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TEDxSMU

Joshua Prince-Ramus: Building a theater that remakes itself

ジョシュア・プリンス=ラマス:自らを再構築する劇場を建てる

October 10, 2009

ジョシュア・プリンス=ラマスは、建築家が設計工程を再立案すれば、すばらしい結果をもたらすと考えます。ダラスのTEDxSMUでの講演で、地元ワイリーシアターを、ボタン一つで自らを再構築する巨大な"機械劇場"として作り変える過程を紹介します

Joshua Prince-Ramus - Architect
Joshua Prince-Ramus is best known as architect of the Seattle Central Library, already being hailed as a masterpiece of contemporary culture. Prince-Ramus was the founding partner of OMA New York—the American affiliate of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) in the Netherlands—and served as its Principal until he renamed the firm REX in 2006. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I'm going to speak to you today about architectural agency.
今日は媒体としての建築についてお話しします
00:15
What I mean by that is that it's time for architecture
今こそ 飾りや象徴ではなく
00:19
to do things again, not just represent things.
何かを成せる建築の再来の時です
00:21
This is a construction helmet that I received two years ago
これは二年前の着工式でいただいたヘルメットです
00:25
at the groundbreaking of the largest project
当時 僕と事務所が手掛けたなかで
00:29
I, and my firm, have ever been involved in.
一番大きなプロジェクトでした
00:31
I was thrilled to get it. I was thrilled to be the only person
とても嬉しかったです なにしろ僕だけですから
00:34
standing on the stage with a shiny silver helmet.
ステージで 銀に輝くヘルメット!
00:36
I thought it represented the importance of the architect.
建築家の重要性をよく表している なんて思いました
00:39
I stayed thrilled until I got home,
家に着いても まだ 興奮していました
00:42
threw the helmet onto my bed,
でも ベッドにヘルメットを放り投げて
00:44
fell down onto my bed and realized inside
寝転がったら気づいたんです―
00:46
there was an inscription.
内側の注意書きに…"これは装飾用につき
00:49
(Laughter)
保護帽としては使用不可 安全は保証されません"
00:52
Now, I think that this is a great metaphor
非常に上手い喩えですね
00:55
for the state of architecture and architects today.
まさに 建築と建築家の現状を言い当てています
00:57
We are for decorative purposes only.
そう僕らは装飾にすぎない のです
00:59
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:02
Now, who do we have to blame?
これは一体 誰のせいでしょう
01:03
We can only blame ourselves. Over the last 50 years
もちろん建築家自身のせいです 過去50年間にわたり―
01:05
the design and construction industry has gotten much more complex
設計と建設業は 一層複雑になりました
01:08
and has gotten much more litigious.
訴訟も頻発するようになりました
01:11
And we architects are cowards.
その上 建築家は臆病者ときています
01:13
So, as we have faced liability,
それで僕ら 責任問題に直面すると
01:15
we have stepped back and back,
どんどん後ずさりしてしまったんです
01:17
and unfortunately, where there is liability, guess what there is:
あいにく 責任の生じるところには
01:20
power.
権力が付きまといます
01:22
So, eventually we have found ourselves
それで 気がつくと僕らは
01:25
in a totally marginalized position, way over here.
隅へ隅へと追いやられて こんなところに取り残されてしまった…
01:27
Now, what did we do? We're cowards,
さて どうしたことか? 僕らは臆病者―
01:30
but we're smart cowards.
でも 利口な臆病者ですから
01:32
And so we redefined this marginalized position as the place of architecture.
この隅っこを 建築の地として 再定義することにしたんです
01:35
And we announced, "Hey, architecture, it's over here,
「建築さん こちらへお越しください
01:38
in this autonomous language
僕らだけの定義で
01:41
we're going to seed control of processes."
工程管理をやっていきましょう」 と
01:43
And we were going to do something that was horrible for the profession.
その上 建築職に痛ましいことすらやりました
01:46
We actually created an artificial schism
そう 僕らは 創作と建設を
01:51
between creation and execution,
人為的に分裂させてしまったのです
01:53
as if you could actually create without knowing how to execute
まるで "建て方を知らなくても 設計できる" とか
01:57
and as if you could actually execute
"設計できなくても 施工はできる"
01:59
without knowing how to create.
とでも言わんばかりに…
02:01
Now, something else happened.
他にもあります
02:03
And that's when we began to sell the world
僕らは世界に こう触れ込みました―
02:05
that architecture was created by individuals
建築というのは ひとえに優れたスケッチを
02:07
creating genius sketches.
描いた人の技能のたまものであるゆえ
02:10
And that the incredible amount of effort to deliver those sketches
建物の完成までの 長年にわたる
02:12
for years and years and years is not only something
並々ならぬ尽力については
02:16
to be derided,
特筆に値しないばかりか
02:18
but we would merely write it off as
むしろ 単なる"施工作業"として
02:20
merely execution.
片付けておけばいいでしょう と
02:22
Now I'd argue that that is as absurd as stating
しかしこれは ばかげた話でしょう
02:25
that 30 minutes of copulation is the creative act,
30分の性交が創造的行為で
02:28
and nine months of gestation,
9ヶ月の妊娠期間と
02:32
and, God forbid, 24 hours of child labor
24時間の出産は
02:34
is merely execution.
単なる施工作業だなんて とんでもない話です
02:39
So, what do we architects need to do? We need to stitch back
では 我々建築家はどうすればいいのでしょう?
02:41
creation and execution.
創造と建造を 再度つなぎ合わせるのです
02:43
And we need to start authoring processes again
建築家は 物を生み出す代わりに
02:46
instead of authoring objects.
もう一度 工程を生み出すべきなのです
02:49
Now, if we do this, I believe we can go back 50 years
そうすれば 僕らは50年前のように
02:51
and start reinjecting agency,
再び 媒体や社会工学を
02:54
social engineering, back into architecture.
建築へ吹き込めるはずです
02:56
Now, there are all kinds of things that we architects need to learn how to do,
確かに 建築家には 覚えることが山ほどあります
03:00
like managing contracts, learning how to write contracts,
例えば 契約の管理や 契約書の書き方
03:02
understanding procurement processes,
調達手順を理解しておくことや―
03:06
understanding the time value of money and cost estimation.
見積もりや 時間としての金銭感覚も必要です
03:09
But I'm going to reduce this to the beginning of the process,
しかしここでは 建築家の作業の第一歩を
03:12
into three very pedantic statements.
衒学的ではありますが 3つの声明にまとめたいと思います
03:15
The first is: Take core positions with your client.
1.主要論点 の見極め
03:18
I know it's shocking, right, that architecture would actually say that.
驚きでしょう?建築家がこんなこと口にするなんて!
03:21
The second position is: Actually take positions.
2.見解一致 建築家としての論拠を示し
03:24
Take joint positions with your client.
クライアントと見解を統一する
03:27
This is the moment in which you as the architect
ここより 建築家とクライアントは
03:29
and your client can begin to inject
共にビジョンを描いたり
03:31
vision and agency.
業者を選んだりできるのです
03:33
But it has to be done together.
両者が一丸となって取り組むことが不可欠です
03:35
And then only after this is done
これを経て 初めて 建築家は
03:37
are you allowed to do this, begin to put forward
建築的見解を示す
03:39
architectural manifestations
3.意匠図 を
03:41
that manifest those positions.
提出できるようになります
03:43
And both owner and architect alike
クライアントも建築家も同様に
03:45
are empowered to critique those manifestations
両者の論拠に基づいて
03:48
based on the positions that you've taken.
意匠図を批評する権利があります
03:50
Now, I believe that one really amazing thing will happen if you do this.
この手順を踏めば きっと素晴らしいことが起こります
03:52
I'd like to call it the lost art of productively losing control.
"失われた生産的管理緩和術" です
03:57
You do not know what the end result is.
最終的にどこへ落ち着くか予想できません
04:01
But I promise you, with enough brain power
でも約束しましょう 十分な頭脳と
04:04
and enough passion and enough commitment,
ほとばしる情熱を持って ひたすら打ち込めば
04:06
you will arrive at conclusions
常識をくつがえす
04:09
that will transcend convention,
まったく新しい境地へ到達できる と
04:11
and will simply be something
それは 当初は予想もつかなかった―
04:13
that you could not have initially
また単独では思い描けなかった
04:16
or individually conceived of.
建築物になっているはずです
04:18
Alright, now I'm going to reduce all of this to a series
では これを簡単な数枚のスケッチに
04:21
of simple dumb sketches.
まとめたいと思います
04:23
This is the modus operandi that we have today.
これが今日の手口です
04:25
We roll 120-foot Spartan,
私たちは 36mのスパルタ人(ビジョン)を
04:28
i.e. our vision, up to our clients' gates of Troy.
トロイアの門(クライアント)まで運びますが
04:32
And we don't understand why they won't let us in. Right?
通してもらえず頭を悩ましている…ですよね?
04:37
Well, how about instead of doing that,
こうしてみてはどうでしょう
04:42
we roll up to the gates something they want.
トロイア勢の欲しがる物を持っていくんです
04:44
Now this is a little bit of a dangerous metaphor,
少々危険な例えではあります
04:47
because of course we all know that inside
なぜなら 周知の通り トロイアの木馬には
04:50
of the Trojan Horse were a bunch of people with spears.
槍を持った兵士が潜んでいるからです
04:52
So, we can change the metaphor. Let's call the Trojan Horse
じゃあ例えを変えて トロイアの木馬を
04:54
the vessel by which
あなたが 門(プロジェクトの制約)を
04:56
you get through the gate,
くぐりぬけるのに使う
04:58
get through the constraints of a project.
大きな乗り物だと見立てましょう
05:00
At which point, you and your client
この段階で あなたとクライアントは
05:03
have the ability to start considering what
乗り物に何を積むか
05:05
you're going to put inside that vessel,
考え始められます
05:07
the agency, the vision.
つまり 媒体機能やビジョンです
05:09
And if you do that, you do that responsibly,
あなたが責任を持って これをやり遂げれば
05:11
I believe that instead of delivering Spartans,
スパルタ兵の代わりに
05:14
you can deliver maidens.
美しい乙女を届けられるはずです
05:16
And if I could summarize that all up into one single sketch it would be this.
これを一枚のスケッチにまとめると こうなります
05:18
If we are so good at our craft
僕らが 本当に技能に長けているなら
05:21
shouldn't we be able to conceive
プロジェクトやクライアントの制約を
05:23
of an architectural manifestation
難なく切り抜けられる
05:26
that slides seamlessly through
意匠図を作成することが
05:28
the project's and the client's constraints?
できるはずですよね?
05:30
Now, with that in mind, I'm going to show a project
それを念頭に置いた上で 今から
05:32
that's very dear to many people in this room--
ご来場の皆さんにとって大切な―
05:34
well, maybe not dear, but certainly close to many people in this room.
あるいは 身近なプロジェクトをご覧に入れましょう
05:36
And that's a project that is just about to open next week,
まさに来週オープンする
05:39
the new home for the Dallas Theater Center,
ダラス劇場センターの新たな拠点
05:42
the Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre.
ディー&チャールズ・ワイリー・シアターです
05:45
Now, I'm going to present it on the same terms:
先ほどと同じ用語でご紹介します
05:47
issue, position and architectural manifestation.
論点 見解 意匠図 でしたね
05:49
Now, the first issue that we faced
最初に向き合った論点は
05:52
was that the Dallas Theater Center
ダラス劇場センターが
05:54
had a notoriety that was beyond what you would expect
非常に高い知名度を誇っている点でした
05:57
of some place outside of the triumvirate
普通これほどの知名度は 三大劇場都市
06:00
of New York, Chicago and Seattle.
ニューヨーク シカゴ シアトル以外では考えられません
06:02
And this had to do with the ambitions of the leadership.
熱意やリーダーシップはさることながら
06:05
But it also had to do with something rather unusual,
一風変わった要因もあったのです―
06:07
and that was this horrible little building that they'd been performing in.
実は このひどい小劇場 それ自体でした
06:10
Why was this horrible little building
どうしてこんなひどい小劇場が
06:14
so important to their renown and their innovation?
名声や革新の要因となっているのでしょうか?
06:17
Because they could do whatever they wanted to to this building.
それは 劇場に好き放題できたからです
06:20
When you're on Broadway, you cannot tear the proscenium down.
ブロードウェイのプロセニアムなんか とても壊せません
06:23
This building, when an artistic director
しかしこの建物はときたら 芸術監督が
06:28
wanted to do a "Cherry Orchard" and wanted people
「桜の園」を上演するときに
06:30
and wanted people to come out of a well on the stage,
ステージ上で井戸から人を登場させたければ
06:32
they brought a backhoe in, and they simply dug the hole.
単純に ショベルカーで穴を掘るまでです
06:34
Well, that's exciting.
なるほど 面白いですね
06:37
And you can start to get the best artistic directors,
一流の芸術監督 舞台監督 役者達が
06:39
scenic designers and actors from around the country
他では到底出来ないことを
06:41
to come to perform here
ここでやるために
06:43
because you can do things you can't do elsewhere.
全国から集まっていたんです
06:45
So, the first position we took was,
そこでまず 次の見解を示しました
06:47
"Hey, we as architects had better not show up
"よもや建築家がやってきてー
06:49
and do a pristine building
ピカピカの劇場を建ててしまい
06:52
that doesn't engender the same freedoms that this
おんぼろ劇場のもたらしていた自由を
06:54
old dilapidated shed provided the company."
奪い去るようなことがあってはならない"
06:56
The second issue is a nuance of the first.
次の論点は 一つ目とかぶりますが
06:59
And that's that the company and the building was multiform.
これが多様式の劇場であるという点でした
07:02
That meant that they were able to perform,
つまり 労働力さえあれば
07:05
as long as they had labor
色々な様式に対応できたのです
07:08
they were able to go between proscenium, thrust, flat floor,
プロセニアム 張り出し舞台 平舞台
07:10
arena, traverse, you name it.
アリーナ トラバース なんでもこいです
07:13
All they needed was labor.
労働力さえあれば 対応可能でした
07:15
Well, something happened. In fact something happened to all institutions
しかしそうは言ってられなくなりました
07:17
around the world.
ここに限らず 世界各地の劇場に
07:19
It started to become hard to raise operational costs,
通じて言えることですが
07:21
operational budgets.
運用費や予算の調達が 困難になりました
07:24
So, they stopped having inexpensive labor.
安価な労働力も 手放さねばならず
07:26
And eventually they had to freeze their organization
結果として 組織を凍結せざるを得なくなり
07:28
into something called a bastardized thruscenium.
劇場は 低品質の"張り出セニアム"に成り下がりました
07:31
So, the second position we took is that the freedoms that we provided,
よって 我々は二つ目の見解を打ち出しました
07:34
the ability to move between stage configurations,
運用費に影響されずに
07:37
had better be able to be done
自在に舞台を構築できるような
07:40
without relying on operational costs. Alright? Affordably.
劇場を建てること いいですか?低予算運営です
07:42
The architectural manifestation
これが出来上がった意匠図ですが
07:46
was frankly just dumb.
率直に言って 少々間抜けです…
07:48
It was to take all the things that are known as front of house and back of house
家の表と裏を引きはがし
07:50
and redefine them as above house and below house.
上と下に組み換えたのです
07:53
At first blush you think, "Hey it's crazy,
一目見て "おいおい ばかげているよ
07:56
what could you possibly gain?"
一体何になるんだ?" と思うでしょう
07:58
We created what we like to call superfly.
私達はスーパーフライなるものを生み出しました
08:00
(Laughter)
(= 超イカす)
08:03
Now, superfly, the concept is
スーパーフライとは
08:04
you take all the freedoms you normally associate with the flytower,
舞台機構(フライタワー)の自由度を
08:06
and you smear them across flytower and auditorium.
劇場全体に適応するコンセプトです
08:08
Suddenly the artistic director
たちどころに芸術監督は
08:11
can move between different stage
様々な舞台・観客席形態を
08:13
and audience configurations.
編みだせるようになります
08:15
And because that flytower has the ability to pick up
劇場内の各部が昇降可能なので
08:18
all the pristine elements, suddenly the rest of the environment
残りの環境は暫定的なものになります
08:20
can be provisional. And you can drill, cut, nail, screw
切ったり開けたり 打ったり留めたり—
08:23
paint and replace,
塗り替えたり 取り換えたりが
08:26
with a minimum of cost.
低費用で できるようになるのです
08:28
But there was a third advantage that we got by doing this move
予想外にも 三つ目の利点が
08:30
that was unexpected.
浮かび上がりました
08:32
And that was that it freed up the perimeter of the auditorium
思いがけず 劇場周辺に
08:34
in a most unusual way.
自由に使えるスペースが出現したのです
08:37
And that provided the artistic director suddenly
芸術監督はこのスペースを活用して
08:40
the ability to define suspension of disbelief.
観客を 虚構の世界に引き込めるのです
08:42
So, the building affords artistic directors the freedom
つまりこの浮遊物体の底辺で
08:45
to conceive of almost any kind of activity
ありとあらゆる活動を
08:47
underneath this floating object.
自由に考え出せるようになりました
08:50
But also to challenge the notion of suspension of disbelief
それだけでなく 例えば「マクベス」の最終幕で
08:52
such that in the last act of Macbeth,
今いるダラスや実生活を思い起こさせる―
08:55
if he or she wants you to associate
舞台空間作りにより 寓話の中の
08:58
the parable that you're seeing with Dallas, with your real life,
虚構世界と 現実世界が融合するよう
09:00
he or she can do so.
仕掛けられるのです
09:04
Now, in order to do this we and the clients
実現のためには 僕らとクライアントは
09:06
had to do something fairly remarkable.
大胆に出なければなりませんでした
09:08
In fact it really was the clients who had to do it.
実際は クライアントのお陰です
09:10
They had to make a decision, based on the positions we took
クライアントは 私達の見解を受けて
09:13
to redefine the budget being from two thirds capital-A architecture
もともと予算の 2/3が建築物―
09:16
and one-third infrastructure,
1/3が基礎構造 という割り当てを
09:19
to actually the inverse,
逆にする必要に迫られ
09:21
two-thirds infrastructure and one-third capital-A architecture.
2/3を基礎構造 1/3を建築物に再分配しました
09:23
That's a lot for a client to commit to
クライアントにとって 完成を目にする前に
09:26
before you actually see the fruition of the concept.
この決断をするのは 並大抵ではありません
09:28
But based on the positions,
しかし 僕らの見解を基に "これなら!"と
09:31
they took the educated leap of faith to do so.
清水の舞台から飛び降りてくれました
09:33
And effectively we created what we like to call
その甲斐あって完成したのが
09:36
a theater machine.
機械劇場なるものです
09:38
Now, that theater machine has ability
この機械劇場は とても優秀で
09:40
to move between a whole series of configurations
一連の舞台構築が
09:42
at the push of a button and a few stagehands
ステージにいる数人と ボタンひとつで
09:45
in a short amount of time.
ほんの短時間で できてしまいます
09:48
But it also has the potential
また 多様な舞台様式だけでなく
09:50
to not only provide multiform but multi-processional sequences.
複数様式の同時進行も可能なのです
09:52
Meaning: The artistic director
つまり 芸術監督は
09:56
doesn't necessarily need to go through our lobby.
必ずしもロビーから入らなくてもいいのです
09:58
One of the things that we learned when we visited various theaters
様々な劇場に足を運んでみて分かったのですが
10:01
is they hate us architects,
彼らは建築家が嫌いなんです
10:03
because they say the first thing they have to do,
彼らいわく 上演開始から最初の5分は
10:05
the first five minutes of any show,
必ずやることがあって
10:07
is they have to get our architecture
それは 観客の頭から
10:09
out of the mind of their patron.
今いる建物を 忘れさせることだそうです
10:11
Well now there are potentials of this building
ところがこの劇場は
10:13
to allow the artistic director
芸術監督の一存で
10:15
to actually move into the building
観客を直接客席へと
10:17
without using our architecture.
招き入れることもできます
10:19
So, in fact, there is the building, there is what we call the draw.
建物には 一般的な"招きの形式"があります―
10:21
You're going down into our lobby,
この建物で言えば ロビーへ入り
10:24
go through the lobby with our own little dangly bits, whether you like them or not,
好き嫌いに関わらず このブラブラしてるやつを通り過ぎ
10:26
up through the stair that leads you into the auditorium.
階段から客席へ向かう というものです
10:30
But there is also the potential
または 建物外から直接
10:32
to allow people to move directly from the outside,
迎え入れることもできます
10:34
in this case suggesting kind of Wagnerian entrance,
ここでは ワーグナー的な入場を意識して
10:36
into the interior of the auditorium.
直接 観客席へ招き入れています
10:40
And here is the fruition of that in actuality.
こういう感じです
10:42
These are the two large pivoting doors
劇場には 大きな回転扉が二つあり
10:44
that allow people to move directly from the outside, in
観客も俳優も同様に 外から中へ
10:46
or from the inside, out,
また中から外へ
10:49
performers or audience alike.
移動することができます
10:51
Now, imagine what that could be. I have to say honestly
これは何を意味するのでしょう 正直なところ
10:54
this is not something yet the building can do because it takes too long.
時間的制約から まだ実現には至っていませんが
10:56
But imagine the freedoms
もしこれを一歩進めることができれば
10:59
if you could take this further, that in fact you could consider
色々なことが自由にできるようになります―
11:01
a Wagnerian entry,
ワーグナー的入場に始まり
11:04
a first act in thrust,
張り出し舞台での第一幕
11:06
an intermission in Greek, a second act in arena,
ギリシャ式の幕あい アリーナでの第二幕
11:08
and you leave through our lobby with dangly bits.
ブラブラのある ロビーを抜けて退場!
11:10
Now that, I would say, is architecture performing.
私に言わせれば 建物の演技 です
11:14
It is taking the hand of the architect
言ってみれば 建築家自身で
11:16
to actually remove the hand of the architect
自らの手中にあった主導権を奪い
11:18
in favor of the hand of the artistic director.
芸術監督の手に渡したということです
11:20
I'll go through the three basic configurations.
今から基本的な形態を 三つご紹介します
11:24
This is the flat floor configuration.
これが平舞台です
11:26
You notice that there is no proscenium,
プロセニアム・アーチは無く
11:28
the balconies have been raised up, there are no seats,
バルコニーは吊り上げられ 座席もありません
11:30
the floor in the auditorium is flat.
客席の床は平らです
11:33
The first configuration is easy to understand.
一つ目は分かりやすかったですね
11:35
The balconies come down, you see that the orchestra
二つ目の形態です バルコニーが降りてきます
11:38
begins to have a rake that's frontal towards the end stage,
一階席が傾斜していますよね?そっち側が正面です
11:41
and the seats come in.
そして座席が入ります
11:44
The third configuration is a little harder to understand.
三つ目は 少々分かりにくいかと思います
11:46
Here you see that the balconies actually have to move out of the way
ご覧のとおり 張り出し舞台を出せるように
11:48
in order to bring a thrust into the space.
バルコニーが取り払われます
11:52
And some of the seats need to actually change their direction,
またそれに併せて 一部 座席の方向と傾斜を
11:54
and change their rake, to allow that to happen.
変えてやらなければいけません
11:57
I'll do it again so you can see it.
もう一度ご覧に入れます
12:00
There you see it's the side balconies for the proscenium.
プロセニアム用のサイドバルコニーです
12:02
And there it is in the thrust configuration.
そして これが張り出し舞台の状態です
12:06
In order to do that,
これを可能にしたのは
12:08
again, we needed a client who was willing to take educational risks.
クライアントの 教育的支出もいとわぬ覚悟でした
12:10
And they told us one important thing:
一つ 重要な要請を受けました
12:13
"You shall not beta-test."
"ベータテストだけはしてくれるな"と
12:15
Meaning, nothing that we do
つまり 他で検証されていないことは
12:17
can we be the first ones to do it.
やらないでくれということでした
12:19
But they were willing for us to apply technologies
しかし検証済みの 絶対確実な技術なら
12:21
from other areas that already had failsafe mechanisms to this building.
この劇場に適用していいとのことでした
12:23
And the solution in terms of the balconies
それで バルコニーに関する解決策として
12:27
was to use something that we all know as a scoreboard lift.
スコアボードの昇降技術を採用しました
12:30
Now, if you were to take a scoreboard
スコアボードを 土や ウィスキーの上に
12:33
and drop it on dirt and whiskey,
落とすようなことがあっては
12:36
that would be bad.
たいへんですよね
12:38
If you were not able to take the scoreboard out of the arena
スコアボードをアリーナから出せず
12:40
and be able to do the Ice Capades the next night,
次の晩 アイスショーができなくても
12:43
that would also be bad.
これまた困ります
12:45
And so this technology already had all the failsafe mechanisms
既に安全実証済みの この技術なら
12:47
and allowed the theater and our client
自由自在に舞台形態を変更できるはずだと
12:51
to actually do this with confidence
劇場もクライアントも
12:53
that they would be able to change over their configurations at will.
自信を持って採用に踏み切れました
12:56
The second technology that we applied
この劇場に応用した二つ目は
13:00
was actually using things that you know from
オペラハウスの舞台袖で
13:02
the stage side of an opera house.
使用されている技術でした
13:05
In this case what we're doing is we're taking
その技術を応用して
13:07
the orchestra floor, lifting it up, spinning it,
一階席の床を 持ち上げ 回転させ
13:09
changing the rake, taking it back to flat floor,
傾斜を変え 平舞台にし
13:13
changing the rake again. In essence, you can begin to define
再び傾斜をつけたりしています 要するに
13:16
rakes and viewing angles
傾斜や一階席からの鑑賞角度を
13:19
of people in the orchestra seating, at will.
自在に操れるようになったわけです
13:21
Here you see the chairs being spun around to go from proscenium or end stage
座席が回転し プロセニアムや エンドステージから
13:24
to thrust configuration.
張り出し舞台になる様子が分かると思います
13:28
The proscenium, also. As far as we know this is the first building in the world
私達の知る限りこれが世界で初めて
13:31
in which the proscenium can entirely fly out of the space.
プロセニアム・アーチを完全に空間から排除できる建物です
13:35
Here you see the various acoustic baffles as well as
客席上方には 様々な音響バッフル―
13:38
the flying mechanisms and catwalks over the auditorium.
吊り物や キャットウォーク(通路)が見えますね
13:40
And ultimately, up in the flytower,
そして フライタワー内には
13:45
the scene sets that allow the transformations to occur.
各場面を作る 舞台セットがあります
13:47
As I said, all that was in service of creating a flexible
申しました通り これらが柔軟かつ手頃な
13:51
yet affordable configuration.
形態設定を可能にします
13:55
But we got this other benefit, and that was
もう一つ 利点が現れました―
13:58
the ability of the perimeter to suddenly engage
劇場周辺とダラスが
14:00
Dallas on the outside.
たちどころに絡み合うようになったのです
14:02
Here you see the building in its current state
日よけが閉じている状態です
14:04
with blinds closed. This is a trompe l'oeil.
まるでだまし絵です
14:06
Actually this is not a curtain. These are vinyl blinds
実は カーテンではなく ビニル製ブラインドで―
14:09
that are integrated into the windows themselves,
窓自体に組み込まれています
14:12
again with failsafe mechanisms
これもまた 安全検証済みの装置です
14:14
that can be lifted such that you can completely demystify,
ブラインドは引き上げられるので
14:17
if you chose, the operations of the theater
裏方の作業やリハーサルを
14:20
going on behind, rehearsals and so forth.
あえて見せることも可能です
14:22
But you also have the ability
また同時に 観客に
14:24
to allow the audience to see Dallas,
ダラスの街を見せたり
14:27
to perform with Dallas as the backdrop of your performance.
背景幕として使えたりします
14:30
Now, if I'll take you through --
では 見ていきましょう―
14:33
this is an early concept sketch --
まず初期のコンセプトスケッチです―
14:35
take you through kind of a mixture of all these things together.
今までお話した全てを統合すると
14:37
Effectively you would have something like this.
こういうものになるのかと思います
14:40
You would be allowed to bring objects or performers into the performing chamber:
役者や小道具 大道具を 直接搬入できます
14:42
"Aida," their elephants, you can bring the elephants in.
「アイーダ」では象を入れることができます
14:46
You would be able to expose the auditorium to Dallas
場内の様子を ダラスの街にさらしたり
14:48
or vice versa, Dallas to the auditorium.
逆に ダラスの街を 観客の目にさらせます
14:53
You'd be able to open portions in order to
一部を開け放つことにより
14:56
change the procession,
進行に変化をつけたり
14:58
allow people to come in and out for an intermission,
幕あいや上演前 または
15:00
or to enter for the beginning or the end of a performance.
終演後の入退場が可能です
15:02
As I said, all the balconies can move,
そして バルコニーは動かせるだけでなく
15:05
but they can also be disappeared completely.
完全に視界から消すこともできます
15:07
The proscenium can fly.
プロセニアム・アーチは吊り上げられ
15:09
You can bring large objects into the chamber itself.
大きな物体も 直に運び込めます
15:11
But most convincingly when we had to confront the idea
ですが予算の見直しにこぎつけるのに
15:14
of changing costs from architecture to infrastructure,
一番説得力があったのは
15:17
is something that is represented by this.
このスライドが物語る可能性でした
15:20
And again, this is not all the flexibilities of the building that is actually built,
もちろん建物の柔軟性は これに限りませんが
15:22
but at least suggests the ideas.
少なくとも雰囲気は伝わるかと思います
15:25
This building has the ability, in short order,
この建物は 迅速に
15:28
to go back to a flat floor organization
イベント会場としてレンタルできる
15:30
such that they can rent it out.
平舞台に作り変えることができます
15:32
Now, if there is anyone here from American Airlines,
もしアメリカン航空の関係者がいらっしゃいましたら
15:34
please consider doing your Christmas party here.
どうか ここでクリスマスパーティを開催して下さい
15:36
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:39
That allows the company to raise operational budgets
ここをイベント会場として貸し出せれば
15:40
without having to compete with other venues
もっと大きな会場と 運用費をめぐって
15:43
with much larger auditoriums.
張り合わなくても良くなるのです
15:45
That's an enormous benefit.
この恩恵は計り知れません
15:47
So, the theater company has the ability
そういうわけで 劇団は
15:49
to do totally hermetic,
外界の影響を受けず―
15:51
light-controlled, sound-controlled, great acoustics,
光も音も思いのままに すばらしい音響で―
15:53
great intimacy Shakespeare,
親密なシェークスピアをやれます
15:55
but can also do Beckett
同時に ベケットを
15:58
with the skyline of Dallas sitting behind it.
ダラスの地平線を背景に 上演も可能です
16:00
Here it is in a flat floor configuration.
平舞台として設定したのがこれです
16:03
The theater has been going through its kind of paces.
今は試運転の最中です
16:05
Here it is in an end stage configuration.
これがエンドステージの設定です
16:07
It's actually beautiful. There was a rock band.
美しいですね ロックバンドが来ています
16:10
We stood outside trying to see if the acoustics worked,
外から音響をチェックしてみました
16:12
and you could see the guys doing this but you couldn't hear them.
こんな演奏は見えても 音は聞こえません
16:14
It was very unusual.
なかなか不思議な感じでした
16:16
Here it is in a thrust configuration.
そして張り出し舞台の設定です
16:18
And last but not least,
最後に 肝心の
16:20
you see this already has the ability to create events
催し物会場としての設定です
16:22
in order to generate operational budgets
運用予算を調達し
16:24
to overcome the building in fact performing
会社の一番の悩みを克服します
16:26
to allow the company to overcome their biggest problem.
これはまさに建物の成せる業です
16:29
I'm going to show you a brief time lapse.
手短に作業経過をご覧に入れましょう
16:31
As I said, this can be done with only two people,
申しました通り たった二人の労力で
16:35
and with a minimum amount of time.
短時間でできてしまいます
16:37
This is the first time that actually the changeover was done
これは 初めて試運転した時だったので
16:39
and so there is literally thousands of people because
みんな興奮して参加したがって
16:41
everyone was excited and wanted to be a part of it.
文字通り 何千人もの人々で溢れかえっています
16:43
So, in a way try to disregard all the thousands of ants running around.
ですから 動き回るアリの大群は無視して
16:45
And think of it being done with just a few people.
実際には数人で足りることを頭において観てください
16:49
Again, just a couple people are required.
繰り返しますが 数人だけでできるんですよ
17:22
(Laughter)
(笑)
17:25
I promise.
本当ですよ
17:26
Et voila.
そして 出来上がり!
17:39
(Applause)
(拍手喝采)
17:41
So, just in conclusion, a few shots.
まとめとして 数枚のスライドをご覧に入れます
17:48
This is the AT&T Performing Arts Center's
AT&Tパフォーミングアートセンターの
17:50
Dee and Charles Wyly Theater.
ディー&チャールズ・ワイリー・シアターです
17:53
There it is at night.
これが夜の様子です
17:55
And last but not least the entire AT&T Performing Arts Center.
そしてAT&Tパフォーミングアートセンターの全貌です
17:57
You can see the Winspear Opera House on the right
右手に ウィンズピア・オペラハウス
18:01
and the Dee and Charles Wyly Theater on the left.
左手に ディー&チャールズ・ワイリー・シアターです
18:03
And to remind you that here is an example in which
思い出して頂きたいのは
18:06
architecture actually did something.
これが 何かを成した建築物の実例です
18:09
But we got to that conclusion
僕らは おぼろげにも
18:11
without understanding where we were going,
会社とクライアントが直面していた
18:13
what we knew were a series of issues that the company
一連の問題を手がかりに
18:15
and the client was confronted with.
ここへ たどり着きました
18:18
And we took positions with them, and it was through those positions
皆で見解を統一し それを基に
18:20
that we began to take architectural manifestations
建築的見解を打ち立て
18:22
and we arrived at a conclusion that none of us,
当初は予想もつかなかった―
18:25
really none of us could ever
また単独では思い描けなかった
18:27
have conceived of initially or individually.
意匠図へと たどり着いたのです
18:29
Thank you.
ご清聴 ありがとうございました
18:32
(Applause)
(拍手喝采)
18:34
Translator:Caoli Price
Reviewer:Tsuyoshi Orihashi

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Joshua Prince-Ramus - Architect
Joshua Prince-Ramus is best known as architect of the Seattle Central Library, already being hailed as a masterpiece of contemporary culture. Prince-Ramus was the founding partner of OMA New York—the American affiliate of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) in the Netherlands—and served as its Principal until he renamed the firm REX in 2006.

Why you should listen
With one of the decade's most celebrated buildings under his belt, Joshua Prince-Ramus would seem well-positioned to become the world's next "starchitect." Except that he doesn't want the job. With his quiet intensity and intellectual bearing, Prince-Ramus is the antithesis of the egomaniacal master architect. He flatly rejects not just the title, but the entire notion of a "starchitect" designing with a genius stroke of the pen.
 
Prince-Ramus is best known for his work on the Seattle Central Library. The striking, diamond-windowed structure reimagines, to spectacular effect, the library's role in a modern urban context. "Seattle's new Central Library is a blazing chandelier to swing your dreams upon," Herbert Muschamp wrote in The New York Times. "In more than 30 years of writing about architecture, this is the most exciting new building it has been my honor to review."
 
Having founded the US practice of the radical Dutch architecture firm OMA in 2000, Prince-Ramus served as its Principal until he renamed the firm REX in May 2006. He continues to take what he describes as a performance-based approach to architecture, pushing logic and rational ideas to their limits to create buildings that are unexpected, but wholly appropriate to their environment and intended use. REX recently completed the AT&T Performing Arts Center’s Dee and Charles Wyly Theatre in Dallas, Texas and the Vakko Fashion Center and Power Media Center in Istanbul, Turkey. Current work includes Museum Plaza, a 62-story mixed-use skyscraper housing a contemporary art center in Louisville, Kentucky;the new Central Library and Music Conservatory for the city of Kortrijk, Belgium;and a 2,643,000 ft2 luxury residential development in Songdo Landmark City, South Korea.
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