11:24
TEDGlobal 2009

Stefana Broadbent: How the Internet enables intimacy

ステファーナ・ブロードベント 「インターネットによる親密な人間関係の構築」

Filmed:

インスタントメッセージや携帯メール、フェイスブックが人間関係を損なうではないかと心配されていますが、ステファーナ・ブロードベントによる調査結果は、コミュニケーション技術がいかにしてより親密な関係を築き、距離や職場のルールといった障害を乗り越えて愛を育むことができるのか教えてくれます。

- Tech anthropologist
Stefana Broadbent watches us while we communicate, work and go about our daily lives. She is one of a new class of ethnographers who study the way our social habits and relationships function and mutate in the digital age. Full bio

I believe that there are new, hidden tensions
人と所属組織の間には現在
00:15
that are actually happening between people and institutions --
目には見えない緊張感があります
00:19
institutions that are the institutions that people
所属組織とは日常生活におけるー
00:22
inhabit in their daily life:
家以外の居住空間のことで
00:24
schools, hospitals, workplaces,
学校や病院 職場
00:26
factories, offices, etc.
工場やオフィス等を指します
00:29
And something that I see happening
そして現在起こっているのは
00:32
is something that I would like to call
私が呼ぶところの
00:35
a sort of "democratization of intimacy."
「親密性の民主化」です
00:37
And what do I mean by that?
これはどういう意味でしょうか?
00:39
I mean that what people are doing
人は実際には
00:41
is, in fact, they are sort of, with their communication channels,
言わば独自のコミュニケーション手段によって
00:43
they are breaking an imposed isolation
所属組織が自分たちに押し付けている
00:47
that these institutions are imposing on them.
隔絶を打ち破っているのです
00:51
How are they doing this? They're doing it
ではどのように行っているのでしょうか?
00:55
in a very simple way, by calling their mom from work,
簡単ですー職場から母親に電話をしたり
00:57
by IMing from their office to their friends,
会社から友人にインスタントメッセージを送り
00:59
by texting under the desk.
こっそり携帯メールをしています
01:03
The pictures that you're seeing behind me
後ろに映っているのは
01:05
are people that I visited in the last few months.
ここ数か月間に私が取材した人達です
01:07
And I asked them to come along with the person they communicate with most.
最もよく連絡をとる人を連れてくるようお願いしました
01:10
And somebody brought a boyfriend, somebody a father.
彼氏や父親を連れて来る人もいました
01:14
One young woman brought her grandfather.
ある若い女性は祖父を連れてきました
01:17
For 20 years, I've been looking at how people use
この20年間調査をしてきたのは
01:20
channels such as email, the mobile phone, texting, etc.
電子メールや携帯電話、携帯メールといった手段の利用法です
01:22
What we're actually going to see is that, fundamentally,
そして分かって来た事とは
01:26
people are communicating on a regular basis
人々は最も親密な5~7人と定期的に
01:28
with five, six, seven of their most intimate sphere.
連絡をとっているということです
01:31
Now, lets take some data. Facebook.
さてデータを見て見ましょう フェイスブックです
01:35
Recently some sociologists from Facebook --
最近社会学者たちが調査を行いました
01:37
Facebook is the channel that you would expect
フェイスブックは皆さんもご承知の通り
01:39
is the most enlargening of all channels.
急速に拡張している通信媒体です
01:41
And an average user,
平均的なユーザーには
01:44
said Cameron Marlow,
キャメロン マーロウ氏によりますと
01:46
from Facebook, has about 120 friends.
約120人の友人がいます
01:49
But he actually talks to,
しかしその中で実際に話すのは
01:52
has two-way exchanges with, about four to six people
ユーザーの性別にも寄りますが
01:54
on a regular base, depending on his gender.
約4~6人という事です
01:57
Academic research on instant messaging
インスタントメッセージの調査結果でも
01:59
also shows 100 people on buddy lists,
友だちリストには100人登録されているものの
02:01
but fundamentally people chat with two, three, four --
基本的にはチャットするのは2~4人
02:04
anyway, less than five.
まあ5人未満といったところです
02:07
My own research on cellphones and voice calls
携帯電話や音声電話に関する私の調査では
02:09
shows that 80 percent of the calls
80%の通話が
02:13
are actually made to four people. 80 percent.
4人を相手としたものです 80%もですよ
02:15
And when you go to Skype, it's down to two people.
スカイプならたったの2人です
02:18
A lot of sociologists actually are quite disappointed.
多くの社会学者はかなり失望しています
02:21
I mean, I've been a bit disappointed sometimes
私も少しがっかりしたことがあります
02:23
when I saw this data and all this deployment, just for five people.
大掛かりな装備なのに たった5人です
02:26
And some sociologists actually feel that
社会学者らは
02:30
it's a closure, it's a cocooning,
これは引きこもり現象で
02:32
that we're disengaging from the public.
社会離れだ、嘆いています
02:37
And I would actually, I would like to show you that
しかし私がお見せしたいのは
02:39
if we actually look at who is doing it,
誰が電話をかけているのか
02:41
and from where they're doing it,
どこから電話をかけているのか、です
02:43
actually there is an incredible social transformation.
そこには信じ難い社会的変換が存在するのです
02:45
There are three stories that I think are quite good examples.
それをよく表している3つの例をご紹介します
02:48
The first gentleman, he's a baker.
最初の男性はパン屋さんです
02:50
And so he starts working every morning at four o'clock in the morning.
毎朝午前4時に仕事を始めます
02:52
And around eight o'clock he sort of sneaks away from his oven,
8時頃に窯の側からそっと離れ
02:55
cleans his hands from the flour
小麦粉のついた手を洗い
02:58
and calls his wife.
奥さんに電話をします
03:00
He just wants to wish her a good day, because that's the start of her day.
一日の始まりにおはようと言う為にです
03:02
And I've heard this story a number of times.
この手の話は何回も聞きました
03:05
A young factory worker who works night shifts,
夜勤で働く若い工場労働者は
03:08
who manages to sneak away from the factory floor,
工場の監視カメラから
03:11
where there is CCTV by the way,
死角になる場所を探し
03:14
and find a corner, where at 11 o'clock at night
そこから 夜11時に
03:16
he can call his girlfriend and just say goodnight.
彼女におやすみの電話をします
03:18
Or a mother who, at four o'clock,
ある母親は4時になると
03:21
suddenly manages to find a corner in the toilet
トイレの片隅から
03:23
to check that her children are safely home.
子供たちの無事を確認します
03:26
Then there is another couple, there is a Brazilian couple.
もう一組の例はブラジル人カップルです
03:30
They've lived in Italy for a number of years.
長年イタリアに住んでおり
03:32
They Skype with their families a few times a week.
週に数回スカイプで家族と連絡をとります
03:34
But once a fortnight, they actually put the computer on their dining table,
2週間に1度は食卓にコンピュータを置き
03:37
pull out the webcam and actually have dinner
ウェブカメラを設置し
03:41
with their family in Sao Paulo. And they have a big event of it.
サンパウロの家族と夕食をとります 大切な行事です
03:43
And I heard this story the first time a couple of years ago
この話を初めて聞いたのは2年前のことで
03:46
from a very modest family
スイス在住のコソボ移民で
03:49
of immigrants from Kosovo in Switzerland.
質素な生活をしている家族からでした
03:51
They had set up a big screen in their living room,
居間に大スクリーンを設置して
03:54
and every morning they had breakfast with their grandmother.
毎朝祖国の祖母と朝食をとるのです
03:57
But Danny Miller, who is a very good anthropologist
一方、著名な人類学者ダニー ミラー氏は
04:00
who is working on Filipina migrant women
祖国に子供を残したフィリピン女性移民について
04:03
who leave their children back in the Philippines,
調査を行っているのですが
04:08
was telling me about how much parenting is going on
スカイプを利用した子育てが
04:11
through Skype,
どの程度行われているか
04:14
and how much these mothers are engaged with their children through Skype.
どれ位子供に関わっているのか教えてくれました
04:16
And then there is the third couple. They are two friends.
3番目のカップルは友人同士です
04:20
They chat to each other every day, a few times a day actually.
毎日数回実際におしゃべりをします
04:23
And finally, finally, they've managed to put
そしてある日やっと会社のコンピュータで
04:27
instant messaging on their computers at work.
インスタントメッセージが可能になりました
04:29
And now, obviously, they have it open.
もちろん今もそれで繋がっています
04:31
Whenever they have a moment they chat to each other.
ちょっと時間があればお互いとチャットです
04:33
And this is exactly what we've been seeing
これが現実なのです
04:35
with teenagers and kids doing it in school, under the table,
10代の若者や子供は学校の机の下から
04:37
and texting under the table to their friends.
友人たちに携帯メールしているのです
04:40
So, none of these cases are unique.
これは特別な例ではありません
04:43
I mean, I could tell you hundreds of them.
似たような例は何百件もあります
04:45
But what is really exceptional is the setting.
しかし異なっているのは環境です
04:47
So, think of the three settings I've talked to you about:
先の3つの場面について考えてみてください
04:50
factory, migration, office.
工場 移民 会社です
04:53
But it could be in a school, it could be an administration,
でもそれは学校や官公庁かもしれません
04:56
it could be a hospital.
病院もありうるでしょう
04:59
Three settings that, if we just step back 15 years,
3つの場面について
05:01
if you just think back 15 years,
15年前を振り返ってみてください
05:03
when you clocked in,
例えば タイムカードで
05:06
when you clocked in to an office,
会社や工場で
05:08
when you clocked in to a factory,
出勤時刻を記録した後
05:10
there was no contact for the whole duration of the time,
仕事の間は連絡はありませんでした
05:12
there was no contact with your private sphere.
私用で連絡はしませんでした
05:15
If you were lucky there was a public phone hanging in the corridor or somewhere.
運がよければ公衆電話があったかもしれません
05:18
If you were in management, oh, that was a different story.
もし管理職なら話は別です
05:22
Maybe you had a direct line.
直通電話があったかもしれません
05:25
If you were not, you maybe had to go through an operator.
そうでなければオペレーター経由の通話でした
05:27
But basically, when you walked into those buildings,
しかしそのような建物の中に入っていく際は
05:30
the private sphere was left behind you.
私的用件は置いてきたはずです
05:33
And this has become such a norm of our professional lives,
そしてその姿勢が仕事生活の規範となり
05:36
such a norm and such an expectation.
社会通念となりました
05:41
And it had nothing to do with technical capability.
技術的な問題とは無関係です
05:43
The phones were there. But the expectation was once you moved in there
電話はありました。が、いったん職場に入れば
05:46
your commitment was fully to the task at hand,
全精力を任務遂行と
05:49
fully to the people around you.
周囲の人に注ぐことでした
05:52
That was where the focus had to be.
そういった点が重視されてきました
05:55
And this has become such a cultural norm
そして社会規範として根付いてしまったので
05:57
that we actually school our children for them to be capable to do this cleavage.
子供にもそれを遵守するよう教育しています
06:00
If you think nursery, kindergarten, first years of school
保育園 幼稚園 学校の低学年が
06:04
are just dedicated to take away the children,
子供たちを連れ去り
06:06
to make them used to staying long hours away from their family.
家族から長時間離れることに慣れさせるのです
06:09
And then the school enacts perfectly well.
それを学校が採用し
06:13
It mimics perfectly all the rituals that we will find in offices:
猿真似しているのが会社の儀式です
06:15
rituals of entry, rituals of exit,
入社の儀式、退社の儀式です
06:18
the schedules, the uniforms in this country,
スケジュールも制服もそうです
06:21
things that identify you, team-building activities,
各自を識別するもので、チーム編成活動もあります
06:25
team building that will allow you to basically
どんなグループの子供とでもどんな人とでも
06:28
be with a random group of kids, or a random group of people
うまくやっていけるようにする活動です
06:31
that you will have to be with for a number of time.
長時間過ごす任意の人々を想定しているのです
06:34
And of course, the major thing:
もちろん大切なことは
06:37
learn to pay attention,
周囲に注意を払いつつ
06:39
to concentrate and focus your attention.
自分の仕事に集中するということです
06:41
This only started about 150 years ago.
これはほんの150年ほど前に始まったものです
06:44
It only started with the birth of modern bureaucracy,
近代的な官僚制の誕生と
06:46
and of industrial revolution.
産業革命の開始とともに始まったのです
06:49
When people basically had to go somewhere else to work
人は仕事をするために他の場所に出向き
06:51
and carry out the work.
その仕事を遂行しなければいけませんでした
06:54
And when with modern bureaucracy there was a very rational approach,
近代官僚制の下、合理的な取り組み方が生まれ
06:56
where there was a clear distinction between the private sphere
そこでは個人領域と公的領域の間に
06:59
and the public sphere.
明確な区別がありました
07:01
So, until then, basically people were living on top of their trades.
それまでは人は仕事場の近くに住んでいました
07:03
They were living on top of the land they were laboring.
肉体労働をしている土地や
07:07
They were living on top of the workshops where they were working.
働いている仕事場の近くに住んでいました
07:10
And if you think, it's permeated our whole culture,
この習慣は至るところに行き渡り
07:13
even our cities.
都市にさえ浸透しています
07:15
If you think of medieval cities, medieval cities the boroughs
中世の都市の自治区には
07:17
all have the names of the guilds and professions that lived there.
同業組合と商売の名前がありました
07:20
Now we have sprawling residential suburbias
現在は住宅郊外地が広がっていますが
07:23
that are well distinct from production areas
生産地域と商業地域から
07:26
and commercial areas.
全く切り離されています
07:29
And actually, over these 150 years,
そしてこの150年の間
07:32
there has been a very clear class system that also has emerged.
厳格な階級制度も出現しました
07:34
So the lower the status of the job
仕事やその従事者の
07:37
and of the person carrying out, the more removed
地位が低いほど
07:41
he would be from his personal sphere.
個人領域から遠ざけられるのです
07:43
People have taken this amazing possibility
人はこの驚くべき可能性を利用しています
07:46
of actually being in contact all through the day
一日中 どんな状況でも
07:49
or in all types of situations.
連絡を取れるのです
07:51
And they are doing it massively.
しかも大規模に利用しています
07:53
The Pew Institute, which produces good data
アメリカのピュー研究所は
07:55
on a regular basis on, for instance, in the States,
米国内の面白いデータを提供する機関で
07:57
says that -- and I think that this number is conservative --
数字は少し控えめと思うのですが
08:00
50 percent of anybody with email access at work
Eメール利用可能な人の50%が
08:02
is actually doing private email from his office.
職場で私的メールをしていると言います
08:06
I really think that the number is conservative.
私はこの数字は控えめだと思います
08:09
In my own research, we saw that the peak for private email
私の調査ではEメールのピークは
08:13
is actually 11 o'clock in the morning, whatever the country.
どこの国であろうが 午前11時です
08:15
75 percent of people admit doing private
75%の人が会社から私用で
08:19
conversations from work on their mobile phones.
携帯電話を利用すると認めています
08:22
100 percent are using text.
携帯メールは一人残らず利用しています
08:25
The point is that this re-appropriation of the personal sphere
問題はこうした個人領域の新たな利用法が必ずしも
08:28
is not terribly successful with all institutions.
うまくいくわけではないということです
08:32
I'm always surprised the U.S. Army
いつも驚かさせるのですが
08:35
sociologists are discussing of the impact
米陸軍社会学者が議論しているのは
08:37
for instance, of soldiers in Iraq
毎日家族に連絡しているー
08:39
having daily contact with their families.
イラク駐在兵への影響です
08:41
But there are many institutions that are actually blocking this access.
しかし、こういったアクセスを禁止する機関も多々あります
08:44
And every day, every single day,
毎日毎日
08:50
I read news that makes me cringe,
ぞっとする記事を目にします
08:52
like a $15 fine
テキサスの子供に
08:54
to kids in Texas,
罰金15ドル
08:56
for using, every time they take out their mobile phone in school.
学校で携帯を取り出す度です
08:58
Immediate dismissal to bus drivers in New York,
ニューヨークのバス運転手は携帯を手に持つだけで
09:01
if seen with a mobile phone in a hand.
即解雇になります
09:05
Companies blocking access to IM or to Facebook.
インスタントメッセージやフェイスブックへのアクセスを禁止している会社は
09:07
Behind issues of security and safety,
安全性が問題だと言います
09:13
which have always been the arguments for social control,
いつもの討論ですが
09:16
in fact what is going on is that
この問題の裏にあるのは
09:19
these institutions are trying to decide
規制の決定権を持つのは誰か
09:21
who, in fact, has a right to self determine their attention,
隔離する人を決めるのは誰か
09:25
to decide, whether they should, or not, be isolated.
組織側が決めようとしているのです
09:28
And they are actually trying to block, in a certain sense,
ある意味で、組織が人間の親密性を高める可能性を
09:32
this movement of a greater possibility of intimacy.
排除しようとしているのです
09:38
Translated by Hideki Kamiya
Reviewed by Yuko Osugi

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About the Speaker:

Stefana Broadbent - Tech anthropologist
Stefana Broadbent watches us while we communicate, work and go about our daily lives. She is one of a new class of ethnographers who study the way our social habits and relationships function and mutate in the digital age.

Why you should listen

Stefana Broadbent, a cognitive scientist, has spent decades observing people as they use technology, both at home and at work and everything in between. She looks at the way we use digital channels to forge relationships, to perform our jobs, to engage as citizens, to learn and care for others.

Using traditional and evolving ethnographic practices in her research, currently as Head of Collective Intelligence at NESTA  and until recently as a Lecturer in Digital Anthropology at University College London, she has made some surprising findings. Did you know, for instance, that the majority of our digital interactions are still with 4 or 5 of our closest ties? Or that one the most significant transformation in our working life has been the possibility of keeping in touch with our loved ones from our workplace?

More profile about the speaker
Stefana Broadbent | Speaker | TED.com