07:19
TEDIndia 2009

Jane Chen: A warm embrace that saves lives

ジェーン・チェン 命を救う暖かい抱擁

Filmed:

発展途上国では、コストと距離のために保育器の使用は限られており、そのため毎年何百万という未熟児が死んでいきます。TED仲間のジェーン・チェンがそういう何百万という赤ちゃんを暖かく保てる発明を披露します。それは安全で、携帯可能で、安価で、命を救うデザインです。

- Social entrepreneur
TED Fellow Jane Chen has spent years working on health issues in the developing world. Full bio

Please close your eyes,
どうか目を閉じて
00:15
and open your hands.
手の平を広げてください
00:18
Now imagine what you could place in your hands:
その手の上に何が置けるか 想像してみてください
00:21
an apple, maybe your wallet.
リンゴ それとも お財布でしょうか
00:24
Now open your eyes.
では目を開けて
00:27
What about a life?
1つの命というのは思い浮かびましたか?
00:29
What you see here is a premature baby.
これは未熟児の赤ちゃん
00:31
He looks like he's resting peacefully, but in fact he's struggling to stay alive
眠っているようですが 実は必死で生きようとしています
00:33
because he can't regulate his own body temperature.
この子は体温を自分で調節することができません
00:36
This baby is so tiny he doesn't have
小さすぎるため
00:39
enough fat on his body to stay warm.
体温を保てるだけの脂肪がないのです
00:41
Sadly, 20 million babies like this
悲しいことに このような子供が
00:43
are born every year around the world.
世界では毎年2千万人生まれ
00:46
Four million of these babies die annually.
4百万人が死んでいきます
00:49
But the bigger problem is that the ones who do survive
さらに問題になるのは 生き延びて成長しても
00:51
grow up with severe, long-term health problems.
深刻で長期的な健康問題を抱えてしまうことです
00:54
The reason is because in the first month of a baby's life,
生まれて最初の一ヶ月 赤ん坊のする唯一の仕事は
00:57
its only job is to grow.
成長することです
01:00
If it's battling hypothermia, its organs can't develop normally,
低体温と闘わなければならない場合 臓器が正常に成長できず
01:02
resulting in a range of health problems
糖尿病や心臓病
01:05
from diabetes, to heart disease,
知能の低さといった
01:07
to low I.Q.
様々な健康問題が生じます
01:09
Imagine: Many of these problems could be prevented
その子たちをただ暖かく保つだけで
01:11
if these babies were just kept warm.
そのような問題の多くは避けられたのです
01:14
That is the primary function of an incubator.
そのために保育器があります
01:17
But traditional incubators require electricity
しかし従来の保育器は
01:19
and cost up to 20 thousand dollars.
電気が必要な上 2万ドルもします
01:21
So, you're not going to find them in rural areas of developing countries.
だから発展途上国の僻地で保育器を目にすることはまずありません
01:24
As a result, parents resort to local solutions
そのため彼らは あり合わせの物で何とかしようとします
01:27
like tying hot water bottles around their babies' bodies,
赤ちゃんの周りに湯たんぽを置いたり
01:30
or placing them under light bulbs like the ones you see here --
電球の下に赤ちゃんを寝かせたりします
01:33
methods that are both ineffective and unsafe.
どちらも効果が低く 安全でもありません
01:36
I've seen this firsthand over and over again.
私はこのようなものを何度も目にしてきました
01:39
On one of my first trips to India, I met this young woman, Sevitha,
初めてインドに行ったとき セビータという若い女性と出会いました
01:42
who had just given birth to a tiny premature baby, Rani.
彼女は小さな未熟児のラニーを産んだばかりでした
01:45
She took her baby to the nearest village clinic,
近くにある村の診療所に赤ちゃんを連れて行くと
01:49
and the doctor advised her to take Rani
保育器がある町の病院に
01:52
to a city hospital so she could be placed in an incubator.
その子を連れて行くように言われました
01:54
But that hospital was over four hours away,
でも病院までは車で4時間以上の距離があり
01:58
and Sevitha didn't have the means to get there,
セビータには行く手段がありませんでした
02:01
so her baby died.
そして赤ちゃんは死んでしまいました
02:04
Inspired by this story, and dozens of other similar stories like this,
この話や 似たような話を何十と聞くにつけ
02:06
my team and I realized what was needed was a local solution,
何か電気を必要としない
02:09
something that could work without electricity,
母親や助産師でも使える
02:12
that was simple enough for a mother or a midwife to use,
シンプルな解決法が必要だと思いました
02:14
given that the majority of births still take place in the home.
今でも大多数の妊婦が自宅出産しているからです
02:17
We needed something that was portable,
持ち運べ 殺菌でき
02:20
something that could be sterilized and reused across multiple babies
何人もの赤ちゃんに使い回せ
02:22
and something ultra-low-cost,
アメリカ製の保育器の
02:25
compared to the 20,000 dollars
2万ドルより
02:27
that an incubator in the U.S. costs.
ずっと安い何かです
02:29
So, this is what we came up with.
そして作り出したのがこれ
02:32
What you see here looks nothing like an incubator.
保育器とは似ても似つかない
02:34
It looks like a small sleeping bag for a baby.
赤ちゃん用の小さな寝袋のようです
02:36
You can open it up completely. It's waterproof.
全部広げることができ 防水になっています
02:39
There's no seams inside so you can sterilize it very easily.
内側に縫い目がないので 簡単に殺菌できます
02:42
But the magic is in this pouch of wax.
一番のポイントは この相変化物質入りの
02:45
This is a phase-change material.
パックにあります
02:49
It's a wax-like substance with a melting point
ロウのような物質で
02:51
of human body temperature, 37 degrees Celsius.
融点が人の体温と同じ37度
02:53
You can melt this simply using hot water
これをお湯に入れて溶かしてやると
02:56
and then when it melts it's able to maintain one constant temperature
一定の温度を 4時間から6時間の間
02:59
for four to six hours at a time,
保ち続けます
03:03
after which you simply reheat the pouch.
再び温めれば何度でも使えます
03:05
So, you then place it into this little pocket back here,
後ろにあるポケットにこれを入れると
03:08
and it creates a warm micro-environment
赤ちゃんのための
03:15
for the baby.
小さな暖かい環境の出来上がりです
03:17
Looks simple, but we've reiterated this dozens of times
すごくシンプルですが これは現地に行って医師や母親たちと話し
03:20
by going into the field to talk to doctors, moms and clinicians
本当に地元の人たちの必要に合っているか確認する作業を
03:24
to ensure that this really meets the needs of the local communities.
何十回となく繰り返して生まれたものです
03:27
We plan to launch this product in India in 2010,
私たちはこの製品をインドで2010年に展開する予定です
03:30
and the target price point will be 25 dollars,
目標としている価格は25ドル
03:33
less than 0.1 percent of the cost
従来の保育器の
03:37
of a traditional incubator.
0.1パーセントという値段です
03:39
Over the next five years we hope to save the lives
今後5年間で
03:42
of almost a million babies.
百万人の赤ちゃんの命を救いたいと思っています
03:44
But the longer-term social impact is a reduction in population growth.
しかし長期的には これは人口増加を抑えることになるでしょう
03:46
This seems counterintuitive,
直感に反するかもしれませんが
03:49
but turns out that as infant mortality is reduced,
実は乳児死亡率が下がれば
03:51
population sizes also decrease,
人口も減るのです
03:54
because parents don't need to anticipate
赤ちゃんが死んでしまうことを
03:56
that their babies are going to die.
親たちが想定せずにすむためです
03:58
We hope that the Embrace infant warmer
この「エンブレイス」乳児保温具のような
04:00
and other simple innovations like this
シンプルなアイデアが
04:03
represent a new trend for the future of technology:
テクノロジーの進む未来の方向であることを望みます
04:05
simple, localized, affordable solutions
社会に大きなインパクトを与える可能性を持つ
04:09
that have the potential to make huge social impact.
その場に合った シンプルで安価なソリューションです
04:12
In designing this we followed a few basic principles.
デザインに当たっては いくつかの基本的な原則に従いました
04:15
We really tried to understand the end user,
エンドユーザー つまり―
04:18
in this case, people like Sevitha.
セビータのような人たちを 本当に理解しようと努めました
04:20
We tried to understand the root of the problem
既存のものに捕らわれず
04:23
rather than being biased by what already exists.
本質的な問題を理解しようと努めました
04:25
And then we thought of the most simple solution we could
そしてこの問題を解決できる
04:28
to address this problem.
一番シンプルな方法を考えました
04:31
In doing this, I believe we can truly bring technology to the masses.
そうすることで テクノロジーを本当に広く人々に届けられるのだと思います
04:33
And we can save millions of lives through the simple warmth of an Embrace.
この「エンブレイス」(抱擁)の暖かみで 何百万という命が救えるのです
04:37
Translated by Yasushi Aoki
Reviewed by Takako Sato

▲Back to top

About the Speaker:

Jane Chen - Social entrepreneur
TED Fellow Jane Chen has spent years working on health issues in the developing world.

Why you should listen

Jane Chen is the co-founder and CEO of Embrace, a social enterprise that aims to help the millions of vulnerable babies born every year in developing countries through a low-cost infant warmer. Unlike traditional incubators that cost up to $20,000, the Embrace infant warmer costs around $200. The device requires no electricity, has no moving parts, is portable and is safe and intuitive to use.

Chen received her Masters in Public Administration from the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Prior to her graduate studies, Jane was the Program Director of Chi Heng Foundation, a nonprofit organization that sponsors the education of children affected by AIDS in central China. She was also formerly a management consultant at Monitor Group.

In 2009, Chen was a TEDIndia Fellow

More profile about the speaker
Jane Chen | Speaker | TED.com