24:12
TED2010

William Li: Can we eat to starve cancer?

ウィリアム・リー: 癌が消滅する食し方

Filmed:

ウィリアム・リーが、ガンの新しい治療方法を披露します。その方法とは血管新生と呼ばれる、腫瘍を肥大させる血管をターゲットにしています。きわめて重要な第一ステップは、進行するガンを食い止める抗ガン作用のある食品を食べることです。

- Cancer researcher
William Li heads the Angiogenesis Foundation, a nonprofit that is re-conceptualizing global disease fighting. Full bio

Good afternoon.
こんにちは
00:17
There's a medical revolution happening all around us,
我々の周りでは医学革命が起きています
00:19
and it's one that's going to help us conquer
社会が最も恐れる
00:22
some of society's most dreaded conditions,
ガンを含む様々な状況を
00:24
including cancer.
克服するのに役立つものです
00:26
The revolution is called angiogenesis,
その革命は血管新生と呼ばれ
00:28
and it's based on the process
体内で血管が増える―
00:31
that our bodies use to grow blood vessels.
プロセスが基盤となっています
00:33
So why should we care about blood vessels?
血管に重点を置くのは
00:36
Well, the human body is literally packed with them:
人間の体は血管だらけだからです
00:38
60,000 miles worth in a typical adult.
その長さは平均的な成人で約10万km
00:41
End to end, that would form a line
一直線につなげると
00:44
that would circle the earth twice.
地球を2周する長さです
00:46
The smallest blood vessels are called capillaries;
一番細い血管は毛細血管で
00:49
we've got 19 billion of them in our bodies.
体内には190億もの毛細血管があります
00:52
And these are the vessels of life, and,
毛細血管は生きる上で欠かせないもので
00:55
as I'll show you,
これからご覧いただきますが
00:58
they can also be the vessels of death.
死の脈管にもなります
01:00
Now the remarkable thing about blood vessels
血管の驚くべき点は
01:03
is that they have this ability
血管が生成されるいかなる環境にも
01:05
to adapt to whatever environment they're growing in.
順応することです
01:07
For example, in the liver they form channels
肝臓では血液を
01:09
to detoxify the blood;
解毒するための管を作りだし
01:11
in the lung they line air sacs for gas exchange;
肺では肺胞を張りめぐらし ガス交換をします
01:13
in muscle they corkscrew so that muscles can contract
筋肉では 血液の循環を妨げずに
01:16
without cutting off circulation;
筋肉が収縮できるように らせん状になっています
01:18
and in nerves they course along like power lines,
神経内は電線のように
01:21
keeping those nerves alive.
巡っています
01:23
We get most of these blood vessels
血管のほとんどは
01:25
when we're actually still in the womb,
胎児の時につくられます
01:27
And what that means is that as adults,
と言うのも 大人になると
01:29
blood vessels don't normally grow.
稀なケースを除いて
01:32
Except in a few special circumstances:
血管は通常つくられることはありません
01:34
In women, blood vessels grow every month
女性の子宮では 毎月
01:38
to build the lining of the uterus;
血管が子宮内膜をつくります
01:40
during pregnancy, they form the placenta,
妊娠すると それが胎盤となり
01:42
which connects mom and baby.
母親と胎児をつなぎます
01:44
And after injury, blood vessels
怪我をすると 血管は
01:47
actually have to grow under the scab
傷を治すために
01:49
in order to heal a wound.
かさぶたの下でつくられています
01:51
And this is actually what it looks like,
こんな感じです
01:53
hundreds of blood vessels
何百もの血管が
01:55
all growing toward the center of the wound.
傷の中心のほうに生成されています
01:57
So the body has the ability to regulate
どんな時でも体は
01:59
the amount of blood vessels that are present at any given time.
存在する血管の数を制限することができます
02:02
It does this through an elaborate
血管新生の刺激物質や
02:05
and elegant system of checks and balances,
阻害物質を分泌して
02:07
stimulators and inhibitors of angiogenesis,
均衡と抑制を行います
02:09
such that, when we need a brief burst of blood vessels,
体が血管の増加を必要とするとき
02:12
the body can do this by releasing stimulators,
刺激物質を放ち 血管を増やします
02:15
proteins called angiogenic factors
血管新生因子という たんぱく質が
02:18
that act as natural fertilizer
天然肥料のような役割を果たし
02:20
and stimulate new blood vessels to sprout.
新しい血管が形成されるように促進します
02:22
And when those excess vessels are no longer needed,
余分な血管が必要ではなくなると
02:24
the body prunes them back to baseline
体は自然に血管新生の阻害物質を出して
02:26
using naturally occurring inhibitors of angiogenesis.
基準線まで切り戻します
02:29
Now there are other situations where we start beneath the baseline
基準線以下から標準値に戻すため
02:33
and we need to grow more blood vessels just to get back to normal levels --
血管を増やす必要がある場合もあります
02:35
for example, after an injury --
例えば怪我をした後です
02:38
and a body can do that too,
体は血管を自己調整できますが
02:40
but only to that normal level,
標準値である―
02:42
that set point.
設定点までです
02:44
But what we now know is that for a number of diseases,
しかし現在わかっているのは 数々の病気には
02:46
there are defects in the system
このシステムに不具合があり
02:49
where the body can't prune back extra blood vessels
体は余分な血管を戻したり
02:51
or can't grow enough new ones
新しい血管を増やす事を
02:54
in the right place at the right time.
必要な場所と時間に行えません
02:56
And in these situations, angiogenesis
このような状況下では 血管新生は
02:58
is out of balance.
不安定な状態です
03:00
And when angiogenesis is out of balance,
血管新生が不安定だと
03:02
a myriad of diseases result.
数々の病気が現れます
03:04
For example, insufficient angiogenesis --
血管新生が不十分なとき
03:06
not enough blood vessels --
つまり血管が足りないと
03:08
leads to wounds that don't heal, heart attacks,
慢性創傷や心臓発作
03:10
legs without circulation, death from stroke,
脚の血行不良や脳卒中
03:13
nerve damage.
神経損傷に陥ります
03:15
And on the other end, excessive angiogenesis --
反対に血管新生が過剰な場合
03:17
too many blood vessels -- drives disease,
要は血管が多すぎても 病気になります
03:19
and we see this in cancer, blindness,
例えば ガンや失明
03:22
arthritis, obesity,
関節炎 肥満
03:24
Alzheimer's disease.
アルツハイマー病が挙げられます
03:26
In total, there are more than 70 major diseases
全て合わせると 70以上の主要な病気で
03:28
affecting more than a billion people worldwide,
世界中で10億人以上の人たちを苦しめています
03:31
that all look on the surface to be different from one another,
外見だと別の病気に見えますが
03:34
but all actually share
全ての病気に
03:36
abnormal angiogenesis
共通して見られるのは
03:38
as their common denominator.
血管新生の異常です
03:40
And this realization is allowing us
この認識は
03:42
to reconceptualize
血管新生を調整することで
03:44
the way that we actually approach these diseases
このような病気を
03:46
by controlling angiogenesis.
治療できることを示唆しています
03:48
Now I'm going to focus on cancer
ここで ガンに焦点を置きます
03:51
because angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer,
どんなガンでも 血管新生の特徴が
03:53
every type of cancer.
見られるからです
03:56
So here we go.
では始めましょう
03:58
This is a tumor: dark, gray, ominous mass
濃いグレーの不気味な固まりは
04:00
growing inside a brain.
脳腫瘍です
04:02
And under the microscope, you can see
顕微鏡で見ると
04:04
hundreds of these brown staining blood vessels,
何百もの毛細血管が
04:06
capillaries that are feeding cancer cells,
酸素と栄養分を
04:08
bringing oxygen and nutrients.
ガン細胞に運んでいるのがわかります
04:10
But cancers don't start out like this.
しかし ガンはこのように発生しません
04:13
And, in fact, cancers don't start out
ガンは血液の供給によって
04:15
with a blood supply.
発生するのではありません
04:17
They start out as small, microscopic nests of cells
非常に小さな細胞巣から発生し
04:19
that can only grow to
大きさにして
04:22
one half a cubic millimeter in size;
0.5立方ミリメートルにしかなりません
04:24
that's the tip of a ballpoint pen.
ボールペンのペン先ほどです
04:27
Then they can't get any larger because they don't have a blood supply,
血液の供給がなければ
04:29
so they don't have enough oxygen or nutrients.
酸素や栄養分が届かないため 大きくなりません
04:31
In fact, we're probably forming these
実のところ 我々の体内では
04:34
microscopic cancers all the time in our body.
このようなガンが常に作られています
04:36
Autopsy studies from people who died in car accidents
解剖研究では 車の事故で亡くなった―
04:40
have shown that about 40 percent of women
40~50歳の女性の約4割に
04:43
between the ages of 40 and 50
微小の乳ガンが
04:46
actually have microscopic
あったことが
04:48
cancers in their breasts,
示されています
04:50
about 50 percent of men in their 50s and 60s
50~60代の男性の約半数には
04:52
have microscopic prostate cancers,
微小の前立腺ガンがあり
04:54
and virtually 100 percent of us,
事実上 我々誰もが
04:57
by the time we reach our 70s,
70代になるまでには
04:59
will have microscopic cancers growing in our thyroid.
甲状腺に微小のガンができるのです
05:01
Yet, without a blood supply,
しかし 血液の供給がなければ
05:04
most of these cancers
このようなガンの大半が
05:06
will never become dangerous.
悪性になることはありません
05:08
Dr. Judah Folkman, who was my mentor
血管新生の権威である―
05:10
and who was the pioneer of the angiogenesis field,
我が師 フォークマン博士は この状態を
05:12
once called this "cancer without disease."
“病気ではないガン” と呼んでいました
05:15
So the body's ability to balance angiogenesis,
血管新生の釣り合いを保つ―
05:19
when it's working properly,
体の力は 正常であれば
05:22
prevents blood vessels from feeding cancers.
ガンを成長させる血管を防ぐのです
05:24
And this turns out to be
これはガンに対する
05:26
one of our most important defense mechanisms
一番重要な
05:28
against cancer.
防衛機制です
05:31
In fact, if you actually block angiogenesis
血管新生を遮断して
05:33
and prevent blood vessels from ever reaching cancer cells,
ガン細胞に血管が届かないようにすれば
05:35
tumors simply can't grow up.
腫瘍は大きくなれません
05:37
But once angiogenesis occurs,
しかし 血管新生が始まってしまうと
05:39
cancers can grow exponentially.
ガン細胞は急激に大きくなります
05:41
And this is actually how
このようにガン細胞は
05:44
a cancer goes from being
無害の状態から
05:46
harmless to deadly.
致命的になっていきます
05:48
Cancer cells mutate
ガン細胞は突然変異を起こし
05:50
and they gain the ability to release
天然肥料である―
05:52
lots of those angiogenic factors, natural fertilizer,
血管新生因子をたくさん放出し
05:54
that tip the balance in favor of blood vessels
栄養補給のための
05:56
invading the cancer.
血管をつくろうとします
05:58
And once those vessels invade the cancer,
この血管が形成してしまうと
06:00
it can expand, it can invade local tissues.
ガン細胞は大きくなり 周囲の細胞もやられてしまいます
06:02
And the same vessels that are feeding tumors
腫瘍を大きくさせる同じ血管が
06:05
allow cancer cells to exit into the circulation
ガン細胞を血液循環に取り込み
06:07
as metastases.
転移させます
06:10
And, unfortunately, this late stage of cancer
残念ながら ガン患者が
06:12
is the one at which it's most likely
ガンと診断されるのは
06:15
to be diagnosed,
このステージに来たときが ほとんどで
06:17
when angiogenesis is already turned on
血管新生は既に活発化して
06:19
and cancer cells are growing like wild.
ガン細胞は歯止めがかかりません
06:21
So, if angiogenesis
ですから血管新生が
06:25
is a tipping point
良性腫瘍と悪性腫瘍を
06:27
between a harmless cancer and a harmful one,
分け隔てる境目となるならば
06:29
then one major part of the angiogenesis revolution
血管新生革命を推し進めるのに鍵をにぎる要素の一つは
06:32
is a new approach to treating cancer
血管供給を遮ることで
06:35
by cutting off the blood supply.
ガン治療を行う新しい方法です
06:37
We call this antiangiogenic therapy,
これは血管新生抑制療法と呼ばれる治療法で
06:40
and it's completely different from chemotherapy
化学療法とはまったく異なります
06:43
because it selectively aims
ガンを大きくする―
06:45
at the blood vessels that are feeding the cancers.
血管のみを狙った治療なのです
06:47
And we can do this because
それが可能なのも
06:50
tumor blood vessels are unlike normal, healthy vessels
腫瘍を大きくする血管は
06:52
we see in other places of the body:
健康な血管とは違うからです
06:54
They're abnormal;
腫瘍の血管は異常で
06:56
they're very poorly constructed;
つくりが脆いため
06:58
and, because of that, they're highly vulnerable
狙いを定めて治療をすると
07:00
to treatments that target them.
効果があります
07:02
In effect, when we give cancer patients
実際のガン患者に
07:05
antiangiogenic therapy --
血管新生抑制治療を行い
07:07
here, an experimental drug for a glioma,
グリオーマという脳腫瘍の試験薬を
07:09
which is a type of brain tumor --
投与しました
07:12
you can see that there are dramatic changes that occur
血管が遮られると劇的な変化が
07:14
when the tumor is being starved.
起きる事がわかります
07:17
Here's a woman with a breast cancer
この女性は乳ガンで
07:19
being treated with the antiangiogenic drug called Avastin,
血管新生抑制剤であるアバスチンで治療中です
07:21
which is FDA approved.
FDAで認可されている薬です
07:24
And you can see that the halo of blood flow
ガンを進行させていた血流の輪が
07:26
disappears after treatment.
治療後になくなっているのがわかります
07:29
Well, I've just shown you
血管新生抑制治療は
07:32
two very different types of cancer
この2種類のガンに
07:34
that both responded to antiangiogenic therapy.
効果を発揮しました
07:36
So, a few years ago, I asked myself,
数年前 私が自問したのは
07:39
"Can we take this one step further
これを一歩進めて
07:41
and treat other cancers,
他の動物の
07:43
even in other species?"
ガン治療にも使えるかどうか でした
07:45
So here is a nine year-old boxer named Milo
9歳のボクサー犬 マイロです
07:49
who had a very aggressive tumor
肩に悪性の
07:51
called a malignant neurofibroma growing on his shoulder.
神経線維腫ができています
07:53
It invaded into his lungs.
肺に転移して
07:56
His veterinarian only gave him three months to live.
獣医の診断は余命3か月でした
07:58
So we created a cocktail of antiangiogenic drugs
我々は血管新生抑制薬の混ぜ物を
08:00
that could be mixed into his dog food
ドッグフードに入れて食べさせ
08:03
as well as an antiangiogenic cream
腫瘍に塗るための
08:05
that could be applied on the surface of the tumor.
血管新生抑制クリームもつくりました
08:07
And within a few weeks of treatment,
数週間もしないうちに
08:10
we were able to slow down that cancer's growth
ガンの進行が弱まったことが確認され
08:12
such that we were ultimately able to extend milo's survival
獣医が予想していた余命を
08:15
to six times what the veterinarian had initially predicted,
6倍に延ばすことができました
08:18
all with a very good quality of life.
充実した生活をおくりながらです
08:21
And we subsequently treated more than 600 dogs.
その後 治療した犬は600頭以上
08:24
We have about a 60 percent response rate
奏効率は約60%で
08:27
and improved survival for these pets
安楽死になるところだった―
08:29
that were about to be euthanized.
ペットの寿命を延ばしました
08:31
So let me show you a couple of
もっと興味深い例を
08:34
even more interesting examples.
二つお見せします
08:36
This is 20-year-old dolphin living in Florida,
フロリダにいる20歳のイルカです
08:38
and she had these lesions in her mouth
口の中にできた傷が
08:40
that, over the course of three years,
3年の間に
08:42
developed into invasive squamous cell cancers.
浸潤性扁平上皮ガンになりました
08:44
So we created an antiangiogenic paste.
そこで我々は血管新生抑制ペーストをつくり
08:47
We had it painted on top of the cancer
週に3回
08:50
three times a week.
ガンに塗りました
08:52
And over the course of seven months,
7か月の間に
08:54
the cancers completely disappeared,
ガンは完全に消え
08:56
and the biopsies came back as normal.
生命組織検査は正常値に戻りました
08:58
Here's a cancer growing on the lip
これは唇にガンができた―
09:02
of a Wuarter horse named Guinness.
ギネスという名の馬です
09:04
It's a very, very deadly type of cancer called an angiosarcoma.
血管肉腫という致命的なガンです
09:06
It had already spread to his lymph nodes,
リンパ節に転移していたため
09:09
so we used an antiangiogenic skin cream for the lip
血管新生抑制剤のスキンクリームを唇に塗り
09:11
and an oral cocktail, so we could treat from the inside
内服薬も使用して 内と外から
09:14
as well as the outside.
治療しました
09:17
And over the course of six months,
6か月の治療の末
09:19
he experienced a complete remission.
ガンは完治しました
09:21
And here he is six years later,
これはその6年後
09:24
Guinness, with his very happy owner.
ギネスと飼い主の幸せな姿です
09:27
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:30
Now, obviously, antiangiogenic therapy
明らかに 血管新生抑制療法は
09:33
could be used for a wide range of cancers.
様々なガンに効きます
09:35
And, in fact, the first pioneering treatments
人間や犬用の
09:38
for people, as well as dogs,
先駆的治療は
09:40
are already becoming available.
既に利用できるようになっています
09:42
There's 12 different drugs, 11 different cancer types.
11種類のガンに12種類の薬があります
09:44
But the real question is:
しかし実際問題として
09:47
How well do these work in practice?
効果が気になります
09:49
So here's actually the patient survival data
これはガン患者の生存データで
09:51
from eight different types of cancer.
8種類のガンが対象になっています
09:54
The bars represent survival time
この棒線が示す生存時間は
09:56
taken from the era
化学療法や手術―
09:58
in which there was only chemotherapy,
放射線治療しか
10:00
or surgery, or radiation available.
治療法がなかった頃のものです
10:02
But starting in 2004,
しかし2004年に
10:05
when antiangiogenic therapies first became available,
血管新生抑制治療が
10:07
well you can see that there has been
初めて登場して以来
10:09
a 70 to 100 percent
生存期間は
10:11
improvement in survival
70~100%も向上しました
10:13
for people with kidney cancer, multiple myeloma,
腎臓ガンや多発性骨髄腫や大腸ガン
10:15
colorectal cancer, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
消化管間質腫瘍の患者から得られた数値です
10:18
That's impressive.
素晴らしいことですが
10:22
But for other tumors and cancer types,
他の腫瘍やガンに見られる―
10:24
the improvements have only been modest.
向上率は大きくなかったため
10:27
So I started asking myself,
なぜ向上できないのかと
10:30
"Why haven't we been able to do better?"
問い続けてきました
10:32
And the answer, to me, is obvious;
私には答えは明らかです
10:35
we're treating cancer too late in the game,
ガンの治療開始時期が
10:37
when it's already established
遅すぎて
10:39
and, oftentimes, it's already spread or metastasized.
転移していることが多いのです
10:41
And as a doctor, I know
私は医師なので
10:44
that once a disease progresses to an advanced stage,
ガンが進行期の末期まで進んでしまうと
10:46
achieving a cure
不可能でないとしても
10:49
can be difficult, if not impossible.
ガンの克服は困難だとわかっています
10:51
So I went back to the biology
ですから私は
10:54
of angiogenesis
血管新生の生態に戻って
10:56
and started thinking:
考察し始めました
10:58
Could the answer to cancer
血管新生を阻止させて
11:00
be preventing angiogenesis,
ガン細胞の増殖を食い止めることが
11:02
beating cancer at its own game
ガンの解決策になるのか―
11:05
so the cancers could never become dangerous?
疑問に感じたからです
11:07
This could help healthy people
これは健康な人々や
11:11
as well as people who've already beaten cancer
今までにガンを克服し
11:13
once or twice
再発することを防ぎたいと
11:15
and want to find a way to keep it from coming back.
思っている人の助けになります
11:17
So to look for a way to prevent angiogenesis in cancer,
ガンにおける血管新生を妨げる方法を見つけるべく
11:20
I went back to look at cancer's causes.
私はガンの原因に着目しました
11:23
And what really intrigued me
興味を持ったのは
11:25
was when I saw that diet
食べ物がガンを誘発する
11:27
accounts for 30 to 35 percent
環境要因の
11:29
of environmentally caused cancers.
30~35%を占めていたことです
11:31
Now, the obvious thing is to think about
ここで明確なのは
11:34
what we could remove from our diet, what to strip out, take away.
食事から取り除けるものを検討することです
11:36
But I actually took a completely opposite approach
しかし私はまったく逆の方法を取り
11:40
and began asking: What could we be adding to our diet
食生活に加えられるものを考えました
11:43
that's naturally antiangiogenic,
もともと血管新生抑制の作用があり
11:46
that could boost the body's defense system
体の防御システムを高めて
11:49
and beat back those blood vessels that are feeding cancers?
ガン細胞を増やす血管をやっつけるものです
11:51
In other words, can we eat to starve cancer? (Laughter)
つまり食べ物でガンを退治する可能性を問い
11:54
Well, the answer's yes,
肯定的な結果を導きました
11:58
and I'm going to show you how.
その方法をご覧いただきます
12:00
Our search for this
この研究のために
12:02
has taken us to the market, the farm and to the spice cabinet,
市場や農場や香辛料に目を向けました
12:04
because what we've discovered
我々が発見したのは
12:07
is that mother nature has laced a large number
大自然が血管新生の
12:09
of foods and beverages and herbs
阻害物質を
12:11
with naturally occurring inhibitors
食品 飲み物 香草に
12:13
of angiogenesis.
組み込んでいることでした
12:15
So here's a test system we developed.
我々は試験システムを開発しました
12:17
At the center is a ring from which hundreds of blood vessels
中央の輪から放射線状に
12:19
are growing out in a starburst fashion.
血管が広がっています
12:21
And we can use this system
このシステムを利用して
12:23
to test dietary factors
口にしたものから得られる―
12:25
at concentrations that are obtainable by eating.
食品因子の度合いを検査するのです
12:27
So let me show you what happens when we put in
赤ぶどうのエキスを入れたときに
12:30
an extract from red grapes.
起きたことをお見せします
12:32
The active ingredient's resveratrol,
有効成分はレスべラトロール
12:35
it's also found in red wine.
赤ワインにも含まれていて
12:37
This inhibits abnormal angiogenesis
異常な血管新生の働きを
12:39
by 60 percent.
6割も抑えます
12:42
Here's what happens when we added an extract from strawberries;
苺のエキスを加えると 血管新生は
12:44
it potently inhibits angiogenesis.
強烈に抑制されます
12:47
And extract from soybeans.
そして 大豆のエキス
12:50
And here is a growing list of our
これは我々が研究したいと思っている―
12:54
antiangiogenic foods and beverages
血管新生抑制食品と飲み物のリストで
12:56
that we're interested in studying.
項目は増えています
12:58
For each food type,
それぞれの食品は
13:00
we believe that there are different potencies
特徴や変種により
13:02
within different strains and varietals.
効能が異なるはずなので
13:04
And we want to measure this because,
測定したいのです
13:07
well, while you're eating a strawberry
苺を食べたり
13:09
or drinking tea,
お茶を飲んだりする際には
13:11
why not select the one that's most potent
抗ガン作用が一番高い種類を
13:13
for preventing cancer.
選んではどうでしょうか
13:15
So here are four different teas that we've tested.
我々は4種のお茶で実験しました
13:17
They're all common ones:
よく飲まれている種類です
13:20
Chinese jasmine, Japanese sencha,
ジャスミン茶 煎茶
13:22
Earl Grey and a special blend that we prepared.
アールグレイ 我々がつくったブレンド茶
13:24
And you can see clearly
お茶の効能が
13:26
that the teas vary in their potency
異なるのは
13:28
from less potent to more potent.
一目瞭然ですね
13:30
But what's very cool
面白いことに
13:33
is when we actually combined the two
効能が低かった2種類の
13:35
less potent teas together,
お茶を混ぜて
13:37
the combination, the blend,
ブレンド茶にすると
13:39
is more potent than either one alone.
それぞれ単独のときより効能が増しました
13:41
This means there's food synergy.
食品の相乗効果です
13:44
Here's some more data from our testing.
我々の試験からのデータですが
13:49
Now, in the lab, we can simulate tumor angiogenesis
実験室で腫瘍の血管新生を再現し
13:51
represented here in a black bar.
黒線で示しました
13:54
And using this system, we can test the potency of cancer drugs.
抗がん剤の効能を調べるためです
13:56
So the shorter the bar,
線が短いほど
13:59
less angiogenesis, that's good.
血管新生が少なく 好ましいことを意味します
14:01
And here are some common drugs
この一般的な薬は
14:04
that have been associated with reducing the risk
人間のガン発症のリスクを
14:06
of cancer in people.
減らすことに使われています
14:08
Statins, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
非ステロイド系抗炎症薬の
14:10
and a few others,
スタチンや 他数種の薬は
14:12
they inhibit angiogenesis too.
血管新生を阻害しますが
14:14
And here are the dietary factors
そのような薬に負けない
14:17
going head to head against these drugs.
力をもつ食事因子がこれです
14:19
You can see, they clearly hold their own
その威力が見てとれます
14:22
and, in some cases, they're more potent
場合によっては
14:24
than the actual drugs.
実際の薬より強力です
14:26
Soy, parsley, garlic,
大豆 パセリ にんにく
14:28
grapes, berries;
ぶどう ベリー類
14:30
I could go home and cook a tasty meal
このような食品を使って
14:32
using these ingredients.
美味しい料理を作れますね
14:34
So imagine if we could create
我々が世界初の
14:36
the world's first rating system
格付けシステムを作れたら
14:38
in which we could score foods
血管新生を抑制する―
14:40
according to their antiangiogenic,
抗ガン作用をもとに
14:42
cancer-preventative properties.
食品を評価できるでしょう
14:44
And that's what we're doing right now.
我々は現在その実現に向けているところです
14:46
Now, I've shown you a bunch of lab data,
研究データはこれくらいにしましょう
14:49
and so the real question is:
ガンにおける血管新生を
14:51
What is the evidence in people
食い止める特定の食品を
14:53
that eating certain foods can reduce
食べている人から
14:55
angiogenesis in cancer?
どのような裏付けがとれるのかが気になります
14:57
Well, the best example I know
私が知る 一番良い例は
15:00
is a study of 79,000 men
7万9千人の男性を
15:02
followed over 20 years,
20年間 追跡研究した例です
15:04
in which it was found that men who consumed
調理したトマトを1週間に
15:06
cooked tomatoes two to three times a week
数回食べた男性は
15:08
had up to a 50 percent reduction
前立腺ガン発生率が
15:10
in their risk of developing prostate cancer.
半分に抑えられていました
15:13
Now, we know that tomatoes are a good source of lycopene,
トマトにはリコピンが豊富に含まれています
15:16
and lycopene is antiangiogenic.
リコピンは血管新生抑制物質ですが
15:19
But what's even more interesting from this study
この研究のもっと興味深い点は
15:22
is that in those men who did develop prostate cancer,
前立腺ガンを発症した男性でも
15:24
those who ate more servings of tomato sauce
トマトソースを より多く食べていた人には
15:27
actually had fewer blood vessels
ガンを大きくする―
15:30
feeding their cancer.
血管が少なかったのです
15:32
So this human study is a prime example
人間におけるこの研究は
15:34
of how antiangiogenic substances
食品に含まれる血管新生抑制物質と
15:36
present in food and consumed at practical levels
現実的に消費される量が いかにガンに対して
15:38
can impact on cancer.
インパクトを出せるかという素晴らしい例です
15:41
And we're now studying
現在 我々は
15:43
the role of a healthy diet
オーニッシュ氏と
15:45
with Dean Ornish at UCSF and Tufts University
UCSFとタフツ大学と共同で
15:47
on the role of this healthy diet on markers of angiogenesis
健康的な食事が血中の血管新生マーカーに
15:50
that we can find in the bloodstream.
どのような影響をもたらすのか研究中です
15:53
Now, obviously, what I've shared with you has some far-ranging implications,
私がお見せしたのは 明らかにガン研究を越えた
15:56
even beyond cancer research.
幅広い意味をもっています
15:59
Because if we're right, it could impact on consumer education,
我々が正しければ消費者教育や
16:01
food services, public health
食品サービス 公衆衛生
16:04
and even the insurance industry.
そして保険会社にさえ影響をもたらせます
16:06
And, in fact, some insurance companies
実際に一部の保険会社は
16:08
are already beginning to think along these lines.
このようなことを検討し始めています
16:10
Check out this ad from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Minnesota.
この保険会社の広告を見てください
16:12
And for many people around the world,
世界中の多くの方にとって
16:16
dietary cancer prevention
抗ガン食事療法は
16:18
may be the only practical solution
現実的な唯一の解決策かもしれません
16:20
because not everybody can afford expensive end-stage cancer treatments,
末期ガン治療は高額だからです
16:22
but everybody could benefit from
しかし地元でできる地球に優しい―
16:25
a healthy diet based on local, sustainable,
血管新生を抑制する農作物でつくる健康的な食事は
16:27
antiangiogenic crops.
誰もが恩恵を受けられます
16:30
Now, finally,
最後になりますが
16:33
I've talked to you about food,
食品の話や
16:35
and I've talked to you about cancer,
ガンに関して 話してきましたが
16:37
so there's just one more disease that I have to tell you about
もう一つ 付け加えなくてはいけません
16:39
and that's obesity.
肥満についてです
16:42
Because it turns out that
脂肪組織は
16:44
adipose tissue, fat,
血管新生に左右されることが
16:46
is highly angiogenesis dependent.
わかったからです
16:48
And, like a tumor, fat grows when blood vessels grow.
血管が増えると脂肪は大きくなります
16:50
So the question is: Can we shrink fat
では 血液供給を止めることで
16:53
by cutting off its blood supply?
脂肪を縮小できるのでしょうか
16:56
So the top curve shows the body weight
上のカーブは遺伝子操作で肥満にした
16:58
of a genetically obese mouse
ネズミの体重です
17:01
that eats nonstop
テニスボールのように太るまで
17:03
until it turns fat, like this furry tennis ball.
食べ続けるネズミです
17:05
And the bottom curve is the weight of a normal mouse.
下のカーブは普通のネズミの体重です
17:09
If you take the obese mouse and give it
肥満のネズミに 血管新生の
17:12
an angiogenesis inhibitor, it loses weight.
阻害物質を与えると 減量しますが
17:14
Stop the treatment, gains the weight back.
治療を止めると体重は戻ります
17:16
Restart the treatment, loses the weight again.
治療を再開すると また減量し
17:18
Stop the treatment, it gains the weight back.
治療を止めると また増量します
17:20
And, in fact, you can cycle the weight up and down
血管新生を抑制するだけで
17:22
simply by inhibiting angiogenesis.
体重は上下するため
17:24
So this approach that we're taking for cancer prevention
抗ガン用として取り組んでいる この方法は
17:27
may also have an application
肥満に対しても
17:29
for obesity.
応用できるかもしれません
17:31
The really, truly interesting thing about this
このうえなく興味をさそうのは
17:33
is that we can't take these obese mice
肥満のネズミの体重を
17:35
and make them lose more weight
平均的なネズミの体重以下に
17:37
than what the normal mouse's weight is supposed to be.
落とす事はできないことです
17:39
In other words, we can't create supermodel mice.
スーパーモデル並みの
17:42
(Laughter)
ネズミは作れません
17:44
And this speaks to the role of angiogenesis
これは血管新生が
17:46
in regulating healthy set points.
健康を制御する設定値の役目を果たすことを指しています
17:48
Albert Szent-Gyorgi once said that,
セントジェルジは かつて言いました
17:51
"Discovery consists of seeing what everyone has seen,
“発見とは誰もが見たことを見て
17:53
and thinking what no one has thought."
誰も考えなかったことを考え 生まれる”
17:56
I hope I've convinced you
ガンや肥満や他の病気の
17:58
that, for diseases like cancer, obesity and other conditions,
共通の要素である血管新生に太刀打ちする
18:00
that there may be a great power
威力の可能性が
18:03
in attacking their common denominator: angiogenesis.
あることをわかっていただけたでしょうか
18:05
And that's what I think the world needs now. Thank you.
これこそ世界に今 必要なものです ありがとう
18:08
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:11
June Cohen: I have a quick question for you. So these drugs aren't exactly ...
このような薬は現在
18:22
they're not exactly in mainstream cancer treatments right now.
ガン治療の主流であるとは言えません
18:25
For anyone out here who has cancer,
ガン患者の方には
18:28
what would you recommend?
何を勧めますか
18:30
Do you recommend pursuing these treatments now, for most cancer patients?
このような治療を勧めますか
18:32
William Li: So there are antiangiogenic treatments
これは米食品医薬品局が
18:35
that are FDA approved,
承認している血管新生抑制治療です
18:37
and if you're a cancer patient
ガン患者である場合や
18:39
or working for one or advocating for one,
ガン患者に携わる方である場合は
18:41
you should ask about them.
ぜひ検討すべきです
18:43
And there are many clinical trials.
治験もたくさん行われています
18:45
The Angiogenesis Foundation is following almost 300 companies,
約300社が100種類ほどの生物製剤を
18:48
and there are about 100 more
開発中であることを
18:51
drugs in that pipeline.
我々は把握しています
18:53
So consider the approved ones,
ですから承認された薬を考慮し
18:55
look for clinical trials,
治験も試してほしいです
18:57
but then between what the doctor can do for you,
医者まかせだけでなく
18:59
we need to start asking what can we do for ourselves.
自分でできることを考えるのも大切です
19:01
And this is one of the themes that I'm talking about
これは私が話をしているテーマの一つで
19:03
is we can empower ourselves to do the things
医師が施すことができないものを
19:05
that doctors can't do for us,
自分たちでできるようにするということです
19:07
which is to use knowledge and take action.
知識を使い 行動を起こすのです
19:09
And if Mother Nature has given us some clues,
大自然が我々にヒントを与えてくれているなら
19:11
we think that there might be a new future
我々が口にするものの価値に
19:14
in the value of how we eat.
新しい未来があるかもしれません
19:16
And what we eat is really our chemotherapy three times a day.
我々の食事は一日3回の化学療法です
19:18
JC: Right. And along those lines,
そうおっしゃるということは
19:21
for people who might have risk factors for cancer,
ガン発病のリスクを抱える人たちに
19:23
would you recommend pursuing any treatments sort of prophylactically
ガンを予防する治療を勧めますか
19:26
or simply pursuing the right diet
それともトマトソースを多く摂るなど
19:29
with lots of tomato sauce?
正しい食事を心がけるだけでいいですか
19:31
WL: Well, you know, there's abundant epidemiological evidence.
疫学的証拠は十分にあります
19:33
And I think in the information age,
情報化時代にいるのですから
19:36
it doesn't take long to go to a credible source
国立医学図書館のデータベースのように
19:38
like PubMed, the National Library of Medicine,
確かな情報源はすぐに見つけられます
19:40
to look for epidemiological studies
食事や一般薬に基づく
19:42
for cancer risk reduction
ガンのリスク軽減のための
19:44
based on diet and based on common medications.
疫学研究の情報を探せます
19:46
And that's certainly something that anybody can look into.
これは誰でも調べられることです
19:49
JC: Okay. Well, thank you so much.
ありがとうございました
19:51
(Applause)
(拍手)
19:53
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Kayo Mizutani

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About the Speaker:

William Li - Cancer researcher
William Li heads the Angiogenesis Foundation, a nonprofit that is re-conceptualizing global disease fighting.

Why you should listen

Many of society’s most devastating diseases -- cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and Alzheimer’s, to name a few -- share a common denominator: faulty angiogenesis, the body’s growth of new capillary blood vessels. Given excessive or insufficient blood vessel growth, serious health issues arise. While researching under Harvard surgeon Judah Folkman, who pioneered the study of angiogenesis, Li learned how angiogenesis-based medicine helps patients overcome numerous diseases by restoring the balance of blood-vessel growth.
 
Li co-founded the Angiogenesis Foundation in 1994. The foundation’s Project ENABLE -- a global system that integrates patients, medical experts and healthcare professionals -- democratizes the spread and implementation of knowledge about angiogenesis-based medicines, diet and lifestyle. Some 40,000 physicians have been educated on new treatments, ranging from cancer care to wound care, by the foundation’s faculty of medical experts, and they are bringing new, lifesaving and disease-preventing techniques to people around the world.

More profile about the speaker
William Li | Speaker | TED.com