20:50
TEDMED 2009

Ken Kamler: Medical miracle on Everest

ケン・カムラー: エベレストにて、奇跡の生還

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エベレスト登山史上で最悪の遭難現場にいた唯一の医師は、ケン・カムラーでした。TEDMEDで、彼は登山家たちの極限状況での凄まじい奮闘について語ります。36時間も雪に埋もれていたのに生き延びた一人の男にまつわる医学的な奇跡を脳機能画像を用いて説明します。

- Adventure physician
Ken Kamler has served as doctor on some of the world’s most daring expeditions, but also performs delicate microsurgery when at home in New York. Full bio

OK. We've heard a lot of people
このコンファレンスでは
00:15
speak at this conference
大勢の方が人の意思に秘められた
00:18
about the power of the human mind.
力について語ってきました
00:20
And what I'd like to do today
私の話も
00:23
is give you a vivid example
生か死かという状況の下で
00:25
of how that power can be unleashed
生きようという意志の力が
00:27
when someone is in a survival situation,
いかに発揮されるのかを
00:29
how the will to survive can bring that out in people.
鮮やかに描き出すものです
00:32
This is an incident which occurred on Mount Everest;
私は、エベレストで起きた
00:36
it was the worst disaster in the history of Everest.
史上最悪の遭難についてお話しします
00:39
And when it occurred, I was the only doctor on the mountain.
そのとき、医師は私一人でした
00:43
So I'll take you through that
これからその話をしましょう
00:46
and we'll see what it's like
人が生きる意志を奮いたたせたとき
00:48
when someone really
どんなことが可能になるか
00:51
summons the will to survive.
分かっていただけるでしょう
00:53
OK, this is Mount Everest.
ここに写ってるのがエべレストです
00:55
It's 29,035 feet high.
標高8,848メートル
00:57
I've been there six times: Four times I did work with National Geographic,
これまで6回のうち4回はプレートの動きを測る
00:59
making tectonic plate measurements;
ナショナル ジオグラフィック誌のチームと
01:02
twice, I went with NASA
2回は、リモートセンシング装置の
01:04
doing remote sensing devices.
研究をするNASA のチームと行きました
01:06
It was on my fourth trip to Everest
4回目の登山の途中
01:09
that a comet passed over the mountain. Hyakutake.
上空を彗星が通りました。百武彗星です
01:11
And the Sherpas told us then
現地のシェルパは
01:14
that was a very bad omen,
不吉な前兆だと言いました
01:16
and we should have listened to them.
忠告を聞けばよかったのかもしれません
01:18
Everest is an extreme environment.
エベレストの環境は非常に過酷で
01:20
There's only one-third as much oxygen at the summit as there is at sea level.
頂上の酸素量は海面のたったの三分の一
01:23
Near the summit, temperatures
頂上付近での気温は
01:26
can be 40 degrees below zero.
マイナス40度まで下がることもあります
01:28
You can have winds 20 to 40 miles an hour.
風速は毎時32キロから65キロになることもあります
01:30
It's actually a wind-chill factor
実際に問題なのは体感温度で
01:32
which is lower than a summer day on Mars.
夏期の火星の気温を下回ることもあるのです
01:34
I remember one time being up near the summit,
あるとき、山頂付近でこんなことを経験しました
01:38
I reached into my down jacket
ダウン ジャケットに手を入れて
01:40
for a drink from my water bottle,
しまっておいた水筒を
01:42
inside my down jacket,
取り出そうとしたのですが
01:44
only to discover that the water was already frozen solid.
既に水は固く凍っていました
01:46
That gives you an idea of just how severe
山頂付近の厳しい環境を物語る
01:49
things are near the summit.
エピソードです
01:51
OK, this is the route up Everest.
これがエベレスト登山のルートです
01:55
It starts at base camp, at 17,500 feet.
標高5300メートルのベースキャンプが出発点です
01:57
Camp One, 2,000 feet higher.
800メートル上に第一キャンプがあり
02:01
Camp Two, another 2,000 feet higher up,
第二キャンプは更に1200メートル上
02:04
what's called the Western Cwm.
ウェスタン クウムの谷にあります
02:06
CampThree is at the base of Lhotse,
第三キャンプはローツェの麓にあります
02:08
which is the fourth highest mountain in the world, but it's dwarfed by Everest.
世界4位の高峰もエベレストの脇役です
02:10
And then Camp Four is the highest camp;
第四キャンプは最も高地
02:13
that's 3,000 feet short of the summit.
頂上より650メートル低い地点です
02:16
This is a view of base camp.
これはベースキャンプの様子です
02:20
This is pitched on a glacier at 17,500 feet.
標高5300メートルの氷河の上です
02:22
It's the highest point you can bring your yaks
ヤクで行ける最高地点で
02:25
before you have to unload.
ここで荷物をおろします
02:27
And this is what they unloaded for me:
これが私の荷物です
02:29
I had four yak loads of medical supplies,
ヤク4頭分の医療資材は
02:31
which are dumped in a tent,
テントに投げ込まれました
02:33
and here I am trying to arrange things.
それで荷物を整理しているのです
02:35
This was our expedition.
これが私たちの探検チームでした
02:38
It was a National Geographic expedition,
ナショナル ジオグラフィックの登山隊で
02:40
but it was organized by The Explorers Club.
主催したのはエクスプローラーズ クラブでした
02:42
There were three other expeditions on the mountain,
山には他に3つの登山隊がいました
02:44
an American team, a New Zealand team
アメリカ、ニュージーランドと
02:46
and an IMAX team.
アイマックスのチーム
02:48
And, after actually two months of preparation,
そして二ヶ月かけて
02:52
we built our camps all the way up the mountain.
経路上のキャンプを設営しました
02:55
This is a view looking up the icefall,
これは氷瀑を下から見上げた眺めです
02:58
the first 2,000 feet of the climb
ベースキャンプからの最初の登り
03:00
up from base camp.
800メートルです
03:02
And here's a picture in the icefall;
これは氷瀑の中の様子です
03:05
it's a waterfall, but it's frozen, but it moves very slowly,
凍ってしまった滝です。 とてもゆっくりと動き
03:07
and it actually changes every day.
日々変化しています
03:10
When you're in it, you're like a rat in a maze;
迷路の中のネズミのような気分になる場所です
03:12
you can't even see over the top.
氷の壁の先が見えません
03:14
This is near the top of the icefall.
これは氷瀑上部の写真です
03:17
You want to climb through at night when the ice is frozen.
氷瀑を登るのは、氷が固まる夜中が最適です
03:19
That way, it's less likely to tumble down on you.
氷が崩れ落ちる確率が低いからです
03:22
These are some climbers reaching the top of the icefall just at sun-up.
日の出と共に氷瀑の上に達した登山家たちです
03:24
This is me crossing a crevasse.
これは私がクレバスを横断しているところです
03:30
We cross on aluminum ladders with safety ropes attached.
安全ロープをつけてアルミのはしごを渡ります
03:32
That's another crevasse.
これはまた別のクレバスです
03:37
Some of these things are 10 stories deep or more,
十階建ての建物くらいの深さのものもあり
03:39
and one of my climbing friends says that
こんなことを言う登山家もいます
03:41
the reason we actually climb at night
夜中に登山をするのは
03:43
is because if we ever saw the bottom
登山中に足下のクレバスの
03:45
of what we're climbing over,
底がはっきりと見えたら
03:47
we would never do it.
絶対に登れないからだ
03:49
Okay. This is Camp One.
これが第一キャンプです
03:52
It's the first flat spot you can reach
氷瀑の上に達した後に
03:54
after you get up to the top of the icefall.
一番最初に遭遇する平地です
03:56
And from there we climb up to Camp Two,
そしてそこから、写真の手前側の
03:59
which is sort of the foreground.
第二キャンプに登ります
04:02
These are climbers moving up the Lhotse face,
これは第三キャンプに向かって
04:04
that mountain toward Camp Three.
ローツェの斜面を登る登山家たちです
04:06
They're on fixed ropes here.
ここでは固定ロープを使っています
04:08
A fall here, if you weren't roped in,
もしロープなしでここで足を外したら
04:10
would be 5,000 feet down.
1500メートル下に落下することになります
04:12
This is a view taken from camp three.
これは第三キャンプから撮った写真です
04:16
You can see the Lhotse face is in profile,
ローツェの尾根の傾斜が見えます
04:18
it's about a 45 degree angle. It takes two days to climb it,
傾斜約45度。二日かかる登りの
04:20
so you put the camp halfway through.
中間地点にキャンプを設置します
04:23
If you notice, the summit of Everest is black.
エベレストの頂上は真っ黒です
04:25
There's no ice over it.
全く氷に覆われていないのです
04:27
And that's because Everest is so high,
エベレストはとても高くて
04:29
it's in the jet stream,
ジェット気流の中にあるので
04:31
and winds are constantly scouring the face,
山の表面は常に
04:33
so no snow gets to accumulate.
風にさらされて雪が積もりません
04:35
What looks like a cloud behind the summit ridge
頂上への稜線の後ろの雲のようなものは
04:37
is actually snow being blown off the summit.
実は頂上から吹き飛ぶ雪なのです
04:39
This is on the way up from Camp Three to Camp Four,
これは第三キャンプから第四キャンプへと
04:45
moving in, up through the clouds.
雲の中を抜けていくところです
04:47
And this is at Camp Four.
そしてこれが第四キャンプです
04:52
Once you get to Camp Four, you have maybe 24 hours
第四キャンプに着いたら、たかだか24時間のうちに
04:54
to decide if you're going to go for the summit or not.
頂上まで行くか決めなければいけません
04:57
Everybody's on oxygen, your supplies are limited,
全員酸素吸入器を使います。 備蓄はわずかです
04:59
and you either have to go up or go down,
上がるか、下がるか、選択肢はそれだけ
05:02
make that decision very quickly.
決断は敏速にくださなければなりません
05:04
This is a picture of Rob Hall.
これはロブ ホールの写真です
05:07
He was the leader of the New Zealand team.
ニュージーランド チームのリーダーでした
05:09
This is a radio he used later to call his wife
彼が奥さんと話すときに使った無線です
05:11
that I'll tell you about.
このことは後でお話します
05:13
These are some climbers waiting to go to the summit.
アタック待ちの登山家たち
05:17
They're up at Camp Four, and you can see that there's wind blowing off the summit.
彼らは第四キャンプにいます。頂上から風が吹いてるのが見えますね
05:19
This is not good weather to climb in,
アタックに適さない天候なので
05:22
so the climbers are just waiting, hoping that the wind's going to die down.
登山家たちは風がおさまるのを待っています
05:24
And, in fact, the wind does die down at night.
夜になると実際に風はおさまります
05:29
It becomes very calm, there's no wind at all.
とても穏やかになり、風は全くなくなります
05:31
This looks like a good chance to go for the summit.
アタックのチャンスのようです
05:33
So here are some climbers starting out for the summit
登山家たちはトライアンギュラー フェイスと
05:36
on what's called the Triangular Face.
呼ばれるところから頂上に向かいます
05:38
It's the first part of climb.
アタックの第一段階です
05:40
It's done in the dark, because it's actually less steep than what comes next,
次の段階ほど急峻でないので
05:42
and you can gain daylight hours if you do this in the dark.
夜のうちに通過して 昼間の時間を確保します
05:44
So that's what happened.
こんな事態が発生しました
05:48
The climbers got on the southeast ridge.
登山家たちは南西稜に取り付きました
05:50
This is the view looking at the southeast ridge.
南西稜はこんなところです
05:52
The summit would be in the foreground.
頂上は手前の方です
05:54
From here, it's about 1,500 feet
ここから450メートルの高さを
05:56
up at a 30-degree angle to the summit.
30度の傾斜で登ると頂上です
05:59
But what happened that year was
しかしこの年の風は予想外に
06:04
the wind suddenly and unexpectedly picked up.
突然強くなりました
06:06
A storm blew in that no one was anticipating.
誰も予想していなかった嵐です
06:08
You can see here some ferocious winds
この写真に見えるのはすさまじい風が
06:11
blowing snow way high off the summit.
頂上から雪を吹き飛ばしてる様子です
06:13
And there were climbers on that summit ridge.
登山家たちはこの稜線にいたのです
06:16
This is a picture of me in that area
この写真はその一年前に
06:20
taken a year before,
同じあたりで撮った私の写真です
06:22
and you can see I've got an oxygen mask on
ごらんのように私はリブリーザー付きの
06:24
with a rebreather.
酸素マスクを着用しています
06:27
I have an oxygen hose connected here.
ここから酸素ホースを接続しています
06:29
You can see on this climber, we have two oxygen tanks in the backpack --
このように2つの酸素タンクを背負います
06:31
little titanium tanks, very lightweight --
小型軽量のチタン製タンクです
06:34
and we're not carrying much else.
他にはほとんど何も携行していません
06:36
This is all you've got. You're very exposed on the summit ridge.
これだけです。頂上稜線では無防備なのです
06:38
OK, this is a view taken on the summit ridge itself.
これは頂上稜線で撮った写真です
06:41
This is on the way toward the summit,
これは頂上への道のり
06:44
on that 1,500-foot bridge.
450メートルを登る稜線です
06:46
All the climbers here are climbing unroped,
ここではロープは使いません
06:49
and the reason is because
稜線のどちら側に落ちても
06:51
the drop off is so sheer on either side
急な斜面なので
06:53
that if you were roped to somebody,
もし誰かとつながっていても
06:55
you'd wind up just pulling them off with you.
相手を引きずり落とすだけなのです
06:57
So each person climbs individually.
みんなバラバラになって登ります
06:59
And it's not a straight path at all,
進路は真っすぐではなく
07:01
it's very difficult climbing,
登りは非常に難関で
07:04
and there's always the risk
常に左か右へ落下する
07:07
of falling on either side.
恐れがあります
07:09
If you fall to your left, you're going to fall
もし左側に落ちたら
07:11
8,000 feet into Nepal;
ネパール側へ2500メートル落ちます
07:13
if you fall to your right,
もし右側に落ちたら
07:15
you're going to fall 12,000 feet into Tibet.
チベット側へ3500メートル落ちます
07:17
So it's probably better to fall into Tibet
チベット側に落ちると
07:20
because you'll live longer.
長生きできるから ましかもしれません
07:22
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:24
But, either way, you fall for the rest of your life.
どちらに落ちても残りの人生は落ちるだけです
07:29
OK. Those climbers were up near the summit,
この上の方に見える、頂上近くの稜線上に
07:33
along that summit ridge that you see up there,
登山家たちがいて
07:35
and I was down here in Camp Three.
私は第三キャンプで待機していたのです
07:39
My expedition was down in Camp Three,
彼らが山上で嵐と奮闘している間
07:41
while these guys were up there in the storm.
私は第三キャンプで奮闘していました
07:44
The storm was so fierce that we had to lay,
嵐がとても激しいので
07:46
fully dressed, fully equipped,
衣類と備品を完全に着用したまま
07:49
laid out on the tent floor
テントの床に寝転び、テントが
07:51
to stop the tent from blowing off the mountain.
吹き飛ばされないようにしていました
07:53
It was the worst winds I've ever seen.
今までに見たこともない、ひどい風でした
07:55
And the climbers up on the ridge
その上、稜線上の登山家たちは
07:57
were that much higher, 2,000 feet higher,
さらに600メートルも高いところで
08:00
and completely exposed to the elements.
風に直接立ち向かっていたのです
08:02
We were in radio contact with some of them.
無線が通じる者もいました
08:06
This is a view taken along the summit ridge.
稜線に沿った光景の写真です
08:08
Rob Hall, we heard by radio,
嵐の中で ロブ ホールが
08:11
was up here, at this point in the storm
ダグ ハンセンと共にここにいると
08:13
with Doug Hansen.
無線で分かりました
08:16
And we heard that Rob was OK,
ロブは無事だがダグは疲労して
08:18
but Doug was too weak to come down.
山を下りれないといいます
08:20
He was exhausted, and Rob was staying with him.
ロブは疲れきったダグに付き添っていたのです
08:22
We also got some bad news in the storm
嵐の中からの悲しい知らせがあり
08:26
that Beck Weathers, another climber,
ベック ウェザースという別の登山家も
08:28
had collapsed in the snow and was dead.
雪の中に倒れて亡くなったということでした
08:31
There were still 18 other climbers
他に18人の登山家がいましたが
08:34
that we weren't aware of their condition.
彼らの状況については分からず
08:36
They were lost. There was total confusion on the mountain;
行方不明でした。山の上は大混乱でした
08:40
all the stories were confusing, most of them were conflicting.
情報が入ってもめちゃくちゃで矛盾だらけ
08:44
We really had no idea what was going on during that storm.
嵐の中で何が起きているのか全く分かりません
08:47
We were just hunkered down
私たちはただ第三キャンプのテントで
08:50
in our tents at Camp Three.
じっと座り込んでいました
08:52
Our two strongest climbers, Todd Burleson and Pete Athans,
グループで一番強健なトッド バールソンとピート アサンスは
08:54
decided to go up to try to rescue who they could
できるだけ多くの仲間を救い出すために
08:57
even though there was a ferocious storm going.
山を登ることにしました。もちろん強烈な嵐の中
09:00
They tried to radio a message to Rob Hall,
二人は無線でロブ ホールと連絡しようとしました
09:03
who was a superb climber
飛びぬけた登山家が
09:06
stuck, sort of, with a weak climber
少し劣った登山家と共に
09:09
up near the summit.
頂上付近で立ち往生しているのです
09:11
I expected them to say to Rob,
二人がロブに「待ってろ、今行く」と
09:13
"Hold on. We're coming."
言ってほしいと私は思いましたが
09:15
But in fact, what they said was,
二人はこう言いました
09:18
"Leave Doug and come down yourself.
「ダグを置いて一人で下りろ
09:21
There's no chance of saving him,
彼が助かる見込みはない
09:23
and just try to save yourself at this point."
せめて自分だけでも生き抜くんだ」
09:25
And Rob got that message,
ロブにメッセージが届きましたが
09:29
but his answer was,
答えは
09:31
"We're both listening."
「ダグも聞いてる」というものでした
09:34
Todd and Pete got up to the summit ridge, up in here,
トッドとピートはこの頂上稜線まで到達して
09:40
and it was a scene of complete chaos up there.
その大混乱の中で皆を立ち直らせるために
09:43
But they did what they could to stabilize the people.
できるだけのことをしました
09:47
I gave them radio advice from Camp Three,
私は第三キャンプから無線で助言し
09:50
and we sent down the climbers that could make it down
自力で下山できる登山者たちに
09:53
under their own power.
山を下りるように促しました
09:56
The ones that couldn't we just sort of decided to leave up at Camp Four.
動けない者は第四キャンプに残しました
09:58
So the climbers were coming down along this route.
登山家たちはこのルートに沿って下りてきました
10:01
This is taken from Camp Three, where I was.
これは、私がいた第三キャンプから撮った写真です
10:03
And they all came by me
私は全員と会って診察しましたが
10:06
so I could take a look at them and see what I could do for them,
大した処置もできませんでした
10:08
which is really not much, because Camp Three
なぜなら第三キャンプは
10:12
is a little notch cut in the ice
45度の傾斜した氷壁の途中にある
10:14
in the middle of a 45-degree angle.
小さな切り欠きにすぎないのです
10:16
You can barely stand outside the tent.
テントの外には立つスペースしかなく
10:18
It's really cold; it's 24,000 feet.
極端に寒い。標高7300メートルですから
10:20
The only supplies I had at that altitude
この高度で私の手元には
10:22
were two plastic bags
ビニールバッグ二つ分の
10:24
with preloaded syringes
鎮痛剤の注射と
10:26
of painkiller and steroids.
ステロイドだけでした
10:28
So, as the climbers came by me,
登山家たちが来るたびに
10:31
I sort of assessed whether or not they were in condition
さらに下に降りられる状態かどうか
10:33
to continue on further down.
診断しました
10:35
The ones that weren't that lucid or were not that well coordinated,
意識がはっきりせず、混乱していた人には
10:37
I would give an injection of steroids
ステロイドの注射をして
10:40
to try to give them some period
彼らが一時的にでも
10:43
of lucidity and coordination
はっきりとした思考と動きで
10:45
where they could then work their way further down the mountain.
下山できるようにしました
10:47
It's so awkward to work up there that sometimes
山の上では処置も大変で
10:50
I even gave the injections right through their clothes.
時には衣服の上から注射しました
10:52
It was just too hard to maneuver
それ以外の細かな操作は難しく
10:54
any other way up there.
他にしようがなかったのです
10:57
While I was taking care of them,
彼らを看護している間に
10:59
we got more news about Rob Hall.
ロブ ホールについて耳にしました
11:01
There was no way we could get up high enough to rescue him.
彼を助ける方法はないというのです
11:03
He called in to say that he was alone now.
もう単独行だという連絡がありました
11:07
Apparently, Doug had died higher up on the mountain.
ダグはもっと上の方で亡くなったようでした
11:10
But Rob was now too weak to come down himself,
ロブも衰弱して一人で下山できない状態でした
11:13
and with the fierce winds and up at that altitude,
この強風の中をあの高度まで
11:16
he was just beyond rescue
助けに行ける者はいませんでした
11:19
and he knew it.
ロブにも分かっていました
11:21
At that point, he asked
そのとき彼は
11:23
to be paged into his wife.
妻と話させてほしいと頼みました
11:25
He was carrying a radio.
無線を持っていたからです
11:27
His wife was home in New Zealand,
ニュージーランドの自宅にいる奥さんは
11:29
seven months pregnant with their first child,
最初の子供が妊娠7ヶ月でした
11:31
and Rob asked to be patched into her. That was done,
妻につないでほしいという彼の願いはかなえられ
11:34
and Rob and his wife
そしてロブと彼の奥さんは
11:37
had their last conversation.
最後の会話を交わしました
11:39
They picked the name for their baby.
二人の赤ちゃんの名前を決めたのです
11:41
Rob then signed off,
そしてロブは無線を切りました
11:43
and that was the last we ever heard of him.
それが最後の通信でした
11:45
I was faced with treating a lot of critically ill patients
標高7300メートルで多くの危篤の患者を
11:50
at 24,000 feet,
手当しろというのは
11:53
which was an impossibility.
無理というものです
11:55
So what we did was, we got the victims
そこで患者を6100メートルの
11:57
down to 21,000 feet, where it was easier for me to treat them.
治療のしやすい高度まで下ろしました
11:59
This was my medical kit.
これが私たちの医療器具一式でした
12:02
It's a tackle box filled with medical supplies.
機材で一杯の救急箱です
12:04
This is what I carried up the mountain.
私はこれを山の上に持って行ったのです
12:07
I had more supplies lower down,
第一キャンプではもっと資材が豊富でした
12:10
which I asked to be brought up to meet me at the lower camp.
ここまで届けてもらったのです
12:12
And this was scene at the lower camp.
これは第一キャンプの様子です
12:15
The survivors came in one by one.
生存者が次々と入ってきました
12:17
Some of them were hypothermic,
低体温の者や凍傷の者
12:20
some of them were frostbitten, some were both.
両方という患者もいました
12:22
What we did was try to warm them up as best we could,
我々の処置はできるだけ体を温めて
12:25
put oxygen on them and try to revive them,
酸素吸入で意識を回復させるというものでした
12:28
which is difficult to do at 21,000 feet,
ただ標高6100メートルの凍ったテントでは
12:31
when the tent is freezing.
これも困難な作業でした
12:34
This is some severe frostbite on the feet,
脚の凍傷の写真です
12:38
severe frostbite on the nose.
鼻の凍傷です
12:41
This climber was snow blind.
この登山家は雪盲になっていました
12:47
As I was taking care of these climbers,
彼らの看護をしてる最中に
12:49
we got a startling experience.
信じられないようなことが起きました
12:51
Out of nowhere, Beck Weathers,
死んだと聞いていたベックウェザースが
12:56
who we had already been told was dead,
どこからともなく現れて
12:58
stumbled into the tent,
ふらふらとテントに入ってきました
13:01
just like a mummy, he walked into the tent.
まるでミイラのようでした
13:04
I expected him to be incoherent,
支離滅裂かと思いきや
13:07
but, in fact, he walked into the tent and said to me,
テントに入ってくるとこう言うのです
13:09
"Hi, Ken. Where should I sit?"
「やあ、ケン。どこに座ったらいいかい?」
13:11
And then he said,
「俺の保険はつかえるかな」
13:14
"Do you accept my health insurance?"
と聞いたのです
13:16
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:18
He really said that.
本当にそう言ったんです
13:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:22
So he was completely lucid, but he was very severely frostbitten.
正気でしたがひどい凍傷でした
13:24
You can see his hand is completely white;
ごらんのように、彼の手は真っ白で
13:27
his face, his nose, is burned.
手と鼻の凍傷はひどいものでした
13:29
First, it turns white, and then when it's completed necrosis,
凍傷はまず白くなり、完全に壊死して
13:31
it turns black, and then it falls off.
黒くなるととれてしまうのです
13:34
It's the last stage, just like a scar.
これは最終段階で、かさぶたのようなものです
13:37
So, as I was taking care of Beck,
私がベックの看護をしていたとき
13:39
he related what had been going on up there.
彼は山の上で何が起きたのか話してくれました
13:41
He said he had gotten lost in the storm,
彼は嵐の中で迷子になり
13:43
collapsed in the snow,
雪の中に倒れて動けないまま
13:46
and just laid there, unable to move.
そこに横たわっていたと
13:48
Some climbers had come by and looked at him,
他の登山家が立ち寄って彼を見て
13:50
and he heard them say, "He's dead."
「死んでいる。」と言うのが聞こえました
13:53
But Beck wasn't dead; he heard that,
でもベックは生きていて、聞こえたのです
13:57
but he was completely unable to move.
ただまったく動けなかった
14:00
He was in some sort of catatonic state
ある種の強硬症になって
14:02
where he could be aware of his surroundings,
周囲の状況を把握できても
14:04
but couldn't even blink to indicate that he was alive.
生存を示すまばたきすらできませんでした
14:06
So the climbers passed him by,
登山家たちが通り過ぎ
14:09
and Beck lay there for a day, a night
ベックはそこで一日と一晩
14:12
and another day,
そしてもう一日
14:15
in the snow.
雪の中で倒れていました
14:17
And then he said to himself,
それから彼は独り言をつぶやきます
14:19
"I don't want to die.
「死にたくない
14:21
I have a family to come back to."
家族が待ってる」
14:23
And the thoughts of his family,
家族のことを考え
14:25
his kids and his wife,
子どもたちと妻のことを考えると
14:27
generated enough energy,
十分なエネルギーがわき上がり
14:29
enough motivation in him,
意欲を生み出し
14:32
so that he actually got up.
立ち上がることができました
14:34
After laying in the snow that long a time,
これほどの長時間雪の中に倒れていたのに
14:36
he got up and found his way back to the camp.
起き上がって第一キャンプまで戻ってきたのです
14:38
And Beck told me that story very quietly,
ベックはこのことを静かに語りましたが
14:42
but I was absolutely stunned by it.
私は全く圧倒されていました
14:44
I couldn't imagine anybody laying in the snow
そんなに長時間雪の中に倒れていた人が
14:47
that long a time
起き上がれるなんて
14:49
and then getting up.
全く信じられませんでした
14:51
He apparently reversed
回復不能な低体温状態からの
14:53
an irreversible hypothermia.
復活を遂げたようなのです
14:55
And I can only try to speculate
どうやってやり遂げたのか
14:58
on how he did it.
推測するしかありません
15:01
So, what if we had Beck
仮にベックが SPECTスキャナのように
15:03
hooked up to a SPECT scan,
脳機能を計測する装置に
15:05
something that could actually measure brain function?
入っていたとしたら、何が観察できたでしょうか
15:07
Just very simply, the three parts of the brain:
簡単に説明すると、脳は三つの部分から成ります
15:12
the frontal lobe, where you focus
物事に注目したり
15:15
your attention and concentration;
集中したりする前頭葉
15:17
you have the temporal lobe,
頭の中で物事を描いて
15:19
where you form images and keep memories;
記憶する側頭葉
15:21
and the posterior part of your brain,
そして脳の後頭部には
15:23
which contains the cerebellum, which controls motion;
動作をコントロールする小脳と
15:25
and the brain stem,
心拍や呼吸のような
15:27
where you have your basic maintenance functions,
根本的な生存維持機能を作用する
15:29
like heartbeat and respiration.
脳幹があります
15:31
So let's take a cut through the brain here,
ではベックを SPECT装置に入れて
15:33
and imagine that Beck
脳の断面イメージを
15:36
was hooked up to a SPECT scan.
捉えてみましょう
15:38
This measures dynamic blood flow
この装置は動脈血流量、すなわち
15:40
and therefore energy flow within the brain.
脳へのエネルギーの流れを測定します
15:42
So you have the prefrontal cortex here,
ここに赤色で見えるのが
15:44
lighting up in red.
前頭前皮質です
15:46
This is a pretty evenly distributed scan.
これはけっこう均等な脳の図です
15:48
You have the middle area,
ここに見える中間部の間の
15:50
where the temporal lobe might be, in here,
この部分に普通側頭葉があり、
15:52
and the posterior portion, where the maintenance functions are in the back.
後部にあるのが生命維持機能です
15:54
This is a roughly normal scan,
この脳はだいたい正常です
15:57
showing equal distribution of energy.
エネルギーが均一に配分されています
15:59
Now, you go to this one and you see how much more
こちらでは、前頭葉が
16:03
the frontal lobes are lighting up.
明るく輝いています
16:06
This might be what Beck would be experiencing
ベックが自分が危機にあると気づいたときには
16:08
when he realizes he's in danger.
こんな状態だったかもしれません
16:10
He's focusing all his attention
全神経を、危機から抜け出すことに
16:12
on getting himself out of trouble.
集中しているのです
16:14
These parts of the brain are quieting down.
脳のこの部分は静まり返っています
16:16
He's not thinking about his family or anybody else at this point,
家族や他の誰かのことは考えず
16:19
and he's working pretty hard.
かなりがんばっているのです
16:22
He's trying to get his muscles going and get out of this.
筋肉に力を入れ、この状況から抜け出そうとしています
16:24
OK, but he's losing ground here.
でもここから状況は悪化し始めます
16:30
He's running out of energy.
エネルギーが切れかかっています
16:33
It's too cold; he can't keep his metabolic fires going,
寒すぎて、体内の活力を維持できないのです
16:35
and, you see, there's no more red here;
ごらんのように、もう赤い箇所はありません
16:38
his brain is quieting down.
脳は静まりかえり
16:40
He's collapsed in the snow here. Everything is quiet,
彼は雪に倒れ込みます。静かです
16:42
there's very little red anywhere.
赤い部分はほとんどなくなり
16:44
Beck is powering down.
ベックは力尽きそうです
16:47
He's dying.
死にかけています
16:49
You go on to the next scan,
次の写真を見てみると
16:53
but, in Beck's case,
ベックの場合は
16:55
you can see that the middle part of his brain
脳の中間部が
16:57
is beginning to light up again.
また明るくなり始め
16:59
He's beginning to think about his family.
彼は家族について考え始めているのです
17:02
He's beginning to have images
起き上がる動機となるような
17:04
that are motivating him to get up.
イメージを頭に浮かべます
17:06
He's developing energy in this area
彼は考えることでこの辺りに
17:08
through thought.
エネルギーを広めています
17:10
And this is how he's going to turn thought
そしてこのように彼は思考を
17:12
back into action.
動作に結びつけるのです
17:15
This part of the brain is called the anterior cingulate gyrus.
ここは脳の前帯状皮質といい
17:18
It's an area in which
多くの脳科学者たちは
17:20
a lot of neuroscientists believe
このあたりに人の意志の根本が
17:22
the seat of will exists.
あるのではないかと考えています
17:25
This is where people make decisions, where they develop willpower.
決断したり意志を固めたりする部分です
17:27
And, you can see, there's an energy flow
ごらんのように、脳の中間部から
17:30
going from the mid portion of his brain,
生じていているエネルギーは
17:32
where he's got images of his family,
家族のイメージのあるこのあたり、つまり
17:34
into this area, which is powering his will.
彼が意志を集中させているところに送られています
17:36
Okay. This is getting stronger and stronger
この力はどんどん強烈さを増し
17:41
to the point where it's actually
次第に彼にとって
17:43
going to be a motivating factor.
原動力となるのです
17:45
He's going to develop enough energy in that area --
十分なエネルギーを
17:47
after a day, a night and a day --
一日、一晩、そしてもう一日、蓄えることで
17:49
to actually motivate himself to get up.
自分を起き上がらせるまでに至ったのです
17:51
And you can see here,
そしてここに見えるように、前頭葉に
17:57
he's starting to get more energy into the frontal lobe.
もっとエネルギーを集めています
17:59
He's beginning to focus, he can concentrate now.
集中し始め、考えられるようになりました
18:01
He's thinking about what he's got to do to save himself.
助かるために何をすべきか考えています
18:04
So this energy has been transmitted
だからこのエネルギーは
18:06
up toward the front of his brain,
脳の前頭部に送られています
18:08
and it's getting quieter down here,
この辺りはまだ静まっています
18:10
but he's using this energy
彼はこのエネルギーを利用して
18:12
to think about what he has to do to get himself going.
動き出すために何をすべきか考えます
18:14
And then, that energy is sort of spreading
そしてそのエネルギーは
18:17
throughout his thought areas.
脳の思考部分に広まっているのです
18:20
He's not thinking about his family now, and he's getting himself motivated.
家族のことは考えないで気力を振り絞ります
18:22
This is the posterior part, where his muscles are going to be moving,
これが後に、ゆっくりと動き出す
18:25
and he's going to be pacing himself.
筋肉の位置する後頭部です
18:28
His heart and lungs are going to pick up speed.
心臓と肺臓の動きが速まりだします
18:30
So this is what I can speculate might have been going on
私の想像によれば、こんなことだったのでしょう
18:33
had we been able to do a SPECT scan on Beck
ベックをSPECTスキャナーにかければ
18:36
during this survival epic.
こんなことが見られたでしょう
18:39
So here I am taking care of Beck at 21,000 feet,
6100メートルで彼にできる手当は
18:43
and I felt what I was doing was completely trivial
彼が自力でなしたことと比べたら
18:46
compared to what he had done for himself.
全くささいなことのように思えました
18:49
It just shows you what the power of the mind can do.
人の意志の力のすごさを物語ります
18:51
He was critically ill, there were other critically ill patients;
彼は危篤状態でした。危篤の患者は大勢いました
18:56
luckily, we were able to get a helicopter
幸い彼らを救出するために
18:58
in to rescue these guys.
ヘリコプターを呼び寄せることができました
19:00
A helicopter came in at 21,000 feet
標高6100メートルまでヘリコプターが来て
19:03
and carried out the highest helicopter rescue in history.
史上最高地点での救助を行いました
19:06
It was able to land on the ice, take away Beck
氷の上に着陸して、ベックと
19:10
and the other survivors, one by one,
他の生存者を一人ずつ運び出し
19:12
and get them off to Kathmandu in a clinic
我々がベースキャンプに到着するより前に
19:15
before we even got back to base camp.
彼らをカトマンズの診療所に連れて行くことができました
19:18
This is a scene at base camp,
この写真は何人かの登山家を亡くした
19:21
at one of the camps
登山隊の
19:23
where some of the climbers were lost.
ベースキャンプでの様子
19:25
And we had a memorial service there
数日後には我々もここで
19:27
a few days later.
追悼式を行いました
19:29
These are Serphas lighting juniper branches.
シェルパたちはネズの枝に灯をともしています
19:31
They believe juniper smoke is holy.
ネズの煙は神聖だと信じています
19:34
And the climbers stood around on the high rocks
登山家たちは大きな岩を囲んで立って
19:37
and spoke of the climbers who were lost
頂上付近で亡くなった
19:41
up near the summit,
登山家のことを話します
19:44
turning to the mountain, actually, to talk to them directly.
実際に山に向かって、彼らに直接話しかけたのです
19:46
There were five climbers lost here.
この中で五人の登山家が亡くなりました
19:51
This was Scott Fischer,
これはスコット フィッシャー
19:53
Rob Hall,
ロブ ホール
19:58
Andy Harris,
アンディー ハリス
20:00
Doug Hansen
ダグ ハンセン
20:02
and Yasuko Namba.
そしてヤスコ ナンバ
20:04
And one more climber
そしてもう一人この日に
20:06
should have died that day, but didn't,
死んでも不思議ではなかったが生き延びた
20:08
and that's Beck Weathers.
ベック ウェザースです
20:11
He was able to survive
彼はものすごい意志を発揮して
20:14
because he was able to generate that incredible willpower,
その思考の力を全て使うことができたため
20:16
he was able to use all the power of his mind
自力でこの危機から
20:19
to save himself.
自分を救い出し、生き抜くことができたのです
20:22
These are Tibetan prayer flags.
これはチベットのお祈りの旗です
20:25
These Sherpas believe that
シェルパの人々は
20:27
if you write prayers on these flags,
この旗に祈りを書くと
20:29
the message will be carried up to the gods,
願いが神につたわると信じているのです
20:31
and that year, Beck's message was answered.
この年、ベックの願いはかなったのです
20:34
Thank you.
どうもありがとう
20:38
(Applause)
(拍手)
20:40
Translated by Natsu Fukui
Reviewed by Natsuhiko Mizutani

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About the Speaker:

Ken Kamler - Adventure physician
Ken Kamler has served as doctor on some of the world’s most daring expeditions, but also performs delicate microsurgery when at home in New York.

Why you should listen

Ken Kamler has practiced medicine in some of the most extreme conditions on Earth -- from the Andes mountains to the Antarctic ice to the Amazon rainforest. Many of his expeditions have been in concert with National Geographic, helping teams to carry out geological research and precision mapping less traveled areas of the world. He has also served as the chief high altitude physician in research by NASA, helping examine the human body’s response to high altitudes.

When not on expedition to a remote corner of the globe, Kamler practices microsurgery, specializing in hand reconstruction and finger reattachment. He has also chronicled his adventures in the books Doctor on Everest and Surviving the Extremes: A Doctor's Journey to the Limits of Human Endurance. His treatment of the climbers in the largest disaster to happen on Mount Everest was portrayed in the book Into Thin Air and in the IMAX film documentary, Everest. He has been active in promoting the Boy Scouts of America and currently serves as their Founders District Chairman in Queens, NY.

More profile about the speaker
Ken Kamler | Speaker | TED.com