19:26
TED2004

Susan Savage-Rumbaugh: The gentle genius of bonobos

スーザン・サベージ・ランボー 天才サルを語る

Filmed:

スーザン・サベージ・ランボー博士は、話し言葉を理解し見まねで仕事を覚える類人猿のボノボの研究者です。動物の行動は、いかにその生活現象と文化に影響されているかについて語ります。

- Primate authority
Susan Savage-Rumbaugh has made startling breakthroughs in her lifelong work with chimpanzees and bonobos, showing the animals to be adept in picking up language and other "intelligent" behaviors. Full bio

I work with a species called "Bonobo."
私はボノボを研究しています
00:25
And I'm happy most of the time,
とても幸せです なぜなら―
00:28
because I think this is the happiest species on the planet.
ボノボは 地球上一番平和的な動物だからです
00:30
It's kind of a well-kept secret.
ほとんど知られいないことです
00:33
This species lives only in the Congo.
ボノボは コンゴだけに生息しています
00:36
And they're not in too many zoos, because of their sexual behavior.
リアルな性行動のため 動物園にはあまりいません
00:38
Their sexual behavior is too human-like
性行動があまりに人間と似ているのです
00:44
for most of us to be comfortable with.
恥ずかしくなるほどです
00:46
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:48
But --
しかしながら
00:49
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:50
actually, we have a lot to learn from them, because they're a very
学ぶことはたくさんあります
00:51
egalitarian society and they're a very empathetic society.
ボノボの社会は とても平等で親密です
00:56
And sexual behavior is not confined to one aspect of their life
性行動は 単独のものではなく
01:00
that they sort of set aside.
生活と切り離せません
01:04
It permeates their entire life.
性行動が生活の一部なのです
01:07
And it's used for communication.
コミュニケーションや
01:09
And it's used for conflict resolution.
仲直りの手段として使われます
01:12
And I think perhaps somewhere in our history we sort of,
私たち人間は いつの間にか自分たちの生活を
01:14
divided our lives up into lots of parts.
分割してしまいました
01:18
We divided our world up with lots of categories.
いくつものカテゴリーに分類してしまったのです
01:21
And so everything sort of has a place that it has to fit.
そして 分類されたものには収まるところがあります
01:25
But I don't think that we were that way initially.
でも最初は そうじゃなかったと思います
01:28
There are many people who think that the animal world is hard-wired
多くの人々は 動物は融通がきかないと思っています
01:32
and that there's something very, very special about man.
また人間は とても とても 特別であると
01:36
Maybe it's his ability to have causal thought.
物事を考える能力を持ち
01:40
Maybe it's something special in his brain
また 特殊な脳のおかげで
01:44
that allows him to have language.
言語を使えること
01:47
Maybe it's something special in his brain
さらにこの特殊な脳のおかげで
01:49
that allows him to make tools or to have mathematics.
道具を作ったり 計算ができること
01:52
Well, I don't know. There were Tasmanians who were discovered
でも正直どうなんでしょう
1600年頃に発見された―
01:57
around the 1600s and they had no fire.
タスマニア人は 火を知りませんでした
02:03
They had no stone tools.
石器も使っていませんでした
02:07
To our knowledge they had no music.
音楽を楽しんだ形跡もありません
02:10
So when you compare them to the Bonobo,
ボノボと比べてみると
02:14
the Bonobo is a little hairier.
ボノボの方が毛が多いようです
02:19
He doesn't stand quite as upright.
直立性は弱いですが
02:21
But there are a lot of similarities.
共通点は たくさんあります
02:26
And I think that as we look at culture,
文化という観点で見ると
02:29
we kind of come to understand
どうやって今の私たちに
たどりついたか
02:33
how we got to where we are.
わかるような気がします
02:36
And I don't really think it's in our biology;
生物学的に遺伝したのではない と思うのです
02:38
I think we've attributed it to our biology,
一般的には そう言われますが
02:41
but I don't really think it's there.
そうではないと思います
02:43
So what I want to do now is introduce you
では いよいよボノボを
02:46
to a species called the Bonobo.
ご紹介しましょう
02:48
This is Kanzi.
カンジです
02:52
He's a Bonobo.
オスのボノボです
02:54
Right now, he's in a forest in Georgia.
今はジョージア州の森にいます
02:56
His mother originally came from a forest in Africa.
母親の出身地はアフリカの森です
02:59
And she came to us when she was just at puberty,
母親は思春期になる頃 やってきました
03:03
about six or seven years of age.
6, 7歳の時です
03:07
Now this shows a Bonobo on your right,
右側がボノボ
03:10
and a chimpanzee on your left.
左側がチンパンジーです
03:12
Clearly, the chimpanzee has a little bit harder time of walking.
あきらかに チンパンジーの方が歩行が苦手です
03:14
The Bonobo, although shorter than us and their arms still longer,
ボノボは人間よりも背が低く 腕が長いですが
03:18
is more upright, just as we are.
私たちのように直立します
03:22
This shows the Bonobo compared to an australopithecine like Lucy.
ボノボと ルーシーのような
アウストラロピテクスの比較です
03:26
As you can see, there's not a lot of difference
違いは ほとんどありません
03:31
between the way a Bonobo walks
ボノボの歩き方と
03:34
and the way an early australopithecine would have walked.
アウストラロピテクスの
歩き方は同じです
03:36
As they turn toward us you'll see
正面から見ると
03:40
that the pelvic area of early australopithecines is a little flatter
アウストラロピテクスの
骨盤の方が少し平らで
03:42
and doesn't have to rotate quite so much from side to side.
両腰の動きは少なくて済みます
03:47
So the -- the bipedal gait is a little easier.
ですから二足歩行は少し容易です
03:51
And now we see all four.
同時に4つ見てみましょう
03:53
Video: Narrator: The wild Bonobo lives in central Africa, in the jungle
野生のボノボは中央アフリカの
ジャングルに生息しています
03:56
encircled by the Congo River.
コンゴ川に囲まれた地域です
04:00
Canopied trees as tall as 40 meters, 130 feet,
森の木々は高さ 40mに達し
04:05
grow densely in the area.
うっそうと茂っています
04:09
It was a Japanese scientist
初めてボノボの調査をしたのは
04:13
who first undertook serious field studies of the Bonobo,
日本の研究者たちです
04:16
almost three decades ago.
今から 30年ほど前のことです
04:20
Bonobos are built slightly smaller than the chimpanzee.
ボノボはチンパンジーよりも小柄です
04:26
Slim-bodied, Bonobos are by nature very gentle creatures.
痩せ形で とても穏やかな性格の生き物です
04:30
Long and careful studies have reported many new findings on them.
長期の熱心な調査の結果
多くのことを発見しました
04:36
One discovery was that wild Bonobos often walk bidpedally.
ひとつは 野生のボノボが頻繁に二足歩行することです
04:43
What's more, they are able to walk upright for long distances.
さらに ボノボは直立歩行で長距離移動できます
04:55
Susan Savage-Rumbaugh (video): Let's go say hello to Austin first and then go to the A frame.
まずオースティンに挨拶して小屋に行きましょう
05:07
SS: This is Kanzi and I, in the forest.
森にいるカンジと私です
05:11
None of the things you will see in this particular video are trained.
これからお見せするビデオは
全て訓練なしの状態です
05:13
None of them are tricks.
ごまかし ではありません
05:17
They all happened to be captured on film spontaneously,
たまたま居合わせた日本のNHK が
05:19
by NHK of Japan.
撮影しました
05:22
We have eight Bonobos.
ボノボが 8頭います
05:25
Video: Look at all this stuff that's here for our campfire.
キャンプに必要なものがいっぱいあるでしょう
05:27
SS: An entire family at our research centre.
研究所の家族全員です
05:30
Video: You going to help get some sticks?
枝を取ってくれる?
05:38
Good.
上手よ
05:42
We need more sticks, too.
もっと枝が欲しいな
05:47
I have a lighter in my pocket if you need one.
必要なら ポケットにライターがあるわ
05:56
That's a wasps' nest.
ハチの巣ね
05:59
You can get it out.
出していいのよ
06:01
I hope I have a lighter.
あるといいけど
06:05
You can use the lighter to start the fire.
ライター使って火を起こしてみて
06:08
SS: So Kanzi is very interested in fire.
カンジは火に興味深々です
06:12
He doesn't do it yet without a lighter,
ライターなしで火を起こすことは
まだできません
06:14
but I think if he saw someone do it, he might be able to do --
でも誰かがライターなしで
火を起こすのを見たら
06:17
make a fire without a lighter.
できるようになるでしょう
06:21
He's learning about how to keep a fire going.
カンジはどうすれば火が燃え続けるか
学習中です
06:25
He's learning the uses for a fire,
火の使い道を学習しています
06:28
just by watching what we do with fire.
私たちの行動を観察しているのです
06:31
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:34
This is a smile on the face of a Bonobo.
ボノボの笑顔です
06:43
These are happy vocalizations.
うれしいときの声です
06:45
Video: You're happy.
楽しいね
06:47
You're very happy about this part.
これはとっても楽しいね
06:49
You've got to put some water on the fire. You see the water?
火に水をかけなくちゃ
水どこか わかる?
06:51
Good job.
上手
07:00
SS: Forgot to zip up the back half of his backpack.
バックパックの半分閉め忘れちゃった
07:03
But he likes to carry things from place to place.
物を運ぶの好きなの
07:07
Video: Austin, I hear you saying "Austin."
オースティン、オースティンって言ったわね
07:10
SS: He talks to other Bonobos at the lab, long-distance,
研究所では私たちが聞こえない程の
07:12
farther than we can hear.
遠く離れたボノボと話します
07:15
This is his sister.
妹です
07:18
This is her first time to try to drive a golf cart.
初めてゴルフ・カートを運転します
07:20
Video: Goodbye.
バイバイ
07:25
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:27
SS: She's got the pedals down, but not the wheel.
ペダルは踏み込めますが ハンドルはダメです
07:29
She switches from reverse to forward
バックからドライブに切り替えました
07:37
and she holds onto the wheel, rather than turns it.
ハンドルは握ったままで回せません
07:40
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:42
Like us, she knows that that individual in the mirror is her.
私たちと同じように
鏡に映っているのが自分とわかります
07:45
(Music)
(音楽)
07:50
Video: Narrator: By raising Bonobos in a culture that is both Bonobo and human,
ボノボを人間と一緒にいる環境で育てながら
07:54
and documenting their development across two decades,
ボノボの発達を 20年間に渡り記録しました
07:59
scientists are exploring how cultural forces
そして研究者たちは文化的要素が
08:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:06
may have operated during human evolution.
人間の進化に及ぼした影響について研究しています
08:07
His name is Nyota.
名前はニョウタ
08:12
It means "star" in Swahili.
スワヒリ語で 星 の意味です
08:14
(Music)
(音楽)
08:16
Panbanisha is trying to give Nyota a haircut with a pair of scissors.
パンバニーシャはハサミを使って
ニョウタの毛を切ろうとしています
08:26
In the wild, the parent Bonobo is known to groom its offspring.
野生では ボノボの親が子供の毛繕いをします
08:32
Here Panbanisha uses scissors, instead of her hands,
パンバニーシャは手の代わりにハサミを使って
08:37
to groom Nyota.
ニョウタの毛繕いをします
08:41
Very impressive.
すばらしいわ
08:45
Subtle maneuvering of the hands is required
手先が器用でないと
08:51
to perform delicate tasks like this.
このような繊細なことはできません
08:54
Nyota tries to imitate Panbanisha by using the scissors himself.
ニョウタはパンバニーシャを真似して
ハサミを使おうとします
09:06
Realizing that Nyota might get hurt,
ニョウタが怪我をしないように
09:13
Panbanisha, like any human mother,
パンバニーシャは
まるで人間の母親のように
09:16
carefully tugs to get the scissors back.
やさしくハサミを とりあげます
09:18
He can now cut through tough animal hide.
固い動物の毛皮を切り裂くこともできます
09:37
SS: Kanzi's learned to make stone tools.
石器の作り方も覚えました
09:41
Video: Kanzi now makes his tools,
カンジが道具を作ろうとしています
09:43
just as our ancestors may have made them,
我々の祖先と同じやり方かもしれません
09:44
two-and-a-half million years ago --
250万年前のやり方
09:46
by holding the rocks in both hands, to strike one against the other.
両手に石を持って 片方をもう一方にぶつけています
09:48
He has learned that by using both hands
両手を使い
09:53
and aiming his glancing blows,
斜めに 打ち下ろすことで
09:56
he can make much larger, sharper flakes.
より大きく鋭い剥片を作れます
09:58
Kanzi chooses a flake he thinks is sharp enough.
カンジは十分に鋭いと
思う剥片を選びます
10:02
The tough hide is difficult to cut, even with a knife.
固い毛皮はナイフを使っても
切るのは困難です
10:10
The rock that Kanzi is using is extremely hard
カンジが使っている石はとても固く
10:14
and ideal for stone tool making, but difficult to handle,
石器作りには最適ですが
使いこなすのは大変です
10:17
requiring great skill.
すぐれた技術が必要です
10:21
Kanzi's rock is from Gona, Ethiopia
カンジの石はエチオピアのゴナ産です
10:23
and is identical to that used by our African ancestors
250万年前 アフリカの祖先が使った石と
10:25
two-and-a-half million years ago.
同じです
10:29
These are the rocks Kanzi used
カンジが使った石です
10:34
and these are the flakes he made.
そして カンジが作った剥片です
10:37
The flat sharp edges are like knife blades.
平らで鋭利な縁は
まるでナイフの刃のようです
10:39
Compare them to the tools our ancestors used;
我々の祖先が使った道具と比べてみると
10:44
they bear a striking resemblance to Kanzi's.
カンジのものと とてもよく似ています
10:47
Panbanisha is longing to go for a walk in the woods.
パンバニーシャは 外に出たがっています
11:00
She keeps staring out the window.
窓の外を見つめたままです
11:03
SS: This is -- let me show you something we didn't think they would do.
予想もしなかった行動をお見せしましょう
11:08
Video: For several days now, Panbanisha has not been outside.
もう数日間 パンバニーシャは外に出ていません
11:11
SS: I normally talk about language.
私は いつもは言語について語ります
11:17
Video: Then Panbanisha does something unexpected.
パンバニーシャは予期せぬことをします
11:19
SS: But since I'm advised not to do what I normally do,
しかし今は 普段することをしないように言われています
11:22
I haven't told you that these apes have language.
ボノボには言語があることを話していませんでした
11:25
It's a geometric language.
図形言語です
11:27
Video: She takes a piece of chalk
チョークを取ると
11:29
and begins writing something on the floor.
床に何か書き始めます
11:30
What is she writing?
何を書いているのでしょう
11:32
SS: She's also saying the name of that, with her voice.
文字の名前も 声を出して言っています
11:40
Video: Now she comes up to Dr. Sue and starts writing again.
今度はスー博士に近づいて また書き始めます
11:44
SS: These are her symbols on her keyboard.
キーボードに文字があります
11:47
(Music)
(音楽)
11:50
They speak when she touches them.
触るとしゃべります
11:51
Video: Panbanisha is communicating to Dr. Sue where she wants to go.
パンバニーシャはスー博士に
行きたい場所を伝えています
11:53
"A frame" represents a hut in the woods.
A-Frame とは森の中の小屋のことです
11:56
Compare the chalk writing with the lexigram on the keyboard.
チョークで書いたものと
キーボードの絵文字を比較しましょう
12:00
Panbanisha began writing the lexigrams on the forest floor.
パンバニーシャは戸外でも絵文字を書き始めます
12:14
SS (video): Very nice. Beautiful, Panbanisha.
とても上手だわ パンバニーシャ
12:20
SS: At first we didn't really realize what she was doing,
はじめは何をしているのか
気がつきませんでした
12:24
until we stood back and looked at it and rotated it.
でも少し離れて回してみたら 分かりました
12:27
Video: This lexigram also refers to a place in the woods.
この絵文字も森のある場所を示します
12:30
The curved line is very similar to the lexigram.
曲線が絵文字とそっくりです
12:32
The next symbol Panbanisha writes represents "collar."
パンバニーシャが次に書くのは首輪です
12:39
It indicates the collar that Panbanisha must wear when she goes out.
パンバニーシャが外に出る時は
首輪をするのが約束ごとです
12:43
SS: That's an institutional requirement.
施設の規則です
12:47
Video: This symbol is not as clear as the others,
他の文字ほど 分かりやすくないですが
12:50
but one can see Panbanisha is trying to produce a curved line
パンバニーシャが曲線と直線を何本か
12:53
and several straight lines.
描こうとしたのは分かります
12:58
Researchers began to record what Panbanisha said,
研究者たちはパンバニーシャが言ったことを絵文字を使って
13:00
by writing lexigrams on the floor with chalk.
チョークで床に記録しました
13:04
Panbanisha watched.
パンバニーシャはその様子を見て
13:08
Soon she began to write as well.
自分でも書くようになったのです
13:10
The Bonobo's abilities have stunned scientists around the world.
ボノボの能力は世界中の科学者を驚かせました
13:14
How did they develop?
どうやって発達したのでしょう
13:18
SS (video): We found that the most important thing
もっとも重要な発見は
13:20
for permitting Bonobos to acquire language is not to teach them.
ボノボに言語を習得させるためには
教えてはいけないということです
13:22
It's simply to use language around them,
ボノボの周りにある言語を使うことです
13:27
because the driving force in language acquisition
なぜならば言語習得のカギは
13:30
is to understand what others, that are important to you, are saying to you.
大事な仲間が自分に何を
言っているか理解することだからです
13:33
Once you have that capacity,
その能力が備わると
13:38
the ability to produce language
言語を使う素質は
13:40
comes rather naturally and rather freely.
きわめて自然に 自由に 発揮されます
13:43
So we want to create an environment in which Bonobos,
そこで 私たちは 彼らが自由に仲間と
13:47
like all of the individuals with whom they are interacting --
交流できる環境を作ろうと思いました
13:50
we want to create an environment in which they have fun,
彼らが楽しめる環境
13:54
and an environment in which the others
そして有意義な時間を過ごせる
13:57
are meaningful individuals for them.
環境を目指しました
13:59
Narrator: This environment brings out unexpected potential
このような環境はカンジとパンバニーシャの
14:04
in Kanzi and Panbanisha.
予期せぬ潜在能力を引き出しました
14:07
Panbanisha is enjoying playing her harmonica,
パンバニーシャがハーモニカを楽しんでいます
14:17
until Nyota, now one year old, steals it.
1歳になったニョウタが横取りします
14:21
Then he peers eagerly into his mother's mouth.
そして母親の口を覗き込みます
14:25
Is he looking for where the sound came from?
音の出どころを探しているのでしょうか
14:29
Dr. Sue thinks it's important to allow such curiosity to flourish.
スー博士はそのような好奇心を
満たすことが重要と考えます
14:32
This time Panbanisha is playing the electric piano.
パンバニーシャは今度は電子ピアノを弾いています
14:47
She wasn't forced to learn the piano;
強制されたのではありません
14:50
she saw a researcher play the instrument and took an interest.
研究者が弾くのを見て興味を示したのです
14:53
Researcher: Go ahead. Go ahead. I'm listening.
弾いて 弾いて 聞いてるわよ
15:25
Do that real fast part that you did. Yeah, that part.
早いパートをまた弾いて そうそう そこよ
15:29
Narrator: Kanzi plays the xylophone;
カンジが木琴を弾いています
15:36
using both hands he enthusiastically accompanies Dr. Sue's singing.
両手を使って大喜びで
スー博士の歌を伴奏をしています
15:38
Kanzi and Panbanisha
カンジとパンバニーシャは
15:44
are stimulated by this fun-filled environment,
この楽しさ一杯の環境に感化されています
15:45
which promotes the emergence of these cultural capabilities.
それが文化的才能を引き出すのです
15:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:56
Researcher: OK, now get the monsters. Get them.
じゃあモンスターを捕まえて がんばって
16:06
Take the cherries too.
チェリーも取って
16:09
Now watch out, stay away from them now.
気をつけて 近づかないで
16:12
Now you can chase them again. Time to chase them.
また追っかける番よ いけー
16:16
Now you have to stay away. Get away.
今度は離れて 逃げるのよ
16:23
Run away. Run.
逃げろ 逃げろ
16:26
Now we can chase them again. Go get them.
また追っかけていいよ それ!
16:29
Oh no!
あーあ
16:35
Good Kanzi. Very good. Thank you so much.
カンジ よくできたわね
どうもありがとう
16:37
Narrator: None of us, Bonobo or human, can possibly even imagine?
こんなことができるとは
ボノボも人間も想像しませんでした
16:44
SS: So we have a bi-species environment, we call it a "panhomoculture."
次第にこのような2種環境ができました
私たちは “汎ヒト文化” と呼んでいます
16:57
We're learning how to become like them.
私たちはボノボのようになるには
どうすればいいか研究しています
17:04
We're learning how to communicate with them,
甲高いトーンの声を使って 彼らと会話する方法を
17:06
in really high-pitched tones.
研究しているのです
17:08
We're learning that they probably have a language in the wild.
ボノボは野生でも言語を使うと思われます
17:10
And they're learning to become like us.
ボノボも私たちのように なろうと勉強しています
17:14
Because we believe that it's not biology; it's culture.
これは生物学の問題ではなく文化なのです
17:16
So we're sharing tools and technology and language
私たちは 他の種と
道具 技術 言語を
17:19
with another species.
共有しているのです
17:23
Thank you.
ありがとうございます
17:25
Translated by Akira Kan
Reviewed by Yuri Nakanishi

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About the Speaker:

Susan Savage-Rumbaugh - Primate authority
Susan Savage-Rumbaugh has made startling breakthroughs in her lifelong work with chimpanzees and bonobos, showing the animals to be adept in picking up language and other "intelligent" behaviors.

Why you should listen

Into the great debate over intelligence and instinct -- over what makes us human -- Susan Savage-Rumbaugh has thrown a monkey wrench. Her work with apes has forced a new way of looking at what traits are truly and distinctly human, and new questions about whether some abilities we attribute to "species" are in fact due to an animal's social environment. She believes culture and tradition, in many cases more than biology, can account for differences between humans and other primates.

Her bonobo apes, including a superstar named Kanzi, understand spoken English, interact, and have learned to execute tasks once believed limited to humans -- such as starting and controlling a fire. They aren't trained in classic human-animal fashion. Like human children, the apes learn by watching. "Parents really don't know how they teach their children language," she has said. "Why should I have to know how I teach Kanzi language? I just act normal around him, and he learns it."

Her latest book is Kanzi's Primal Language: The Cultural Initiation of Primates into Language.

Also, in 2011, she was named one of TIME's 100 Most Influential People


 

More profile about the speaker
Susan Savage-Rumbaugh | Speaker | TED.com