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TED2009

Thelma Golden: How art gives shape to cultural change

テルマ・ゴールデン:芸術による文化の変革

February 10, 2009

ハーレムにあるスタジオ美術館で学芸員をしているテルマ・ゴールデンが、最近行った3つの展覧会を例に、芸術がどのように文化を再定義していくのかを語ります。彼女が関わった「黒人差別後」のアーティスト達は、自分達の作品を使って、人種と文化そして芸術の意味そのものについての新しい対話の機会を生み出しています。

Thelma Golden - Curator
Opening minds and showcasing new voices -- it's all part of the job description for Studio Museum in Harlem director and chief curator Thelma Golden. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
The brilliant playwright, Adrienne Kennedy,
脚本家のエイドリアン ケネディーは
00:16
wrote a volume called
「私の劇の役者達」という
00:19
"People Who Led to My Plays."
本を書きました
00:21
And if I were to write a volume,
私が本を書くとしたら
00:23
it would be called,
タイトルはおそらく
00:25
"Artists Who Have Led My Exhibitions"
「私の展覧会の芸術家達」
00:27
because my work,
私の仕事である
00:29
in understanding art and in understanding culture,
芸術と文化を理解するには
00:31
has come by following artists,
芸術家達に寄り添い
00:34
by looking at what artists mean
その活動の意図や個性に
00:37
and what they do and who they are.
注目する必要があります
00:40
J.J. from "Good Times,"
ジェイ ジェイの「グッド タイムズ」
00:43
(Applause)
(拍手)
00:45
significant to many people of course
みなさんには「ダイ ノ マイト」で
00:48
because of "Dy-no-mite,"
おなじみかもしれませんが
00:50
but perhaps more significant
彼はゴールデン タイムの
00:52
as the first, really, black artist
TVに最初に出演した
00:54
on primetime TV.
黒人アーティストなのです
00:57
Jean-Michel Basquiat,
ジャン ミシェル バスキアは
01:00
important to me because [he was]
リアルタイムで
01:02
the first black artist in real time
私に芸術の持つ可能性を
01:04
that showed me the possibility of
示してくれた
01:07
who and what I was about to enter into.
最初の黒人アーティストです
01:09
My overall project is about art --
私が主に対象とするのは
01:12
specifically, about black artists --
黒人アーティストですが
01:15
very generally
彼らを通じて
01:17
about the way in which art
芸術がどのように
01:19
can change the way we think
文化や自分に対する見方を
01:21
about culture and ourselves.
変える方法を探っています
01:23
My interest is in artists
私が興味を持つのは
01:26
who understand and rewrite history,
歴史を踏まえ 新たにするべく
01:28
who think about themselves
時代を超えて残る
01:31
within the narrative
芸術という世界で
01:33
of the larger world of art,
自らを顧みつつ
01:35
but who have created new places
私達が見て理解すべき
01:37
for us to see and understand.
新たな場所を創った人々です
01:39
I'm showing two artists here, Glenn Ligon and Carol Walker,
学芸員としてこれから話すことは
01:42
two of many who really form for me
グレン ライゴンや
01:45
the essential questions that I wanted to bring
キャロル ウォーカーの様な
01:48
as a curator to the world.
芸術家から思いつきました
01:51
I was interested in the idea
そもそも私は一体どうしたら
01:53
of why and how
芸術史や世界史の中で
01:56
I could create a new story,
新しい物語を
01:58
a new narrative in art history
作り出せるかに
02:01
and a new narrative in the world.
興味がありました
02:03
And to do this, I knew
そのために私は
02:05
that I had to see the way in which artists work,
芸術家の作品の作り方を見て
02:07
understand the artist's studio
彼らの創作現場を
02:10
as a laboratory,
実験室と理解しました
02:12
imagine, then,
そこから考えると
02:14
reinventing the museum as a think tank
美術館は知識の集積場
02:16
and looking at the exhibition
そして展覧会は
02:19
as the ultimate white paper -- asking questions,
質問を投げかけ
02:22
providing the space
その答えを探し考えるための
02:25
to look and to think about answers.
白紙の解答用紙なのです
02:27
In 1994,
1994年に行った
02:30
when I was a curator at the Whitney Museum,
ホイットニー美術館での
02:32
I made an exhibition called Black Male.
「黒人男性」という展覧会は
02:34
It looked at the intersection
米国の現代芸術で
02:36
of race and gender
人種と性別の交わりを
02:38
in contemporary American art.
表現するものでした
02:40
It sought to express
展覧会の目的は
02:42
the ways in which art
芸術表現によって
02:44
could provide a space for dialogue --
たくさんの争点を持つ
02:46
complicated dialogue,
難しいテーマに関する
02:48
dialogue with many, many points of entry --
対話の場を生み出し
02:50
and how the museum could be the space
美術館でその考えを
02:53
for this contest of ideas.
競わせることでした
02:55
This exhibition included
この展覧会では
02:57
over 20 artists
年齢も人種も違う
02:59
of various ages and races,
20人以上の芸術家が
03:01
but all looking at black masculinity
「黒人男性らしさ」を
03:03
from a very particular point of view.
特定の視点から探りました
03:06
What was significant about this exhibition
この展覧会で重要なことは
03:12
is the way in which
私が学芸員として
03:15
it engaged me in my role
そしてつなぎ役として
03:17
as a curator, as a catalyst,
この対話において
03:20
for this dialogue.
果たした役割です
03:22
One of the things that happened
展覧会の最中に
03:24
very distinctly in the course of this exhibition
非常にはっきりと
03:26
is I was confronted with idea
感じたのは
03:28
of how powerful images can be
人はイメージに頼って
03:30
and people's understanding of themselves and each other.
物事を理解するということです
03:32
I'm showing you two works, one on the right by Leon Golub,
右がレオン ゴラブ
03:35
one on the left by Robert Colescott.
左がロバート コールスコット
03:38
And in the course of the exhibition --
この展覧会で
03:41
which was contentious, controversial
激しい議論を重ねて
03:43
and ultimately, for me,
芸術の可能性に対する
03:45
life-changing
私の考えは
03:47
in my sense of what art could be --
完全に変わりました
03:49
a woman came up to me on the gallery floor
展覧会場で ある女性が
03:51
to express her concern about the nature
強烈なイメージによって
03:54
of how powerful images could be
相手を理解した気になるのを
03:57
and how we understood each other.
心配していました
03:59
And she pointed to the work on the left
彼女は 左の絵を指して
04:01
to tell me how problematic this image was,
こちらの絵は 今までの
04:03
as it related, for her, to the idea of
黒人のイメージを描いていて
04:05
how black people had been represented.
問題があると思うが
04:08
And she pointed to the image on the right
右は メディアで語られてきた
04:11
as an example, to me, of the kind of dignity
イメージに抵抗する
04:13
that needed to be portrayed
自尊心が感じられる
04:16
to work against those images in the media.
いい作品だと私に言い
04:18
She then assigned these works racial identities,
自信を持って 作者の人種は
04:20
basically saying to me that the work on the right,
右の作品が
04:23
clearly, was made by a black artist,
黒人アーティストで
04:25
the work on the left, clearly, by a white artist,
左が白人だと
04:27
when, in effect,
答えましたが
04:29
that was the opposite case:
実際は正反対
04:31
Bob Colescott, African-American artist;
ボブは黒人で
04:33
Leon Golub, a white artist.
レオンは白人です
04:35
The point of that for me was
その場所で その時に
04:37
to say -- in that space, in that moment --
そう言われた私が
04:39
that I really, more than anything,
知りたくなったのは
04:42
wanted to understand
伝えたいイメージが
04:44
how images could work, how images did work,
実際どのように伝わるのか
04:46
and how artists provided
芸術家はどのように
04:49
a space bigger than one
私達が日常からは
04:51
that we could imagine in our day-to-day lives
想像できない空間を
04:53
to work through these images.
イメージによって創るのかです
04:55
Fast-forward and I end up in Harlem;
私が今いるハーレムは
04:58
home for many of black America,
米国に住む多くの黒人にとって
05:01
very much the psychic heart
「黒人らしい」生活ができる
05:04
of the black experience,
心の故郷であり
05:07
really the place where the Harlem Renaissance existed.
ハーレム ルネッサンスの地でした
05:09
Harlem now, sort of explaining
またハーレムは
05:13
and thinking of itself in this part of the century,
今世紀におけるあり方を探って
05:16
looking both backwards and forwards ...
過去や未来も見つめています
05:19
I always say Harlem is an interesting community
ハーレムが面白いのは
05:21
because, unlike many other places,
他の都市とは違い
05:23
it thinks of itself in the past, present
過去と現在と未来を
05:25
and the future simultaneously;
同時進行で考えていることです
05:27
no one speaks of it just in the now.
ハーレムの今を語るには
05:29
It's always what it was and what it can be.
過去や未来の話がつき物なのです
05:31
And, in thinking about that,
そう考えていた時に
05:34
then my second project, the second question I ask is:
思いついた疑問が
05:36
Can a museum
美術館が
05:38
be a catalyst in a community?
地域のつなぎ役として
05:40
Can a museum house artists
地域社会に自らを再認識させる
05:42
and allow them to be change agents
変化の担い手となる芸術家に
05:44
as communities rethink themselves?
場所を提供できないかです
05:46
This is Harlem, actually, on January 20th,
1月20日のハーレムです
05:49
thinking about itself in a very wonderful way.
とても素晴らしい日でした
05:52
So I work now at The Studio Museum in Harlem,
現在私はハーレムの
05:56
thinking about exhibitions there,
スタジオ美術館で展覧会をし
05:58
thinking about what it means to
芸術の可能性を発見する意味を
06:00
discover art's possibility.
考えています
06:02
Now, what does this mean to some of you?
皆さんはどう思いますか
06:04
In some cases, I know that many of you
皆さんと同じような環境で
06:06
are involved in cross-cultural dialogues,
異文化との対話や
06:09
you're involved in ideas of creativity and innovation.
創造的革新的な考えの中で
06:11
Think about the place that artists can play in that --
芸術家が創作できるとしたら?
06:14
that is the kind of incubation and advocacy
私はそういう形の支援を目指して
06:17
that I work towards, in working with young, black artists.
若い黒人の芸術家と仕事をしています
06:20
Think about artists, not as content providers,
芸術家の仕事は
06:23
though they can be brilliant at that,
素晴らしい作品を作る他に
06:25
but, again, as real catalysts.
真のつなぎ役をすることです
06:27
The Studio Museum was founded in the late 60s.
私の取り組みを語る上で
06:31
And I bring this up because it's important to locate
歴史に触れる事は重要で
06:34
this practice in history.
スタジオ美術館の
06:37
To look at 1968,
1968年の開館は
06:39
in the incredible historic moment that it is,
歴史的な瞬間でした
06:41
and think of the arc that has happened since then,
その後の出来事も考慮した上で
06:43
to think of the possibilities that we are all
現在の私達の特権的な立場を
06:46
privileged to stand in today
考えてみましょう
06:49
and imagine that this museum
そしてこの美術館は
06:51
that came out of a moment of great protest
公民権運動が盛んな時代に設立され
06:53
and one that was so much about
米国の芸術史における
06:55
examining the history and the legacy
アフリカ系米国人の
06:57
of important African-American artists
歴史と伝統の持つ意味を
06:59
to the history of art in this country
ジャコブ ローレンスや
07:02
like Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis,
ロメール ベアデンの
07:04
Romare Bearden.
作品を通じて探り
07:06
And then, of course,
今日に至ったという事に
07:08
to bring us to today.
思いを馳せて下さい
07:10
In 1975, Muhammad Ali
1975年にモハメド アリが
07:12
gave a lecture at Harvard University.
ハーバード大で講演をしました
07:14
After his lecture, a student got up and said to him,
講演後ある学生から
07:16
"Give us a poem."
詩を作って欲しいと頼まれた彼は
07:19
And Mohammed Ali said, "Me, we."
「Me,We」と答えました
07:21
A profound statement about the individual and the community.
個人と社会の関係をとらえた
07:23
The space in which now,
意味深い言葉です
07:26
in my project of discovery, of thinking about artists,
私が芸術家と接しながら
07:28
of trying to define
探っているのは
07:31
what might be
今世紀における
07:33
black art cultural movement of the 21st century.
黒人芸術運動の状況であり
07:35
What that might mean
現代における
07:38
for cultural movements all over this moment,
文化的な運動の意味です
07:40
the "me, we" seems
アリの「Me,We」の言葉は
07:43
incredibly prescient
現代社会に対する
07:45
totally important.
重大な予言でした
07:47
To this end,
私の目標を達成するために
07:49
the specific project that has made this possible for me
「自由形式」 「頻度」 「流動」の
07:51
is a series of exhibitions,
テーマで行った
07:54
all titled with an F --
一連の展覧会について
07:56
Freestyle, Frequency and Flow --
お話ししましょう
07:58
which have set out to discover
展覧会の目的は
08:00
and define
現在活躍していて
08:02
the young, black artists working in this moment
将来も期待できる
08:04
who I feel strongly
若い黒人アーティストを
08:07
will continue to work over the next many years.
発掘することでした
08:09
This series of exhibitions
この展覧会では特に
08:12
was made specifically
現代において
08:14
to try and question
芸術をつなぎ役と
08:16
the idea of what it would mean
とらえる考え方に
08:18
now, at this point in history,
疑問を投げかけ
08:20
to see art as a catalyst;
黒人文化に限らず
08:22
what it means now, at this point in history,
私達が一般的に
08:25
as we define and redefine culture,
文化を再定義する上で
08:27
black culture specifically in my case,
芸術の持つ意味を
08:30
but culture generally.
探りました
08:32
I named this group of artists
私は何人かの芸術家を
08:34
around an idea, which I put out there
「ポスト ブラック」と
08:36
called post-black,
呼んでいます
08:39
really meant to define them
その芸術家達は
08:41
as artists who came and start their work now,
過去の歴史を踏まえたうえで
08:43
looking back at history but start in this moment, historically.
歴史的一歩を踏み出す人達です
08:46
It is really in this sense of discovery
このような中で私が
08:50
that I have a new set of questions that I'm asking.
思いついたことがあります
08:53
This new set of questions is:
現在の米国の
08:56
What does it mean, right now,
アフリカ系米国人の立場が
08:58
to be African-American in America?
どういうものであるのかを
09:00
What can artwork say about this?
芸術で表現したり
09:03
Where can a museum exist
みんなで こうした事を
09:06
as the place for us all
話し合うに ふさわしい
09:09
to have this conversation?
美術館があるのかです
09:12
Really, most exciting about this
若い芸術家が持っている
09:14
is thinking about the energy and the excitement
あり余るパワーを考えると
09:16
that young artists can bring.
とても わくわくします
09:19
Their works for me are about,
芸術家の作品は
09:21
not always just simply
自分の心情や意見だけを
09:23
about the aesthetic innovation
革新的な芸術表現として
09:25
that their minds imagine, that their visions create
反映させている
09:27
and put out there in the world,
ものばかりではありません
09:30
but more, perhaps, importantly,
より大切なことは
09:32
through the excitement of the community
芸術作品が
09:34
that they create as important voices
コミュニティの議論を活性化し
09:36
that would allow us right now to understand our situation,
私達が現状や将来の状況を
09:39
as well as in the future.
理解できることです
09:42
I am continually amazed
人種というテーマが
09:44
by the way in which
思いがけないほど
09:47
the subject of race
様々な場面で
09:49
can take itself in many places
顔を出すことに
09:51
that we don't imagine it should be.
いつも驚いています
09:54
I am always amazed
芸術家達が積極的に
09:56
by the way in which artists are willing
そのテーマに取り組んでいるのも
09:59
to do that in their work.
素晴らしいことです
10:01
It is why I look to art.
私が芸術に関心を持ち
10:03
It's why I ask questions of art.
疑問を投げかけ
10:05
It is why I make exhibitions.
展覧会を開くのはこのためです
10:07
Now, this exhibition, as I said,
この展覧会では
10:10
40 young artists done over the course of eight years,
8年間で40人の若手作家が
10:12
and for me it's about considering the implications.
他の世代の人々に
10:15
It's considering the implications of
暗に伝えたい事を
10:19
what this generation has to say to the rest of us.
深く考えました
10:21
It's considering what it means for these artists
作品が世界中を回り
10:24
to be both out in the world as their work travels,
広く世に出ると同時に
10:27
but in their communities
私達が直面している問題を
10:29
as people who are seeing and thinking
内部の人間として考えることを
10:31
about the issues that face us.
芸術家はどう思うのでしょう
10:34
It's also about thinking about
この展覧会はまた
10:37
the creative spirit and nurturing it,
創造性について考え
10:39
and imagining, particularly in urban America,
米国の都市において
10:41
about the nurturing of the spirit.
どう育むかを考えました
10:43
Now, where, perhaps, does this end up right now?
話をまとめましょう
10:46
For me, it is about re-imagining
この展覧会は私にとって
10:49
this cultural discourse in an international context.
文化の言説を国際的な文脈で捉え直すためのものでした
10:52
So the last iteration of this project
展覧会の最後の題材は
10:55
has been called Flow,
「流動性」でした
10:58
with the idea now of creating
ここで念頭に置いたのは
11:00
a real network
世界中の芸術家による
11:02
of artists around the world;
本物のネットワークです
11:04
really looking, not so much
ハーレムから外を見るのではなく
11:06
from Harlem and out, but looking across,
ぐるりと世界を見渡せるように
11:08
and Flow looked at artists all born on the continent of Africa.
アフリカ出身の芸術家を集めました
11:11
And as many of us think about that continent
私達にもアフリカ大陸が
11:14
and think about what if means
21世紀に持つ意味は
11:17
to us all in the 21st century,
分かると思います
11:19
I have begun that looking
芸術家や作品を見ると
11:21
through artists, through artworks,
アフリカの事を考えるのです
11:23
and imagining what they can tell us about the future,
それらは将来について何を語り
11:25
what they tell us about our future,
私達の広い対話の中に
11:28
and what they create in their sense of
アフリカを含めるために
11:31
offering us this great possibility of watching
芸術作品はどのような
11:34
that continent emerge as part
可能性を作り出せるのかを
11:37
of our bigger dialogue.
考えるようになりました
11:39
So, what do I discover
さて 芸術作品を見て
11:41
when I look at artworks?
私が発見するものは?
11:43
What do I think about
芸術を考えるとき
11:45
when I think about art?
私が考えることは?
11:47
I feel like the privilege I've had as a curator
学芸員の良い所は
11:49
is not just the discovery of new works,
新しい作品に会える事や
11:51
the discovery of exciting works.
わくわくする作品に会える事
11:54
But, really, it has been
だけではありません
11:56
what I've discovered about myself
自分自身を発見したり
11:58
and what I can offer
展覧会を開いて
12:00
in the space of an exhibition,
美しさや権力や
12:02
to talk about beauty, to talk about power,
私達自身について お互いに
12:04
to talk about ourselves,
話し合える場を
12:07
and to talk and speak to each other.
私が提供できる楽しさ
12:09
That's what makes me get up every day
そのために毎朝目覚めて
12:12
and want to think about
現代の芸術家について
12:15
this generation of black artists and artists around the world.
いろいろと考えているのです
12:17
Thank you. (Applause)
ありがとう
12:20
Translator:Chieko Tamakawa
Reviewer:Wataru Narita

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Thelma Golden - Curator
Opening minds and showcasing new voices -- it's all part of the job description for Studio Museum in Harlem director and chief curator Thelma Golden.

Why you should listen

Culling an interest in art history from a childhood board game, Thelma Golden knew her dream job even before she knew what to call it. She stumbled upon the title and role she was looking for -- curator -- at the age of 12, and started up the ladder early, landing at the Whitney Museum in 1988, just one year after college. She was a co-curator of the 1993 Whitney Biennial, a controversial landmark show that showcased overtly political art made by a significant percentage of nonwhite nonmales and paved the way for topics of race, gender and identity to be discussed institutionally.

Golden first burst into the limelight as a solo curator with "The Black Male: Representations of Masculinity in Contemporary American Art" at the Whitney in 1994. Brilliantly imagined and carefully envisioned (and provoking controversy from a few corners), the show cemented her reputation as a formidable and fearless curator. In 2005, Golden became director and chief curator of the Studio Museum in Harlem, re-dedicating the institution to forward-facing art from all corners of the African Diaspora. She keeps an eye on young and developing artists, while using the Studio Museum to write the history of collecting and art-making in Harlem and around the world.

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