葉を借りれば"感覚の頼りなさを示すため"に
11:27
"to demonstrate the fragility of our senses."
しばしば用いられます
11:31
Okay, this is complete rubbish.
まったく下らない言い分です
11:33
The senses aren't fragile. And if they were, we wouldn't be here.
感覚は頼りないものではありません そうだとすれば我々は存在しないでしょう
11:36
Instead, color tells us something completely different,
色は全く別のことを教えてくれます
11:39
that the brain didn't actually evolve to see the world the way it is.
脳は外界をそのまま見るために進化してきたのではないということです
11:43
We can't. Instead, the brain evolved to see the world
そうではなく、脳は外界を過去にそう見て役立った見方で
11:46
the way it was useful to see in the past.
見るように進化してきたのです
11:50
And how we see is by continually redefining normality.
視覚は絶えず標準性を見直すことによって形作られているのです
11:53
So how can we take this
どうすれば脳の驚くべき柔軟な能力を
11:59
incredible capacity of plasticity of the brain
人々に理解してもらい
12:03
and get people to experience their world differently?
世界を別の見方から見てもらえるでしょう?
12:06
Well, one of the ways we do in my lab and studio
私の研究室で行っているのは
12:09
is we translate the light into sound
光を音に置き換えて
12:12
and we enable people to hear their visual world.
視覚世界を聴いてもらえるようにすることです
12:15
And they can navigate the world using their ears.
そうすれば耳で外界を探査することができます
12:19
Here is David, in the right. And he is holding a camera.
右にいるのはデイヴィッドです カメラを持っています
12:22
On the left is what his camera sees.
左にはカメラの映像です
12:25
And you'll see there is a line, a faint line going across that image.
その映像を通る薄い線が見えますね
12:27
That line is broken up into 32 squares.
その線は32の区分に分かれています
12:30
In each square we calculate the average color.
それぞれで平均の色が計算され
12:33
And then we just simply translate that into sound.
その色を音に置き換えます
12:35
And now he's going to
デイヴィッドが向きを変え
12:37
turn around, close his eyes,
目を閉じて
12:40
and find a plate on the ground with his eyes closed.
そのまま地面のプレートを見つけようとします
12:44
He finds it. Amazing. Right?
見つけました すごいですね
13:06
So not only can we create a prosthetic for the visually impaired,
視覚障害者向けの装具を作れるだけでなく
13:08
but we can also investigate how people
我々がどのように外界を感知するのか
13:10
literally make sense of the world.
を調べることができます
13:13
But we can also do something else. We can also make music with color.
他のこともできます 音に色をつけるとか
13:16
So, working with kids,
子どもたちに
13:20
they created images,
絵を描いてもらって
13:22
thinking about what might the images you see
もしその絵の言葉を聞くことができたら
13:24
sound like if we could listen to them.
どんな音なのかを考えるのです
13:26
And then we translated these images.
それから絵を翻訳します
13:28
And this is one of those images.
これがその例です
13:30
And this is a six-year-old child composing a piece of music
6歳の子どもが32人編成の
13:32
for a 32-piece orchestra.
オーケストラ用の曲を書いています
13:35
And this is what it sounds like.
こんな音がします
13:38
So, a six-year-old child. Okay?
6歳の子どもですよ
14:06
Now, what does all this mean?
これが教えてくれるのは
14:09
What this suggests is that no one is an outside observer
自然の傍観者でいられる人は
14:12
of nature. Okay?
誰もいないということです
14:15
We are not defined by our central properties,
私たちは自分自身によって
14:17
by the bits that make us up.
規定される訳ではありません
14:19
We're defined by our environment and our interaction with that environment --
周囲の環境や、環境との関わりあい
14:21
by our ecology.
つまり生態に規定されるのです
14:24
And that ecology is necessarily relative,
その生態は相対的で
14:26
historical and empirical.
歴史的、そして経験的なものです
14:30
So what I'd like to finish with is this over here.
最後の話をします
14:32
Because what I've been trying to do is really celebrate uncertainty.
私がやろうとしているのは不確実性を称えることです
14:38
Because I think only through uncertainty is there potential for understanding.
不確実さを通してのみ理解することができるからです
14:41
So, if some of you are still feeling a bit too certain,
もしまだ確信に満ちている人がいるなら
14:45
I'd like to do this one.
これをやってみてください
14:48
So, if we have the lights down.
照明を落としてください
14:50
And what we have here --
ここに‐
14:52
Can everyone see 25 purple surfaces
左側に25の紫の穴が開いた
14:58
on your left,
板があって
15:01
and 25, call it yellowish, surfaces on your right?
右側では黄色っぽい穴が25個開いていますね
15:03
So, now, what I want to do:
では始めましょう
15:07
I'm going to put the middle nine surfaces here
真ん中の9個を
15:09
under yellow illumination
黄色い照明の下に置きます
15:11
by simply putting a filter behind them.
フィルターを通すだけです
15:13
All right. Now you can see that changes the light
あそこから出てきている光が
15:17
that's coming through there. Right?
変わったのがわかりますね
15:20
Because now the light is going through a yellowish filter
光が黄色いフィルターと
15:22
and then a purplish filter.
紫のフィルターを通ってきています
15:24
I'm going to do this opposite on the left here.
同じことを左側でもやってみましょう
15:26
I'm going to put the middle nine under a purplish light.
真ん中の9個を紫の光の下に置きます
15:31
Now, some of you will notice that the consequence is that
おわかりかもしれませんが
15:38
the light coming through those middle nine on the right,
真ん中の9個を通ってくる光は
15:42
or your left,
右側でも左側でも
15:45
is exactly the same as the light coming through
もう片方と
15:47
the middle nine on your right.
完全に同じ光です
15:49
Agreed? Yes?
いいですね?
15:51
Okay. So they are physically the same.
物理的に同じ光です
15:54
Let's pull the covers off.
カバーを外しましょう
15:56
Now remember,
覚えておいて下さい
16:02
you know the middle nine are exactly the same.
真ん中の9個は完全に同じです
16:06
Do they look the same? No.
同じに見えますか?見えません
16:09
The question is, "Is that an illusion?"
これは幻覚でしょうか?
16:13
And I'll leave you with that.
皆さんの想像にお任せします
16:15
So, thank you very much.
どうもありがとうございます
16:17
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:19
Translator:Wataru Narita
Reviewer:Dana Milea

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Beau Lotto - Neuroscientist, Artist
Beau Lotto is founder of Lottolab, a hybrid art studio and science lab. With glowing, interactive sculpture -- and old-fashioned peer-reviewed research--he's illuminating the mysteries of the brain's visual system.

Why you should listen

"Let there be perception," was evolution's proclamation, and so it was that all creatures, from honeybees to humans, came to see the world not as it is, but as was most useful. This uncomfortable place--where what an organism's brain sees diverges from what is actually out there--is what Beau Lotto and his team at Lottolab are exploring through their dazzling art-sci experiments and public illusions. Their Bee Matrix installation, for example, places a live bee in a transparent enclosure where gallerygoers may watch it seek nectar in a virtual meadow of luminous Plexiglas flowers. (Bees, Lotto will tell you, see colors much like we humans do.) The data captured isn't just discarded, either: it's put to good use in probing scientific papers, and sometimes in more exhibits.

At their home in London’s Science Museum, the lab holds "synesthetic workshops" where kids and adults make abstract paintings that computers interpret into music, and they host regular Lates--evenings of science, music and "mass experiments." Lotto is passionate about involving people from all walks of life in research on perception--both as subjects and as fellow researchers. One such program, called "i,scientist," in fact led to the publication of the first ever peer-reviewed scientific paper written by schoolchildren ("Blackawton Bees," December 2010). It starts, "Once upon a time ..."

These and Lotto's other conjurings are slowly, charmingly bending the science of perception--and our perceptions of what science can be.

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