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TED2010

Mark Roth: Suspended animation is within our grasp

マーク・ロス:高まる仮死状態の現実性

February 2, 2010

マーク・ロスの研究は「仮死状態」すなわち生命体の活動を一旦停止させたあと再び復活させる技術です。現実離れしたアイデアである一方、仮死状態はサイエンス・フィクションではありません。通常は有毒とされるガスを注意深く利用して人を仮死状態にさせることにより、負傷者や心臓発作患者が治療を受けられるまで時間を稼ぐのに役立つ可能性があるのです。

Mark Roth - Biochemist, cell biologist
Mark Roth's research has reawakened an unusual notion from the annals of science: reversible metabolic hibernation. Yes, putting living organisms into suspended animation -- and bringing them back safely. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I'm going to talk to you today about my work on suspended animation.
今日は仮死状態の研究について話します
00:16
Now, usually when I mention suspended animation,
仮死状態の話を持ち出すと大抵の人は
00:19
people will flash me the Vulcan sign and laugh.
バルカン式挨拶をして笑いますが
00:22
But now, I'm not talking about gorking people out
今日話すのは 人に大量の鎮静剤を投与して
00:25
to fly to Mars or even Pandora,
火星やパンドラに飛ばすことではありません
00:29
as much fun as that may be.
それも面白いかもしれませんが
00:32
I'm talking about
私が話すのは
00:34
the concept of using suspended animation
仮死状態を利用して外傷を負った人々を
00:37
to help people out in trauma.
救うというアイデアです
00:40
So what do I mean
では「仮死状態」と言うとき
00:43
when I say "suspended animation"?
どういう意味で言っているのか?
00:45
It is the process by which
これは動物が生気をなくし
00:48
animals de-animate,
死んだかのように見えるのに
00:51
appear dead
何の支障もなく
00:55
and then can wake up again without being harmed.
再び意識を戻せるプロセスです
00:57
OK, so here is the sort of big idea:
さてここでちょっと驚く見解があります
01:00
If you look out at nature,
自然を見渡すと
01:04
you find that
気づきますが
01:07
as you tend to see suspended animation,
仮死状態があるところには
01:09
you tend to see immortality.
生命の永続性が見られる傾向があるのです
01:12
And so, what I'm going to tell you about
ですから 私がお話しするのは
01:16
is a way to tell a person who's in trauma --
患者を少し仮死状態に近づける方法を見つけることです
01:19
find a way to de-animate them a bit
そうすれば
01:24
so they're a little more immortal
心臓発作の患者も
01:27
when they have that heart attack.
簡単に死なせないですみます
01:29
An example of an organism or two
極めて永続性のある生物の例を
01:31
that happens to be quite immortal
1つか2つ挙げると
01:34
would be plant seeds
植物の種や
01:37
or bacterial spores.
細菌胞子があります
01:39
These creatures are
これらの生物は
01:41
some of the most immortal life forms on our planet,
地球上の最も永続性のある生命体の代表で
01:43
and they tend to spend most of their time
ほとんどの時間を
01:46
in suspended animation.
仮死状態で過ごす傾向にあります
01:49
Bacterial spores are thought now by scientists
科学者らによると 細菌胞子は
01:52
to exist as individual cells
個別の細胞として存在し
01:55
that are alive, but in suspended animation
仮死状態であれば
01:57
for as long as 250 million years.
2.5億年でも存在できるそうです
02:00
To suggest that this all, sort of, about little, tiny creatures,
このような微小生物のことを分かってもらうため
02:03
I want to bring it close to home.
身近な例を挙げます
02:08
In the immortal germ line
人間の
02:10
of human beings --
卵巣にある
02:13
that is, the eggs that sit in the ovaries --
不死胚細胞の卵子です
02:15
they actually sit there in a state of suspended animation
卵子は実際に女性の一生で最高50年ほどの間
02:18
for up to 50 years in the life of each woman.
仮死状態で卵巣に存在します
02:22
So then there's also my favorite example
それから私の気に入っている
02:26
of suspended animation.
仮死状態の例として
02:29
This is Sea-Monkeys.
シーモンキーがあります
02:31
Those of you with children,
子供がいる人は
02:33
you know about them.
知っていると思います
02:35
You go to the pet store or the toy store,
ペットショップやおもちゃ屋で
02:37
and you can buy these things.
購入できます
02:39
You just open the bag, and you just dump them
袋を開けて中身を
02:41
into the plastic aquarium,
プラスチックの水槽に入れると
02:43
and in about a week or so, you'll have little shrimps swimming around.
1週間ほどで 小エビが泳ぎ回るのが見られます
02:45
Well, I wasn't so interested in the swimming.
泳ぎ自体には興味はありませんでしたが
02:48
I was interested in what was going on in the bag,
袋の中で何が起こっているかに興味を持ちました
02:51
the bag on the toy store shelf
おもちゃ屋に並んでいる袋
02:54
where those shrimp sat
その中に仮死状態で
02:56
in suspended animation indefinitely.
半永久的に眠っているエビです
02:58
So these ideas of suspended animation
さて 仮死状態は細胞や変わった小さな生物だけに
03:01
are not just about cells and weird, little organisms.
見られるわけではありません
03:06
Occasionally, human beings
ごく稀に 人間が少しの間
03:09
are briefly de-animated,
死んだようになることもあります
03:11
and the stories of people who are briefly de-animated
このような人々の話で
03:13
that interest me the most
一番関心を引くのは
03:16
are those having to do with the cold.
低温状況に関連するものです
03:18
Ten years ago, there was a skier in Norway
10年前 ノルウェーで凍った滝に落ちた
03:20
that was trapped in an icy waterfall,
スキーヤーがいました
03:23
and she was there for two hours before they extracted her.
救助されるまで2時間水の中にいた彼女は
03:26
She was extremely cold,
非常に冷たくなっていて
03:29
and she had no heartbeat --
脈もありませんでした
03:31
for all intents and purposes she was dead, frozen.
事実上凍死でした
03:33
Seven hours later,
7時間後も
03:35
still without a heartbeat,
脈がないままでしたが
03:38
they brought her back to life, and she went on to be
彼女は生き返り その後
03:40
the head radiologist
彼女を救った病院の
03:42
in the hospital that treated her.
放射線科医長になりました
03:44
A couple of years later --
2~3年後―
03:46
so I get really excited about these things --
この手の話には興奮するんです―
03:48
about a couple of years later,
約2~3年後
03:50
there was a 13-month-old, she was from Canada.
カナダで生後13ヶ月の赤ん坊が
03:52
Her father had gone out in the wintertime; he was working night shift,
冬に父親が夜勤で出かけたとき
03:55
and she followed him outside in nothing but a diaper.
一緒におむつだけで外に出て凍死し
03:57
And they found her hours later,
何時間もあとに
04:00
frozen, lifeless,
見つけられたことがありました
04:02
and they brought her back to life.
でも赤ん坊は生き返りました
04:04
There was a 65-year-old woman
65歳の女性が
04:06
in Duluth, Minnesota last year
去年のある冬の朝
04:08
that was found frozen and without a pulse
ミネソタ州ダルースの自宅の前庭で
04:10
in her front yard one morning in the winter,
凍死しているのが見つかったこともありました
04:12
and they brought her back to life.
彼女も生き返り 翌日あまりに
04:15
The next day, she was doing so well, they wanted to run tests on her.
元気なので検査しようとすると
04:17
She got cranky and just went home.
不機嫌になり帰ってしまいました
04:19
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:21
So, these are miracles, right?
奇跡ですよね?
04:23
These are truly miraculous things that happen.
これらは本当に起こった奇跡です
04:25
Doctors have a saying
医者がよく言う言葉
04:28
that, in fact, "You're not dead until you're warm and dead."
「温かくて死んでいるのでなければ死んでいない」は
04:30
And it's true. It's true.
本当に正しいんです
04:33
In the New England Journal of Medicine,
ニューイングランド医学誌に
04:36
there was a study published that showed
発表されたある研究には
04:38
that with appropriate rewarming,
適切な復温を行えば
04:40
people who had suffered without a heartbeat for three hours
3時間心拍がなかった人でも 神経障害を起こさず
04:42
could be brought back to life without any neurologic problems.
生き返らせることができると書かれていました
04:45
That's over 50 percent.
50%以上の確率だそうです
04:48
So what I was trying to do is think of a way
ですから私が試みていたのは
04:50
that we could study
どうにかして仮死状態を
04:53
suspended animation
研究して
04:55
to think about a way
どのように
04:57
to reproduce, maybe,
スキーヤーに起こったことを
04:59
what happened to the skier.
再現できるか考えることでした
05:01
Well, I have to tell you something very odd,
とても奇妙なことなのですが
05:03
and that is that being exposed to low oxygen
低酸素の環境にいても
05:05
does not always kill.
必ず死ぬとは限りません
05:08
So, in this room, there's 20 percent oxygen or so,
この会場の酸素の濃度は20%ほどです
05:11
and if we reduce the oxygen concentration,
もしこの濃度を下げたら
05:14
we will all be dead.
全員死んでしまうでしょう
05:16
And, in fact, the animals we were working with in the lab --
実際 私たちの研究所で使用されている
05:18
these little garden worms, nematodes --
小さなミミズや線虫などの生物も
05:21
they were also dead when we exposed them to low oxygen.
低酸素の環境下におくと死んでしまいました
05:23
And here's the thing that should freak you out.
でも皆さんも驚くと思いますが
05:26
And that is that, when we lower the oxygen concentration further
酸素の濃度をさらに下げ
05:28
by 100 times, to 10 parts per million,
100分の1の10ppmにすると
05:31
they were not dead,
ミミズや線虫は死なずに
05:35
they were in suspended animation,
仮死状態になります
05:37
and we could bring them back to life without any harm.
そして何の障害もなく生き返ることができるのです
05:39
And this precise oxygen concentration,
この酸素濃度―
05:43
10 parts per million,
仮死状態を引き起こした
05:45
that caused suspended animation,
きっかり10ppmの濃度は
05:47
is conserved.
一定で
05:49
We can see it in a variety of different organisms.
様々な生物の間で見られます
05:51
One of the creatures we see it in
そのうちの1つは
05:53
is a fish.
魚です
05:55
And we can turn its heartbeat on and off by going in and out
電気のスイッチのように心拍をオン・オフして
05:57
of suspended animation like you would a light switch.
仮死状態にできます
06:00
So this was pretty shocking to me,
こんなことができるとは
06:03
that we could do this.
私もとてもビックリしました
06:08
And so I was wondering, when we were trying
ですからスキーヤーの状態を
06:10
to reproduce the work with the skier,
再現しようとしていたとき
06:12
that we noticed that, of course,
彼女が酸素を消費していなかったことに
06:14
she had no oxygen consumption,
もちろん気づきました
06:17
and so maybe she was in a similar state of suspended animation.
つまり仮死状態に近かったのかもしれません
06:19
But, of course, she was also extremely cold.
でも冷たくなっていたことも踏まえ
06:22
So we wondered what would happen
ラボの仮死状態の生物を冷却したら
06:24
if we took our suspended animals and exposed them to the cold.
どうなるだろうと考えました
06:26
And so, what we found out
その結果分かったのは
06:28
was that, if you take animals
皆さんと私のように
06:30
that are animated like you and I,
生きている生物を冷却すると
06:32
and you make them cold -- that is, these were the garden worms --
使ったのはミミズですが―
06:34
now they're dead.
死んでしまいますが
06:37
But if you have them in suspended animation,
仮死状態にしてから
06:39
and move them into the cold, they're all alive.
冷却すると死なないのです
06:41
And there's the very important thing there:
これは非常に重要な点です
06:44
If you want to survive the cold,
寒さの中を生き延びたかったら
06:46
you ought to be suspended. Right?
仮死状態になればいいんです
06:48
It's a really good thing.
これはとても素晴らしい発見です
06:50
And so, we were thinking about that,
そこでこれらの関連性と
06:53
about this relationship between these things,
これが実際スキーヤーに
06:55
and thinking about whether or not that's what happened to the skier.
起こったことなのかについて考えていました
06:57
And so we wondered: Might there be some agent
「極限の寒さで死んでしまうところを
07:00
that is in us, something that we make ourselves,
生き延びるために
07:03
that we might be able to regulate our own metabolic flexibility
代謝適応性の調節を行うことが出来る
07:05
in such a way as to be able to survive
なんらかの作用因子を
07:08
when we got extremely cold, and might otherwise pass away?
人が体内で作っていることはあり得るだろうか」
07:10
I thought it might be interesting to sort of hunt for such things.
そのようなものを探してみるのも面白いかもと
07:14
You know?
思いました
07:17
I should mention briefly here
ここで簡単に言っておきたいのですが
07:19
that physiology textbooks that you can read about
皆さんが目にする生理学の教科書には
07:22
will tell you that this is a kind of heretical thing to suggest.
このようなことは異端な考えだと書いてあります
07:25
We have, from the time we are slapped on the butt
第一呼吸をしたときから
07:28
until we take our last dying breath --
息を引きとるときまで―
07:31
that's when we're newborn to when we're dead --
つまり人は生まれてから死ぬまで
07:33
we cannot reduce our metabolic rate
自分の代謝率を
07:35
below what's called a standard,
いわゆる基礎代謝率以下に
07:37
or basal metabolic rate.
下げることはできません
07:39
But I knew that there were examples
でも哺乳類も含め
07:42
of creatures, also mammals,
自分の代謝率を下げる生物の
07:44
that do reduce their metabolic rate
事例があるのは知っていました
07:46
such as ground squirrels and bears,
ジリスやクマなどは
07:48
they reduce their metabolic rate
冬眠するときに
07:50
in the wintertime when they hibernate.
自分の代謝率を下げます
07:52
So I wondered: Might we be able to find some agent or trigger
そこで考えました「このような状態を誘発する
07:54
that might induce such a state in us?
なんらかの作用因子を見つけられないか?」
07:57
And so, we went looking for such things.
そしてそのようなものを探し始めました
08:00
And this was a period of time when we failed tremendously.
この時期は全くうまくいかない時期でした
08:03
Ken Robinson is here. He talked about the glories of failure.
ケン・ロビンソンの失敗の栄誉の話じゃないですが 失敗ばかりでした
08:06
Well, we had a lot of them.
ケン・ロビンソンの失敗の栄誉の話じゃないですが 失敗ばかりでした
08:08
We tried many different chemicals and agents,
たくさんの化学物質や作用因子を
08:10
and we failed over and over again.
試しましたが どれもこれもダメでした
08:12
So, one time, I was at home
そんなある日 私は家で
08:15
watching television on the couch
テレビを見ていました
08:17
while my wife was putting our child to bed,
妻が子供を寝かしつけていて
08:19
and I was watching a television show.
私はテレビを見ていました
08:23
It was a television show --
PBSの教育番組NOVAが
08:25
it was a NOVA show on PBS --
ニューメキシコの洞窟特集をしていて
08:27
about caves in New Mexico.
たまたま
08:30
And this particular cave was Lechuguilla,
レチュギア洞窟を見せていました
08:32
and this cave is incredibly toxic to humans.
この洞窟は人間には非常に有毒で 完全装備なしでは
08:34
The researchers had to suit up just to enter it.
研究者は入ることもできません
08:37
It's filled with this toxic gas,
有毒ガスである硫化水素が
08:39
hydrogen sulfide.
充満しているのです
08:41
Now, hydrogen sulfide is curiously present in us.
さて面白いことに この硫化水素は人間の体内にあります
08:43
We make it ourselves.
自己生成していて
08:47
The highest concentration is in our brains.
最も濃度が高いのは脳内です
08:49
Yet, it was used
でも第一次世界大戦では
08:52
as a chemical warfare agent in World War I.
化学兵器として使われていました
08:54
It's an extraordinarily toxic thing.
極めて有毒な物質です
08:59
In fact, in chemical accidents,
実際 化学物質事故で
09:01
hydrogen sulfide is known to --
硫化水素を一定以上吸い込むと
09:03
if you breathe too much of it, you collapse to the ground,
倒れてしまうことが知られています
09:07
you appear dead,
そして死んだかのように見えますが
09:11
but if you were brought out into room air, you can be reanimated without harm,
大気のあるところに素早く連れ出されれば
09:13
if they do that quickly.
支障なく生き返ることができます
09:16
So, I thought, "Wow, I have to get some of this."
こりゃ手に入れなくてはと思いました
09:18
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:22
Now, it's post-9/11 America,
でも9.11テロ後のアメリカです
09:24
and when you go into the research institute,
研究所に行って
09:30
and you say, "Hi.
「すみません
09:33
I'd like to buy some concentrated,
致死ガスを何本か
09:35
compressed gas cylinders
高濃度の圧縮ガスボンベで
09:37
of a lethal gas
頂けますか
09:39
because I have these ideas, see,
実は人を仮死状態にしたいと
09:41
about wanting to suspend people.
思っているんですよ
09:43
It's really going to be OK."
全く問題ありませんから」と
09:45
So that's kind of a tough day,
言うのは大変でした
09:47
but I said, "There really is
でも試すべき根拠は
09:49
some basis for thinking why you might want to do this."
本当にあるのだと説明しました
09:52
As I said, this agent is in us,
この物質は人の体内にあり
09:56
and, in fact, here's a curious thing,
実際 面白いことに
09:58
it binds to the very place inside of your cells
細胞の中でも まさに酸素が結合し
10:00
where oxygen binds, and where you burn it,
燃焼する場所に結合します
10:03
and that you do this burning to live.
この燃焼は生きるために行います
10:05
And so we thought, like in a game of musical chairs,
そこで椅子取りゲームのように
10:07
might we be able to give a person
硫化水素を人に与え
10:10
some hydrogen sulfide,
酸素の結合する場所を
10:15
and might it be able to occupy that place
椅子取りゲームのように
10:17
like in a game of musical chairs where oxygen might bind?
陣取ることはできないかと考えました
10:19
And because you can't bind the oxygen,
そうすると酸素は結合できないので
10:22
maybe you wouldn't consume it,
消費されることもなく
10:24
and then maybe it would reduce your demand for oxygen.
酸素の必要量が減るかもしれません
10:26
I mean, who knows?
あり得ますよね?
10:29
So -- (Laughter)
ですから― (笑)
10:31
So, there's the bit about the dopamine
多少ドーパミンの心配や
10:34
and being a little bit, what do you call it, delusional,
錯覚を少し起こす心配もありますが
10:37
and you might suggest that was it.
それくらいでしょう
10:40
And so, we wanted to find out
そこで低温下で
10:42
might we be able to use
硫化水素を使って
10:44
hydrogen sulfide in the presence of cold,
スキーヤーの状況を哺乳類で
10:47
and we wanted to see whether we could
再現することができるか
10:50
reproduce this skier in a mammal.
調べたいと考えました
10:52
Now, mammals are warm-blooded creatures,
哺乳類は温血動物ですから
10:55
and when we get cold, we shake and we shiver, right?
寒くなるとブルブル震えますね?
10:59
We try to keep our core temperature at 37 degrees
実際に酸素を余分に燃焼して
11:02
by actually burning more oxygen.
中核体温を37度に保とうとするのです
11:05
So, it was interesting for us
ですから 低温下で
11:10
when we applied hydrogen sulfide
マウスに硫化水素を投与した結果は
11:12
to a mouse when it was also cold
興味深いものでした
11:15
because what happened is the core temperature
なぜならマウスの中核体温が
11:19
of the mouse got cold.
下がったからです
11:21
It stopped moving.
動かなくなり
11:23
It appeared dead.
死んだように見えました
11:25
Its oxygen consumption rate
酸素消費率は
11:27
fell by tenfold.
10分の1になりました
11:29
And here's the really important point.
そしてここが非常に重要な点です
11:31
I told you hydrogen sulfide is in us.
人の体内に硫化水素はあると言いましたが
11:34
It's rapidly metabolized,
これは急速に代謝されます
11:37
and all you have to do after six hours of being
6時間の仮死状態のあとは
11:39
in this state of de-animation
ただマウスを
11:41
is simply put the thing out in room air,
室温に置くだけでいいのです
11:43
and it warms up, and it's none the worse for wear.
マウスは体温を取り戻し 依然元気なままでした
11:45
Now, this was cosmic.
これは大成功でした
11:48
Really. Because we had found a way
ホントです 哺乳類を仮死状態にする方法を
11:51
to de-animate a mammal,
発見したわけですから
11:55
and it didn't hurt it.
それにマウスは障害も起こしませんでした
11:58
Now, we'd found a way to reduce
これで酸素消費量を最低まで
12:01
its oxygen consumption
削減する方法を発見し
12:04
to rock-bottom levels, and it was fine.
問題なかったわけです
12:06
Now, in this state of de-animation,
このような仮死状態下では
12:09
it could not go out dancing,
マウスは元気に動けませんが
12:12
but it was not dead,
死んだわけではありませんでした
12:14
and it was not harmed.
後遺症も出ませんでした
12:16
So we started to think: Is this the agent
そこで考えました「これがスキーヤーの体内にあった
12:18
that might have been present in the skier,
作用因子なのか?
12:21
and might have she had more of it than someone else,
他の人よりも多くあったため
12:23
and might that have been able to reduce
冷たくなってしまう前に
12:26
her demand for oxygen
酸素の必要量を
12:29
before she got so cold that
下げることができ
12:31
she otherwise would have died,
ミミズの実験で起こったように
12:33
as we found out with our worm experiments?
死んでしまわずにすんだのか?」
12:35
So, we wondered:
そして考えました
12:39
Can we do anything useful
「この代謝柔軟性を
12:42
with this capacity to
制御できる能力で
12:44
control metabolic flexibility?
何か役に立つことができないか?」
12:46
And one of the things we wondered --
それで思ったことの1つが―
12:48
I'm sure some of you out there are economists,
経済学者の方もいると思いますが
12:51
and you know all about supply and demand.
需要供給は誰でも分かるでしょう
12:53
And when supply is equal to demand,
供給が需要に等しい場合は
12:55
everything's fine,
何も問題ありません
12:57
but when supply falls,
でも供給が減少して―
12:59
in this case of oxygen,
この場合 酸素ですが―
13:01
and demand stays high, you're dead.
需要が高いままだと死んでしまいます
13:03
So, what I just told you
つまりこの制御能力で
13:06
is we can now reduce demand.
需要を減らせるということです
13:08
We ought to be able to lower supply
供給も動物を殺さずに今までにない
13:10
to unprecedented low levels without killing the animal.
低水準に下げることができるはずです
13:12
And with money we got from DARPA,
そして国防高等研究計画局から得た資金で
13:15
we could show just that.
証明することができました
13:18
If you give mice hydrogen sulfide,
マウスに硫化水素を与えると
13:20
you can lower their demand for oxygen,
酸素の必要量を下げることができ
13:23
and you can put them into oxygen concentrations
エベレスト山頂から更に1500mの高度の
13:25
that are as low as 5,000 feet above the top of Mt. Everest,
酸素濃度まで下げた状態にマウスを置けます
13:28
and they can sit there for hours, and there's no problem.
しかも何時間もそのままで問題ありません
13:31
Well this was really cool.
これは本当に凄いことでした
13:34
We also found out that we could subject animals
また 硫化水素を与えれば
13:36
to otherwise lethal blood loss, and we could save them
動物が致死的な失血をしても
13:38
if we gave them hydrogen sulfide.
救うことができることも発見しました
13:41
So these proof of concept experiments
このような概念実証実験から
13:44
led me to say "I should found a company,
会社を設立して
13:47
and we should take this out to a wider playing field."
より幅広い分野にこれを応用すべきだと考え
13:50
I founded a company called Ikaria
Ikariaという会社を
13:55
with others' help.
人々の助けを借りて設立しました
13:57
And this company, the first thing it did
そしてこの会社が最初に行ったのは
13:59
was make a liquid formulation of hydrogen sulfide
硫化水素の液体製剤を
14:01
an injectable form that we could put in
注射可能な形態に製造し
14:04
and send it out to physician scientists all over the world
救命救急医療のモデルに取り組む世界中の
14:06
who work on models of critical care medicine,
医師兼科学者に配布することでした
14:09
and the results are incredibly positive.
結果は非常に良好でした
14:11
In one model of heart attack,
心臓発作のモデルの1つでは
14:13
animals given hydrogen sulfide
硫化水素を与えられた動物は
14:15
showed a 70 percent reduction in heart damage
標準ケアを受けた動物に比べ
14:17
compared to those who got the standard of care that
心臓の損傷が70%減少しました
14:19
you and I would receive if we were to have a heart attack here today.
標準ケアとは現在心臓発作患者が受けているものです
14:21
Same is true for organ failure,
腎臓や肝臓のかん流が悪かったり
14:24
when you have loss of function owing to poor perfusion of kidney, of liver,
急性呼吸窮迫症候群があったり 心臓バイパス手術で受けた損傷のために起こる
14:26
acute respiratory distress syndrome
機能低下があった場合の
14:31
and damage suffered in cardiac-bypass surgery.
臓器不全でも同じです
14:33
So, these are the thought leaders in trauma medicine
したがって世界中の外傷医学の
14:38
all over the world saying this is true,
思想的指導者が
14:40
so it seems that exposure to hydrogen sulfide
致死的な低酸素下で得るダメージは 硫化水素を投与することで
14:42
decreases damage that you receive
減少できるというのは
14:46
from being exposed to otherwise lethal-low oxygen.
本当だと言っています
14:48
And I should say that the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide
さらに言っておきたいのは この効果を得るために
14:51
required to get this benefit
必要な硫化水素の濃度は
14:54
are low, incredibly low.
非常に低いということです
14:58
In fact, so low that physicians will not have to lower or dim
実際 先に述べた効果を得るために医師は
15:00
the metabolism of people much at all
患者の代謝をあまり低くする
15:03
to see the benefit I just mentioned,
必要はないので 導入希望者には
15:05
which is a wonderful thing, if you're thinking about adopting this.
良いニュースです
15:07
You don't want to be gorking people out
人を救うために昏睡状態にするのは
15:09
just to save them, it's really confusing.
ややこしい話ですから
15:11
(Laughter)
(笑)
15:13
So, I want to say that we're in human trials.
そういうわけで只今 人体での臨床試験を行っています
15:15
Now, and so --
今それで―
15:19
(Applause)
(拍手)ありがとうございます
15:21
Thank you. The Phase 1 safety studies are over,
第1相安全試験の結果は良好で
15:27
and we're doing fine, we're now moved on.
次の段階に進んでいますが
15:30
We have to get to Phase 2 and Phase 3. It's going to take us a few years.
第2相と第3相には あと数年かかりそうです
15:32
This has all moved very quickly,
すべて非常に迅速に進んでいます
15:35
and the mouse experiments
マウスを冬眠させる実験は
15:37
of hibernating mice happened in 2005;
2005年に行われました
15:39
the first human studies were done in 2008,
最初の人体実験は2008年で
15:42
and we should know in a couple of years
これがうまくいくかどうかは
15:44
whether it works or not.
数年のうちに分かるはずです
15:46
And this all happened really quickly
すべてが本当に迅速に進んだのは
15:48
because of a lot of help from a lot of people.
多くの人々の援助のおかげです
15:50
I want to mention that, first of all,
まず妻です 彼女なしでは
15:52
my wife, without whom this talk and my work would not be possible,
このトークも研究も無理でした
15:54
so thank you very much.
どうもありがとう
15:57
Also, the brilliant scientists who work at my lab
私の研究室で働く優秀な科学者たちや
15:59
and also others on staff,
その他のスタッフも
16:02
the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington --
シアトルにある素晴らしい研究所
16:04
wonderful place to work.
フレッド・ハッチンソンがん研究センター
16:06
And also the wonderful scientists
そしてIkariaの素晴らしい
16:08
and businesspeople at Ikaria.
科学者や業務担当者にも感謝します
16:10
One thing those people did out there
彼らの業績として挙げられるのは
16:12
was take this technology of hydrogen sulfide,
すごい勢いでベンチャー資本を消費していた
16:15
which is this start-up company that's burning venture capital very quickly,
新興企業の硫化水素の技術を
16:18
and they fused it with another company
別の有毒ガスを販売する会社の
16:21
that sells another toxic gas
技術と結びつけたことです
16:23
that's more toxic than hydrogen sulfide,
このガスは硫化水素よりも毒性が強いのですが
16:25
and they give it to newborn babies who would otherwise die
細胞組織にうまく酸素を送れず死亡しそうな
16:29
from a failure to be able to oxygenate their tissues properly.
新生児に与えられています
16:32
And this gas that is delivered in over
このガスは1千以上の世界中の救命救急病院に
16:36
a thousand critical care hospitals worldwide,
配布されていますが
16:39
now is approved, on label,
現在 用途限定の上で認可を受け
16:41
and saves thousands of babies a year
何千人もの赤ん坊を
16:43
from certain death.
生命の危機から救っています
16:45
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:47
So it's really incredible
このようなことに携わるのは本当に
16:49
for me to be a part of this.
素晴らしいことです
16:52
And I want to say that I think we're on the path
また 私たちは代謝の柔軟性の
16:54
of understanding metabolic flexibility
根本的な理解に向かって
16:56
in a fundamental way,
進んでいると思います
16:58
and that in the not too distant future,
そう遠くない将来に
17:00
an EMT might give an injection of hydrogen sulfide,
救急医療員が硫化水素や関連した化合物を
17:04
or some related compound,
重傷を負った人に
17:07
to a person suffering severe injuries,
注射することになるかもしれません
17:09
and that person might de-animate a bit,
その患者は仮死状態に近くなり
17:12
they might become a little more immortal.
命を落とさずに済むかもしれません
17:14
Their metabolism will fall
自宅の照明を落とすように
17:18
as though you were dimming a switch on a lamp at home.
代謝を低下させることで
17:20
And then, they will have the time, that will buy them the time,
病院に運ばれて
17:26
to be transported to the hospital
必要な治療を受けるまでの
17:29
to get the care they need.
時間をかせぐことができるわけです
17:34
And then, after they get that care --
そして治療を受けた後
17:38
like the mouse, like the skier,
スキーヤーや実験のマウスや
17:43
like the 65-year-old woman --
65歳の女性のように
17:45
they'll wake up.
目を覚ますのです
17:47
A miracle?
奇跡でしょうか?
17:49
We hope not, or maybe we just hope
現実となるか または少なくとも
17:51
to make miracles a little more common.
よくある奇跡となることを願います
17:53
Thank you very much.
どうもありがとうございました
17:55
(Applause)
(拍手)
17:57
Translator:Sawa Horibe
Reviewer:Tomi Kito

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Mark Roth - Biochemist, cell biologist
Mark Roth's research has reawakened an unusual notion from the annals of science: reversible metabolic hibernation. Yes, putting living organisms into suspended animation -- and bringing them back safely.

Why you should listen

As a cell biologist in cancer research, Mark Roth studies genes, chromosomes and autoimmune disease. But he's best known for his research into suspended animation. Already, Roth has managed a world first: putting a vertebrate -- a zebrafish embryo -- into an oxygen-deprived state for several hours, then restoring it to completely normal development. He's been able to reduce the core temperature of mice to 10 degrees Celsius, and then revive them, harmlessly.

This MacArthur "genius" grant winner may spur the next big leap for lifesaving medical systems with techniques that buy time for critically ill trauma patients -- people in desperate need of organ transplants, for example -- whether in emergency rooms or on battlefields. DARPA is a major supporter of this work. At TED2008, geologist Peter Ward was passionate enough about Mark Roth's work to devote several of his own 18 minutes to talking about it ...

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