13:22
TED in the Field

Tom Shannon, John Hockenberry: The painter and the pendulum

トム・シャノン: 画家と振り子

Filmed:

TEDはマンハッタンにあるトム・シャノンのアトリエを訪れ、科学からヒントを得たアート作品を楽しく体験する。ジョン・ホッケンベリーとの驚きに満ちた親密な対話から、シャノンの人生と作品の中で、自然のさまざまな力と、シャノンの患うパーキンソン病による手の震えがどのように作用し合っているかが明らかになる。

- Sculptor
Tom Shannon's mixed-material sculpture seems to levitate -- often it actually does -- thanks to powerful magnets and clever arrangements of suspension wire. He designed the TED Prize trophy. Full bio

- Journalist
Journalist and commentator John Hockenberry has reported from all over the world in virtually every medium. He's the author of "Moving Violations: War Zones, Wheelchairs and Declarations of Independence." Full bio

John Hockenberry: It's great to be here with you, Tom.
(ジョン・ホッケンベリー) お目にかかれて
嬉しく思います
00:15
And I want to start with a question
初めてあなたの作品を見てから
00:17
that has just been consuming me
ずっと知りたいと思っていたことを
00:19
since I first became familiar with your work.
まずうかがいます
00:21
In you work there's always this kind of hybrid quality
あなたの作品は いつも複合的な性質があって
00:24
of a natural force
自然力と 創造力とが
00:27
in some sort of interplay with creative force.
互いに作用し合っています
00:30
Are they ever in equilibrium
2つの力は
00:33
in the way that you see your work?
作品のなかで バランスがとれているのですか
00:35
Tom Shannon: Yeah, the subject matter that I'm looking for,
(トム・シャノン) 私が追求しているのは
00:37
it's usually to solve a question.
疑問を解くこと
00:40
I had the question popped into my head:
たとえば こんな疑問です
00:42
What does the cone that connects the sun and the Earth look like
もし太陽と地球を結ぶ 円錐があるとしたら
00:44
if you could connect the two spheres?
どんなふうに見えるか?
00:48
And in proportion, what would the size of the sphere
球と円錐の長さの比率はどうか?
00:51
and the length, and what would the taper be to the Earth?
地球に向かって 円錐がどんなふうに細くなるか?
00:54
And so I went about and made that sculpture,
実際に作ってみました
00:58
turning it out of solid bronze.
ブロンズの彫刻にしたのです
01:01
And I did one that was about 35 feet long.
長さは約10メートルで
01:04
The sun end was about four inches in diameter,
太陽の側の直径は約10センチメートル
01:07
and then it tapered over about 35 feet
だんだん細くなって 10メートル先へいくと
01:10
to about a millimeter at the Earth end.
地球側の端は直径約1ミリメートル
01:13
And so for me, it was really exciting
どんな風に見えるかが
01:16
just to see what it looks like
私にはすごく面白いのです
01:18
if you could step outside and into a larger context,
まるで宇宙飛行士になったように
01:21
as though you were an astronaut,
一歩外に踏み出し 大きなコンテクストで
01:24
and see these two things as an object,
太陽と地球をオブジェとして眺める
01:26
because they are so intimately bound,
2つは強く結びついていて
01:29
and one is meaningless without the other.
一方だけでは意味がありません
01:32
JH: Is there a relief
(ホッケンベリー) こういう力を作品にすると
01:35
in playing with these forces?
心が安まるのですか?
01:37
And I'm wondering how much of a sense of discovery there is
それと 何かを発見していく感覚が
01:39
in playing with these forces.
大きいのではないかと
01:42
TS: Well, like the magnetically levitated objects --
(シャノン) そこに銀色のオブジェがあります
01:45
like that silver one there,
磁力で宙に浮いているのですが
01:47
that was the result
完成までには 磁石を使った実験を
01:49
of hundreds of experiments with magnets,
何百回も繰り返しました
01:51
trying to find a way to make something float
できるかぎり台とのつながりを少なくして
01:53
with the least possible connection to the ground.
物を浮かべる方法を探したのです
01:56
So I got it down to just one tether
つなぎとめるのを1カ所だけにして
01:59
to be able to support that.
浮かすことができたのです
02:02
JH: Now is this electromagnetic here, or are these static?
(ホッケンベリー) 電磁石ですか? それとも
02:04
TS: Those are permanent magnets, yeah.
(シャノン) 永久磁石です
02:07
JH: Because if the power went out, there would just be a big noise.
(ホッケンベリー) 電磁石だと スイッチを切ったとき
すごい音がするでしょうね
02:09
TS: Yeah.
(シャノン) ええ
02:12
It's really unsatisfactory having plug-in art.
プラグをいちいち差し込む作品というのも
つまらないし
02:14
JH: I agree.
(ホッケンベリー) そうですね
02:17
TS: The magnetic works
(シャノン) 磁石を使った作品は
02:20
are a combination of gravity and magnetism,
重力と磁力の組み合わせで
02:22
so it's a kind of mixture of these ambient forces
至るところで働いている こうした力を
02:25
that influence everything.
いわば混合しています
02:28
The sun has a tremendous field
太陽の影響が及ぶ場は巨大で
02:30
that extends way beyond the planets
惑星を超えて広がっていて
02:32
and the Earth's magnetic field protects us from the sun.
われわれは地球の磁場によって守られています
02:34
So there's this huge
宇宙には 磁場が広がっていて
02:37
invisible shape structures
形は目に見えないけれど
02:39
that magnetism takes in the universe.
巨大な構造を作っているわけです
02:42
But with the pendulum,
ですが 振り子を使うと
02:45
it allows me to manifest
磁石を浮き上がらせているような
02:48
these invisible forces
見えない力を
02:51
that are holding the magnets up.
可視化できます
02:53
My sculptures
私の彫刻はたいてい
02:55
are normally very simplified.
かなり単純化されています
02:57
I try to refine them down
余計なものをそぎ落として
03:00
to very simple forms.
ごく単純な形にしようと努めています
03:02
But the paintings become very complex,
絵画の場合は かなり複雑になることもあって
03:04
because I think the fields
というのも それを支えている場が
03:06
that are supporting them,
大きくうねったり
03:08
they're billowing, and they're interpenetrating,
互いに貫通し合ったりして
03:10
and they're interference patterns.
干渉パターンを作るからだと思います
03:12
JH: And they're non-deterministic.
(ホッケンベリー) 非決定論的ですね
03:15
I mean, you don't know necessarily where you're headed when you begin,
描き始めるとき どこへ向かっているかは
必ずしも分からない
03:17
even though the forces can be calculated.
力は計算できるとしても
03:20
So the evolution of this --
こちらの作品はどう展開したのでしょう
03:23
I gather this isn't your first pendulum.
振り子を使ったのは初めてじゃありませんよね
03:25
TS: No. (JH: No.)
(シャノン) はい
(ホッケンベリー) ですよね
03:27
TS: The first one I did was in the late 70's,
TS:最初に振り子を使ったのは1970年代後半でした
03:29
and I just had a simple cone
単純な円錐形の容器に
03:32
with a spigot at the bottom of it.
コックを付けたものです
03:34
I threw it into an orbit,
揺らして軌跡を描かせるのですが
03:37
and it only had one color,
1色だけでした
03:39
and when it got to the center, the paint kept running out,
振り子が止まってからも 絵の具が流れ続けるので
03:41
so I had to run in there,
すぐ止めに走らなければなりませんでした
03:44
didn't have any control over the spigot remotely.
リモコンでコックを閉められなかったのです
03:46
So that told me right away: I need a remote control device.
リモコン装置が必要だと すぐ分かりました
03:49
But then I started dreaming of having six colors.
それから 6色使えないかと思うようになりました
03:52
I sort of think about it as the DNA --
いわばDNAのようなものです
03:55
these colors, the red, blue, yellow,
赤 青 黄 の原色に―
03:58
the primary colors and white and black.
白と黒も
04:00
And if you put them together in different combinations --
こうした色の組み合わせを変えると―
04:03
just like printing in a sense,
ちょうど雑誌のカラーページの
04:05
like how a magazine color is printed --
印刷の仕組みと同じように―
04:07
and put them under certain forces,
そして 装置に加える力を加減すると
04:09
which is orbiting them
前後に揺れつつ
04:12
or passing them back and forth
軌道がずれていって
04:14
or drawing with them,
軌跡が描かれ
04:16
these amazing things started appearing.
びっくりするような絵が現れます
04:18
JH: It looks like we're loaded for bear here.
(ホッケンベリー) 準備がととのったようです
04:20
TS: Yeah, well let's put a couple of canvases.
(シャノン) ええ 実際に描いてみましょう
04:23
I'll ask a couple of my sons
息子たちに頼んで
04:25
to set up the canvases here.
キャンバスを用意しました
04:27
I want to just say --
紹介しましょう
04:31
so this is Jack, Nick and Louie.
ジャックとニック それにルイです
04:33
JH: Thanks guys.
(ホッケンベリー) どうもありがとう
04:35
TS: So here are the --
(シャノン) それではこれから―
04:38
JH: All right, I'll get out of the way here.
(ホッケンベリー) そうだ ここから移動しないと
04:40
TS: I'm just going to throw this into an orbit
(シャノン) これから振り子を動かして
04:42
and see if I can paint everybody's shoes in the front.
前の方にいる人の靴にも絵の具をかけちゃいましょう
04:45
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:48
JH: Whoa. That is ...
(ホッケンベリー) ほう これは―
05:01
ooh, nice.
いい調子
05:06
TS: So something like this.
(シャノン) こんな具合です
05:10
I'm doing this as a demo,
デモとしてやっていても
05:12
and it's more playful,
遊んでいるようなものですが
05:14
but inevitably,
これもすべて
05:17
all of this can be used.
作品に使えます
05:19
I can redeem this painting,
描き方をどんどん
05:22
just continuing on,
改良して
05:24
doing layers upon layers.
何層にも重ねていきます
05:26
And I keep it around for a couple of weeks,
何週間かそばに置いておいて
05:28
and I'm contemplating it,
よく考えて
05:30
and I'll do another session with it
また制作を再開し
05:32
and bring it up to another level,
別のレベルへと移行させます
05:35
where all of this
やってきたことがすべて背景になり
05:38
becomes the background, the depth of it.
作品に深みを与えます
05:40
JH: That's fantastic.
(ホッケンベリー) 素晴らしい
05:43
So the valves at the bottom of those tubes there
チューブの底にあるバルブは
05:48
are like radio-controlled airplane valves.
ラジコン機のようにコントロールするんですね
05:51
TS: Yes, they're servos with cams
(シャノン) ええ サーボモーターにカムを付けて
05:54
that pinch these rubber tubes.
ゴムのチューブをはさむ仕組みです
05:57
And they can pinch them very tight and stop it,
きつくはさむと絵の具が止まり
05:59
or you can have them wide open.
広く開けると流れます
06:01
And all of the colors
すべての色は
06:03
come out one central port
底部の中央から
06:05
at the bottom.
出るようになっています
06:07
You can always be changing colors, put aluminum paint,
色はいつでも変えられます
06:09
or I could put anything into this.
アルミニウム塗料でも何でも
06:12
It could be tomato sauce,
トマトソースだってかまわない
06:14
or anything could be dispensed --
使えそうなものは何でも―
06:17
sand, powders or anything like that.
砂や 粉でもいい
06:20
JH: So many forces there.
(ホッケンベリー) 多くの力が働いていますね
06:23
You've got gravity, you've got the centrifugal force,
重力と 遠心力と
06:25
you've got the fluid dynamics.
流体力学も関係します
06:27
Each of these beautiful paintings,
どれも美しい絵ですが
06:33
are they images in and of themselves,
それ自体をイメージとみるのか
06:36
or are they records
それとも物理的事象の
06:39
of a physical event
記録なのでしょうか
06:41
called the pendulum approaching the canvas?
振り子がカンバスに近づいていくというか
06:43
TS: Well, this painting here,
(シャノン) そこにある絵でいうと
06:46
I wanted to do something very simple,
ごく単純なことをしたかったんです
06:48
a simple, iconic image
2つの波紋が干渉しあう
06:50
of two ripples interfering.
シンプルな図像です
06:52
So the one on the right was done first,
右側をまず描いて
06:55
and then the one on the left
続いて左側を
06:57
was done over it.
そこに重ねました
06:59
And then I left gaps
隙間を空けて
07:01
so you could see the one that was done before.
先に描いた線が見えるようにしました
07:03
And then when I did the second one,
2つめを描いたとき
07:05
it really disturbed the piece --
波乱が起きました
07:07
these big blue lines
大きな青い線が
07:09
crashing through the center of it --
もろにぶつかって
07:11
and so it created a kind of tension and an overlap.
ある種の緊張と重なりが生じました
07:13
There are lines in front of the one on the right,
右側の線の前に線があり
07:16
and there are lines behind the one on the left,
左側の線の後ろに線があって
07:20
and so it takes it into different planes.
別々の平面に属しています
07:23
What it's also about,
この作品はまた
07:27
just the little events,
小さな物理的事象の集まりです
07:29
the events of the interpenetration of --
相互に貫通する―
07:32
JH: Two stars, or --
(ホッケンベリー) 2つの星というか
07:35
TS: Two things that happened --
(シャノン) 2つの事象が起きて―
07:37
there's an interference pattern, and then a third thing happens.
相互干渉のパターンがあり 第3の事象が起きます
07:39
There are shapes that come about
浮かび上がる形は
07:42
just by the marriage
起きている2つの事象が
07:44
of two events that are happening,
単に結びついてできるもので
07:46
and I'm very interested in that.
私はそこにたいへん興味があります
07:48
Like the occurrence of moire patterns.
印刷のモアレのようなパターンが生じるのです
07:51
Like this green one,
そこにある緑色の作品は
07:54
this is a painting I did about 10 years ago,
10年ほど前に制作したものですが
07:56
but it has some --
そこには
07:59
see, in the upper third --
上から3分の1ほどのところに
08:01
there are these moires and interference patterns
モアレと干渉パターンがあります
08:03
that are radio kind of imagery.
電波のようなイメージです
08:06
And that's something that in painting
絵画としては見たことのない何かが
08:08
I've never seen done.
そこにはあります
08:10
I've never seen a representation
一種の電波の干渉パターンを
08:12
of a kind of radio interference patterns,
表した作品は見たことがありません
08:14
which are so ubiquitous
そういうパターンはどこにでもあって
08:17
and such an important part of our lives.
私たちの生活の重要な一部になっているのに
08:20
JH: Is that a literal part of the image,
(ホッケンベリー) イメージ自体の一部なのか
08:23
or is my eye making that interference pattern --
それとも私の目が干渉パターンを作り出すのか―
08:25
is my eye completing that interference pattern?
干渉パターンは視覚によって完成するのですか?
08:28
TS: It is the paint actually,
(シャノン) 絵の具が実際に
08:30
makes it real.
生み出しているのです
08:32
It's really manifested there.
実際にそこに生じています
08:34
If I throw a very concentric circle,
円あるいは楕円が同心円となるように
08:36
or concentric ellipse,
振り子を動かすと
08:39
it just dutifully makes
均一な間隔の曲線が
08:41
these evenly spaced lines,
着々と描かれます
08:43
which get closer and closer together,
だんだんと密になって
08:45
which describes how gravity works.
重力の働きが見えてきます
08:48
There's something very appealing
科学の厳密さには
08:50
about the exactitude of science
非常に魅力的なところがあって
08:52
that I really enjoy.
本当に楽しめます
08:54
And I love the shapes that I see
科学的観察や装置を通じて
08:56
in scientific observations
見えてくる形が
08:59
and apparatus,
好きなのです
09:02
especially astronomical forms
特に 天体に関わるような形や
09:04
and the idea of the vastness of it,
宇宙の広大さ
09:07
the scale,
そのスケールが
09:09
is very interesting to me.
すごく興味深いと思います
09:11
My focus in recent years
ここ数年 興味の中心は
09:13
has kind of shifted more toward biology.
どちらかというと生物学に移ってきました
09:16
Some of these paintings, when you look at them very close,
これらの絵を 近くで見ると
09:19
odd things appear
不思議なものが現れます
09:22
that really look like horses or birds
馬や鳥のような形
09:24
or crocodiles, elephants.
ワニやゾウのような形も
09:27
There are lots of things that appear.
いろいろなものが見えてきます
09:30
When you look into it, it's sort of like looking at cloud patterns,
じっと見ていると 雲のパターンを眺めているようでいて
09:32
but sometimes they're very modeled and highly rendered.
ときどき はっきりと整った形が現れます
09:35
And then there are all these forms
確かにそういう形が出てきますが
09:38
that we don't know what they are,
それが何なのかは分かりません
09:40
but they're equally well-resolved
それでも 明確で
09:42
and complex.
複雑な形です
09:44
So I think, conceivably, those could be predictive.
これらは予測することが出来るものなのかもしれません
09:46
Because since it has the ability
なぜなら 私たちが
09:49
to make forms
よく知っている
09:51
that look like forms that we're familiar with
生物の形に見えるものを
09:53
in biology,
作り出すとともに
09:55
it's also making other forms that we're not familiar with.
見たことのない形も 生み出す力があるからです
09:57
And maybe it's the kind of forms
このような種類の形が
10:00
we'll discover underneath the surface of Mars,
火星表面の下で発見されるかもしれません
10:02
where there are probably lakes
地下に湖があって
10:04
with fish swimming under the surface.
魚が泳いでいるかも
10:06
JH: Oh, let's hope so. Oh, my God, let's.
(ホッケンベリー) いや ぜひそうであってほしい
10:08
Oh, please, yes. Oh, I'm so there.
本当に そう思いますよ
10:10
You know, it seems
それから 人生の
10:13
at this stage in your life,
この段階にきて
10:16
you also very personally
あなた自身も
10:18
are in this state of confrontation
なかなかやっかいな事柄と
10:20
with a sort of dissonant --
向き合うことになりましたね
10:23
I suppose it's an electromagnetic force
電磁気的な力は
10:26
that somehow governs your Parkinson's
パーキンソン病にも
10:28
and this creative force
創造力にも働いています
10:30
that is both the artist
いまここにいる
10:32
who is in the here and now
アーティストと
10:35
and this sort of arc of your whole life.
あなたがたどる人生の両方を支配しています
10:37
Is that relevant to your work?
このことは作品にも関係していますか?
10:39
TS: As it turns out,
(シャノン) やってみると
10:42
this device kind of comes in handy,
この装置はなかなか具合がいいんです
10:44
because I don't have to have
筋肉を細かく調節するのは
10:46
the fine motor skills to do,
私には難しいのですが
10:48
that I can operate slides,
このレバーを滑らせるのなら
10:50
which is more of a mental process.
意志だけでできます
10:52
I'm looking at it and making decisions:
振り子の動きを見ながら判断します
10:54
It needs more red, it needs more blue,
もっと赤がほしいとか もっと青を とか
10:57
it needs a different shape.
別の形が必要だとか
10:59
And so I make these creative decisions
そういう創作上の判断をしながら
11:01
and can execute them
ずっと簡単なやり方で
11:04
in a much, much simpler way.
それを実行できます
11:07
I mean, I've got the symptoms.
症状は出ています
11:09
I guess Parkinson's kind of creeps up over the years,
パーキンソン病は年とともに進行して
11:12
but at a certain point you start seeing the symptoms.
ある時点から症状が現れるのでしょう
11:15
In my case,
私の場合
11:18
my left hand has a significant tremor
左手がかなり震えます
11:20
and my left leg also.
左脚もです
11:23
I'm left-handed, and so I draw.
私は左利きで 描くときも左手です
11:26
All my creations
私の作品は
11:29
really start on small drawings,
小さなドローイングから始まります
11:31
which I have thousands of,
何千枚も描いて
11:34
and it's my way of just thinking.
考えるというやり方です
11:36
I draw with a simple pencil,
普通の鉛筆で描くのですが
11:38
and at first, the Parkinson's
最初はパーキンソン病の症状に
11:41
was really upsetting,
ひどく動揺しました
11:43
because I couldn't get the pencil to stand still.
鉛筆をじっと保持できないんです
11:45
JH: So you're not a gatekeeper for these forces.
(ホッケンベリー)   そうした力を気にしすぎたり
11:49
You don't think of yourself as the master of these forces.
自分がそうした力の支配者だと思ったりはしていない
11:52
You think of yourself as the servant.
むしろ自分は召使いだというのですね
11:55
TS: Nature is -- well, it's a godsend.
(シャノン) 自然は― 天からの賜物です
11:58
It just has so much in it.
きわめて豊かなものです
12:01
And I think nature
私が思うに
12:04
wants to express itself
自然は自らを表現しようとしています
12:06
in the sense that we are nature,
私たちも自然であり
12:08
humans are of the universe.
人間も宇宙の一部だという意味で
12:10
The universe is in our mind,
宇宙は私たちの心の中にあり
12:13
and our minds are in the universe.
私たちの心は宇宙の中にあります
12:15
And we are expressions
基本的に私たちは
12:17
of the universe, basically.
宇宙の表現なのです
12:19
As humans,
人間は究極的に
12:21
ultimately being part of the universe,
宇宙の一部であって
12:23
we're kind of the spokespeople
私たちは一種の代弁者
12:26
or the observer part
あるいは観察者の役割を担って
12:28
of the constituency
宇宙を構成する
12:30
of the universe.
要素となっています
12:33
And to interface with it,
宇宙と交流するために
12:35
with a device that lets these forces
ある装置を使って
12:37
that are everywhere
至るところにある力を発現させ
12:40
act and show what they can do,
何ができるかを示せるようにする
12:42
giving them pigment and paint just like an artist,
アーティストのように 絵の具を与えてね
12:44
it's a good ally.
いい協力関係です
12:47
It's a terrific studio assistant.
素晴らしい制作アシスタントですよ
12:50
JH: Well, I love the idea
(ホッケンベリー) 素晴らしいアイデアですね
12:52
that somewhere within this idea
精密な運動とコントロールに
12:54
of fine motion and control
従来の技法を
12:56
with the traditional skills
あなたの手で
12:59
that you have with your hand,
付け加えることにより
13:01
some sort of more elemental force gets revealed,
基本的な力があらわになる
13:03
and that's the beauty here.
そこに美があります
13:05
Tom, thank you so much. It's been really, really great.
トム どうもありがとう 本当に素晴らしかった
13:07
TS: Thank you, John.
TS:ありがとう ジョン
13:10
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:12
Translated by Yoichi Fukuoka
Reviewed by Masaki Yanagishita

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About the Speakers:

Tom Shannon - Sculptor
Tom Shannon's mixed-material sculpture seems to levitate -- often it actually does -- thanks to powerful magnets and clever arrangements of suspension wire. He designed the TED Prize trophy.

Why you should listen

Artist and inventor Tom Shannon's sculpture has been exhibited in galleries and institutions all around the world, including the Centre Pompidou in Paris, the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam and the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. His clever orchestrations of hidden magnets and tiny suspension cables make otherwise inert materials such as steel and wood take on a truly otherworldly quality -- bringing objects like planets, stars and atoms to a scale you can understand (and touch).

Shannon also holds the patents for the first tactile telephone, a color television projector and a synchronous world clock that is in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution. He is developing a spherical helium airship whose entire surface is an LED video screen.

More profile about the speaker
Tom Shannon | Speaker | TED.com
John Hockenberry - Journalist
Journalist and commentator John Hockenberry has reported from all over the world in virtually every medium. He's the author of "Moving Violations: War Zones, Wheelchairs and Declarations of Independence."

Why you should listen

Three-time Peabody Award winner, four-time Emmy award winner and Dateline NBC correspondent, John Hockenberry has broad experience as a journalist and commentator for more than two decades. He is the co-anchor of the public radio morning show “The Takeaway” on WNYC and PRI. He has reported from all over the world, in virtually every medium, having anchored programs for network, cable and radio. Hockenberry joined NBC as a correspondent for Dateline NBC in January 1996 after a fifteen-year career in broadcast news at both National Public Radio and ABC News. Hockenberry's reporting for Dateline NBC earned him three Emmys, an Edward R Murrow award and a Casey Medal.

His most prominent Dateline NBC reports include an hour-long documentary on the often-fatal tragedy of the medically uninsured, an emotionally gripping portrait of a young schizophrenic trying to live on his own, and extensive reporting in the aftermath of September 11th. In 2009 Hockenberry was appointed to the White House Fellows Commission by President Barack Obama where he participates in the selection of the annual Fellows for this most prestigious of Federal programs. Hockenberry is also the author of A River out of Eden, a novel based in the Pacific Northwest, and Moving Violations: War Zones, Wheelchairs and Declarations of Independence, a memoir of life as a foreign correspondent, which was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1996. He has also written for The New York Times, The New Yorker, I.D., Wired, The Columbia Journalism Review, Details, and The Washington Post.

Hockenberry spent more than a decade with NPR as a general assignment reporter, Middle East correspondent and host of several programs. During the Persian Gulf War (1990-91), Hockenberry was assigned to the Middle East, where he filed reports from Israel, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Turkey, Iraq and Iran. He was one of the first Western broadcast journalists to report from Kurdish refugee camps in Northern Iraq and Southern Turkey. Hockenberry also spent two years (1988-90) as a correspondent based in Jerusalem during the most intensive conflict of the Palestinian uprising. Hockenberry received the Columbia Dupont Award for Foreign News Coverage for reporting on the Gulf War.

 

More profile about the speaker
John Hockenberry | Speaker | TED.com