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TEDxNYED

Lawrence Lessig: Re-examining the remix

ラリー・レッシグ Re-examiming the remix

April 10, 2010

TEDxNYEDで、元”少年共和党員”だったラリー・レッシグは、民主党支持者が相対する党である共和党からコピーライトについて何を学ぶことができるかを語ります。リミックス・カルチャーへの驚くべき視点です。

Lawrence Lessig - Legal activist
Lawrence Lessig has already transformed intellectual-property law with his Creative Commons innovation. Now he's focused on an even bigger problem: The US' broken political system. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I want to talk about
今日は保守的な人達からー
00:16
what we learn from conservatives.
何を学べるのかをお話しします
00:18
And I'm at a stage in life where I'm yearning for my old days,
私も過去を懐かしむ年齢ですから
00:21
so I want to confess to you
みなさんに白状します
00:24
that when I was a kid,
実は子供の頃は
00:26
indeed, I was a conservative.
保守主義者で
00:30
I was a Young Republican, a Teenage Republican,
10代の少年共和党員の
00:33
a leader in the Teenage Republicans.
リーダーでした
00:35
Indeed, I was the youngest member
各地の代表団の中でも
00:37
of any delegation
最年少でした
00:39
in the 1980 convention that elected Ronald Reagan
ロナルド・レーガンが
00:41
to be the Republican nominee for president.
共和党大統領候補の時です
00:43
Now, I know what you're thinking.
ええ 知っています
00:47
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:49
You're thinking, "That's not what the Internets say."
”インターネットを探しても―”
00:51
You're thinking, "Wikipedia doesn't say this fact."
”ウィキペディアにも書いていない”
00:55
And indeed, this is just one of the examples
まあ これは一例なんです
00:58
of the junk that flows across the tubes
いかに大量の情報のゴミが
01:01
in these Internets here.
ネットを流れているかのね
01:03
Wikipedia reports that this guy,
ウィキペティアには
01:06
this former congressman from Erie, Pennsylvania
ペンシルバニアの元下院議員が
01:08
was, at the age of 20, one of the youngest people
最年少リーダーと
01:11
at the Republican National Convention,
書かれていますが
01:13
but it's just not true.
それは間違いです
01:15
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:18
Indeed, it drives me so nuts, let me just change this little fact here.
イヤなので修正しましょう
01:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:23
(Applause)
(拍手)
01:26
All right. Okay, so ... perfect.
これでよし うん完璧
01:30
Perfect.
完璧だね
01:33
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:35
Okay, speaker Lawrence Lessig, right.
ローレンス・レッシグが
01:39
Okay.
発表と
01:42
Finally, truth will be brought here.
正しくなりますよ
01:44
Okay, see? It's done. It's almost done. Here we go.
もう少しで終わりです さあ
01:46
"... Youngest Republican," okay, we're finished.
”…最年少共和党員” っと
01:49
That's it. Please save this.
これを保存して
01:53
Great, here we go.
さあ どうだ
01:56
And ... Wikipedia is fixed, finally.
これで修正されました
01:59
Okay, but no, this is really besides the point.
これは これくらいにします
02:02
(Applause)
(拍手)
02:05
But the thing I want you to think about when we think about conservatives --
保守主義で考えてほしいのは
02:09
not so much this issue of the 1980 convention --
’80年共和党大会ではなく
02:12
the thing to think about is this:
次のことです
02:14
They go to church.
人々は教会に行きます
02:16
Now, you know, I mean, a lot of people go to church.
教会に行くのは
02:18
I'm not talking about that only conservatives go to church.
保守的な人だけではありません
02:20
And I'm not talking about the God thing.
ここで神の話を
02:23
I don't want to get into that, you know; that's not my point.
するつもりはありませんよ
02:25
They go to church, by which I mean,
人々は教会に行って
02:27
they do lots of things for free for each other.
無償でいろいろなことをします
02:29
They hold potluck dinners.
持ち寄り夕食会をし
02:33
Indeed, they sell books about potluck dinners.
持ち寄り夕食会の本を売る
02:35
They serve food to poor people.
貧しい人へ食事も提供する
02:38
They share, they give,
分かちあい 与えます
02:41
they give away for free.
無償で与えるのです
02:43
And it's the very same people
みな似かよった人達です
02:45
leading Wall Street firms
Wall St.firmsに導かれ
02:49
who, on Sundays, show up
日曜日ごとにやってきて
02:52
and share.
分かち合う人達です
02:55
And not only food, right.
食べ物に限らずね
02:57
These very same people
彼らの共通点は
02:59
are strong believers, in lots of contexts,
市場原理に限界があると
03:01
in the limits on the markets.
厚く信仰していることです
03:04
They are in many important places
そして市場原理反対の現場に
03:07
against markets.
立ち会っています
03:10
Indeed, they, like all of us, celebrate this kind of relationship.
この場のような関係も
03:12
But they're very keen that we don't
お金を使わなければ
03:15
let money drop into that relationship,
大歓迎です
03:17
else it turns into something like this.
さもなければこんな感じです
03:19
They want to regulate us, those conservatives,
保守的な人々は私達を規制し
03:22
to stop us from allowing the market to spread in those places.
市場の拡大を防ぎたいのです
03:25
Because they understand:
こうした場の市場性を
03:28
There are places for the market
知りながらも
03:31
and places where the market should not exist,
お金を払わずに
03:33
where we should be free
交流を楽しむ場であるべきだと
03:36
to enjoy the fellowship of others.
思っているのです
03:39
They recognize: Both of these things have to live together.
有料と無料の共存が必要です
03:42
And the second great thing about conservatives:
また保守派の人々は
03:46
they get ecology.
エコロジーです
03:49
Right, it was the first great Republican president of the 20th century
20世紀の共和党大統領で
03:51
who taught us about
エコロジーを提唱した
03:54
environmental thinking -- Teddy Roosevelt.
テディ・ルーズベルトです
03:56
They first taught us about ecology
天然資源の利用は
03:58
in the context of natural resources.
環境に優しいと教えました
04:00
And then they began to teach us in the context of
また経済の観点から
04:03
innovation, economics.
環境を説きました
04:05
They understand, in that context,
彼らは経済的には
04:07
"free." They understand "free" is an important
お金がかからないことが
04:09
essential part of the
文化環境において
04:12
cultural ecology as well.
重要だと分かっています
04:14
That's the thing I want you to think about them.
そこを考えて欲しいのです
04:16
Now, I know
まあ みなさんは
04:21
you don't believe me, really, here.
私の話を信じないでしょうから
04:23
So here's exhibit number one.
これを見てください
04:28
I want to share with you my latest hero, Julian Sanchez,
ジュリアン・サンチェス
04:30
a libertarian who works at the, for many people,
悪名高きCato研究所で働く
04:33
"evil" Cato Institute.
自由主義者です
04:36
Okay, so Julian made this video.
彼のビデオ技術は
04:39
He's a terrible producer of videos,
ひどいものですが
04:41
but it's great content, so I'm going to give you a little bit of it.
内容はすごいものです
04:43
So here he is beginning.
始まりましたよ
04:45
Julian Sanchez: I'm going to make an observation about the way
ジュリアン:リミックス文化の進化過程を
04:47
remix culture seems to be evolving ...
観察してみましょう
04:49
Larry Lessig: So what he does is he begins to tell us
ラリー・レッシグ:3本のビデオの
04:51
about these three videos.
説明をしています
04:53
This is this fantastic Brat Pack remix
生意気なガキどものリミックスです
04:56
set to Lisztomania.
Lisztomaniaを使っている
04:59
Which, of course, spread virally.
これが一気に広まり
05:03
Hugely successful.
大流行しました
05:05
(Music)
(音楽)
05:07
And then some people from Brooklyn saw it.
ブルックリンの誰かが
05:11
They decided they wanted to do the same.
似たものをつくりました
05:13
(Music)
(音楽)
05:20
And then, of course, people from San Fransisco saw it.
次にサンフランシスコで
05:37
And San Franciscans thought they had to do the same as well.
同じように考えました
05:39
(Music)
(音楽)
05:42
And so they're beautiful, but this libertarian
ジュリアンのこのビデオから
06:03
has some important lessons he wants us to learn from this.
学んで欲しい事の
06:06
Here's lesson number one.
一つ目はこれです
06:08
JS: There's obviously also something really deeply great about this.
JS:これには深い意味があります
06:11
They are acting in the sense that they're
彼らはオリジナルのマッシュアップの
06:15
emulating the original mashup.
真似をしています
06:18
And the guy who shot it obviously has a strong eye
本当に目のつけどころがいい
06:20
and some experience with video editing.
編集も上手です
06:23
But this is also basically just a group of friends
そして仲間内でのビデオが
06:25
having an authentic social moment
周囲を巻き込む
06:28
and screwing around together.
社会的力を持つのです
06:30
It should feel familiar and kind of resonate
仲間と歌ったり
06:32
for anyone who's had a sing-a-long or a dance party
踊った事がある人なら
06:34
with a group of good friends.
ビデオに共感できます
06:36
LL: Or ...
LL:ということは…
06:38
JS: So that's importantly different from the earlier videos we looked at
JS:初期のビデオとは全く違います
06:40
because here, remix isn't just about
リミックスは地下室で
06:43
an individual doing something alone in his basement;
一人でやるのではなく
06:45
it becomes an act of social creativity.
社会的創造行為なのです
06:48
And it's not just that it yields
そして最終的には
06:51
a different kind of product at the end,
新しいものをつくりながら
06:53
it's that potentially it changes the way that we relate to each other.
互いの関係を変える行為です
06:56
All of our normal social interactions
こうしたマッシュアップは
07:00
become a kind of invitation
日常のやり取りから
07:03
to this sort of collective expression.
生まれることもある
07:05
It's our real social lives themselves
現実の社会的営みが
07:07
that are transmuted into art.
アートへと昇華されるのです
07:09
LL: And so then, what this libertarian draws from these two points ...
LL:彼は2つのポイントを示します
07:12
JS: One remix is about
JS:まずリミックスは
07:15
individuals using our shared culture
仲間に伝える手段として
07:17
as a kind of language to communicate something to an audience.
個人が共通の文化を使うもの
07:19
Stage two, social remix,
ソーシャルリミックスは
07:22
is really about using it to mediate
人々の互いの関係を
07:24
people's relationships to each other.
取り持つのに使われています
07:26
First, within each video,
それぞれのビデオでは
07:29
the Brat Pack characters are used as a kind of template
一種の典型的な悪ガキが
07:31
for performing the social reality of each group.
社会的現実として登場します
07:34
But there's also a dialogue between the videos,
そしてビデオを比較する
07:37
where, once the basic structure is established,
基本的枠組みを決めれば
07:40
it becomes a kind of platform
各グループ内での
07:43
for articulating the similarities and differences
相違点や類似点がよく分かる
07:45
between the groups' social and physical worlds.
土台になるのです
07:48
LL: And then, here's for me,
LL:いいでしょうか
07:51
the critical key to what
一番重要なのは
07:53
Julian has to say ...
この先です
07:55
JS: Copyright policy isn't just about
JS:コピーライト政策とは
07:57
how to incentivize the production
芸術品などの生産を
07:59
of a certain kind of artistic commodity;
どう促進するかだけでなく
08:01
it's about what level of control
現実の社会への管理を
08:03
we're going to permit to be exercised
どの程度まで
08:05
over our social realities --
許容するかです
08:07
social realities that are now inevitably
現代の社会で主流なのは
08:09
permeated by pop culture.
ポップカルチャーです
08:12
I think it's important that we
芸術と大衆文化は
08:14
keep these two different kinds of public goods in mind.
二つとも守るべき公共物です
08:16
If we're only focused on how to maximize
片方だけをたくさん提供する
08:19
the supply of one,
方法をとるならば
08:22
I think we risk suppressing
より優れている
08:24
this different and richer
重要な作品が
08:26
and, in some ways, maybe even more important one.
公表できない危険があります
08:28
LL: Right. Bingo. Point.
LL:そうこれがポイントです
08:31
Freedom needs this opportunity
自由が保障されるには
08:34
to both have the commercial success
優れた商業的作品による
08:37
of the great commercial works
商業的な成功と
08:40
and the opportunity
異なる文化を築く機会が
08:42
to build this different kind of culture.
必要なのです
08:44
And for that to happen, you need
この改革のために
08:46
ideas like fair use to be central and protected,
フェアユースの発想が
08:48
to enable this kind of innovation,
保護されるべきです
08:51
as this libertarian tells us,
彼が言うように
08:54
between these two creative cultures,
商業文化と共有文化という
08:56
a commercial and a sharing culture.
2つの創造的文化においてね
08:59
The point is they, he, here,
彼が手にしているのが
09:02
gets that culture.
その文化です
09:04
Now, my concern is, we Dems,
いっぽうで民主主義者は
09:06
too often, not so much.
創造的文化と縁が薄い
09:09
All right, take for example this great company.
この有名な会社は
09:12
In the good old days when this Republican ran that company,
共和党支持者が始めました
09:16
their greatest work was work that built on the past, right.
よい作品は過去のものです
09:19
All of the great Disney works
全てのディズニー作品は
09:22
were works that took works that
著作権フリーの作品や
09:25
were in the public domain and remixed them,
フリーになるのを待って
09:27
or waited until they entered the public domain to remix them,
リミックスして作ったので
09:29
to celebrate this add-on remix creativity.
見事に創造性が発揮されました
09:32
Indeed, Mickey Mouse himself, of course,
実際にミッキーマウス
09:35
as "Steamboat Willie,"
"スチームボート・ウィリー"も
09:38
is a remix of the then, very dominant,
バスター・キートンによって
09:40
very popular "Steamboat Bill"
"スチームボート・ビル"にされ
09:43
by Buster Keaton.
世界中で有名になった
09:45
This man was a remixer extraordinaire.
彼のリミックスの才能は
09:47
He is the celebration and ideal
この種の文化には
09:50
of exactly this kind of creativity.
賞賛されるべきものです
09:52
But then the company passes
しかしディズニーは
09:55
through this dark stage
裏からこっそりと
09:57
to this Democrat.
民主党に近づいた
10:00
Wildly different.
やり方が違います
10:02
This is the mastermind behind
この首謀者が
10:04
the eventual passage of what we call
可決させたのが
10:06
the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act,
著作権期間延長法です
10:08
extending the term of existing copyrights
現存する著作権の期間が
10:11
by 20 years,
さらに20年延長されました
10:13
so that no one could do to Disney
もうディズニーが
10:15
what Disney did to the Brothers Grimm.
グリムにしたことはできません
10:17
Now, when we tried to challenge this,
私達はこれに抗議し
10:20
going to the Supreme Court, getting the Supreme Court, the bunch of conservatives there --
保守派の巣窟の最高裁に行き
10:22
if we could get them to wake up to this -- to strike it down,
法案を阻止しようとしました
10:25
we had the assistance of Nobel Prize winners
私達が協力を得た人々には
10:28
including this right-wing
ノーベル賞受賞者で右派の
10:31
Nobel Prize winner, Milton Friedman,
ミルトン・フリードマンがいます
10:34
who said he would join our brief
”考える余地のない”訴訟だけ
10:36
only if the word "no brainer"
参加すると
10:38
was in the brief somewhere.
報告書にありました
10:40
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:42
But apparently, no brains
民主党が法案を
10:44
existed in this place
通過させたときは
10:46
when Democrats passed and signed
"考えなし"に
10:48
this bill into law.
署名しました
10:50
Now, tiny little quibble of a footnote:
補足しておきますが
10:52
Sonny Bono, you might say, was a Republican,
ソニー・ボノは共和党員だと
10:54
but I don't buy it.
言うかもしれません
10:57
This guy is no Republican.
この男は違います
10:59
Okay, for a second example,
次の例です
11:02
think about this cultural hero,
このヒーローは
11:04
icon on the Left,
有名な左派で
11:06
creator of this character.
これの創造者です
11:09
Look at the site that he built: "Star Wars" MashUps,
ルーカスはサイトで
11:11
inviting people to come and use their creative energy
新しい世代を発掘するため
11:13
to produce a new generation of attention
"スター・ウォーズ"の
11:16
towards this extraordinarily important cultural icon.
マッシュアップを募集している
11:18
Read the license.
許諾を読むと
11:21
The license for these remixers
『リミックス作品は
11:23
assigns all of the rights
ジョージ・ルーカスに
11:25
to the remix back to Lucas.
全て帰属する』とあります
11:27
The mashup is owned by Lucas.
作品はルーカスの物なのです
11:29
Indeed, anything you add to the mashup,
マッシュアップで
11:32
music you might add,
加わる音楽も全て
11:34
Lucas has a worldwide perpetual right
権利者のルーカスが
11:36
to exploit that for free.
タダで利用できます
11:38
There is no creator here to be recognized.
クリエーターは知らずに
11:40
The creator doesn't have any rights.
権利を奪われるのです
11:43
The creator is a sharecropper in this story.
クリエーターは小作人です
11:45
And we should remember
思い出してください
11:48
who employed the sharecroppers:
小作人の雇い主は
11:50
the Democrats, right?
民主党員でしたね
11:52
So the point is the Republicans here
この点では共和党員は
11:54
recognize that there's a certain need
所有権の必要性を
11:57
of ownership,
理解していました
11:59
a respect for ownership,
所有権を尊重し
12:01
the respect we should give the creator,
クリエーターや
12:03
the remixer, the owner, the property owner,
著作権を有する者に対して
12:05
the copyright owner
敬意を払います
12:08
of this extraordinarily powerful stuff,
この力強い作品の所有者は
12:10
and not a generation of sharecroppers.
小作人の世代ではないのです
12:13
Now, I think there are lessons we should learn here,
ここで学ぶべきことは
12:19
lessons about openness.
寛容についてです
12:22
Our lives are sharing activities,
私達の生活は分かち合いです
12:24
at least in part.
少なくとも部分的には
12:27
Even for the head of Goldman Sachs,
ゴールドマン・サックス社長も
12:29
at least in part.
少なくとも部分的には
12:31
And for that sharing activity to happen, we have to have
そして分け合うためには
12:34
well-protected spaces of fair use.
フェアユースの保護が
12:36
That's number one. Number two:
第一条件です
12:39
This ecology of sharing
第二の条件として
12:41
needs freedom
創造するための
12:43
within which to create.
自由な利用権が必要です
12:45
Freedom, which means without permission from anyone,
誰の許諾も必要とせず
12:48
the ability to create.
創造できることです
12:51
And number three: We need to
そして第三に
12:53
respect the creator,
クリエイターを尊重し
12:55
the creator of these remixes
リミックス者が直接
12:57
through rights that are
利益を得る権利を
12:59
directly tied to them.
与えることです
13:01
Now, this explains the right-wing nonprofit
つまりこれが右派で非営利の
13:05
Creative Commons.
クリエイティブ・コモンズです
13:08
Actually, it's not a right-wing nonprofit,
実際は違いますが
13:10
but of course -- let me just tie it here --
結びつけてください
13:12
the Creative Commons, which is
クリエイティブ・コモンズは
13:14
offering authors this simple way to mark their content
作品にマークをつけることで
13:16
with the freedoms
自由に使える範囲が
13:19
they intended to carry.
分かる仕組みです
13:21
So that we go from a "all rights reserved" world
”著作権保持”から
13:23
to a "some rights reserved" world
”ある権利は保有する”時代です
13:25
so that people can know the freedoms they have attached to the content,
作品の利用許諾範囲が分かれば
13:28
building and creating
著作権がある作品を
13:31
on the basis of this
基礎にして
13:33
creative copyrighted work.
製作できます
13:35
These tools that we built
このツールで
13:37
enable this sharing in parts
許諾を明確にして
13:39
through licenses that make it clear
分かち合いができ
13:42
and a freedom to create
既に与えられた
13:44
without requiring permission first
許諾によって
13:46
because the permission has already been granted
自由に創作できます
13:48
and a respect for the creator because it builds upon
また作者の権利が尊重され
13:50
a copyright the creator
許諾不要の著作権を
13:53
has licensed freely.
設定できます
13:55
And it explains the vast right-wing conspiracy
右派の広範な企てによって
13:57
that's obviously developed around these licenses,
こうした許諾が浸透し
14:00
as now more than 350 million digital objects
クリエイティブ・コモンズ該当の
14:03
are out there, licensed freely
デジタル作品の数は
14:06
in this way.
3.5億個もあります
14:08
Now that picture of an ecology of creativity,
さてこのイメージ図は
14:10
the picture of an ecology
バランスのとれた創造が
14:13
of balanced creativity,
できる環境です
14:15
is that the ecology of creativity we have right now?
現在はそのような環境か?
14:17
Well, as you all know,
みなさんご存知のように
14:20
not many of us believe we do.
そうではありません
14:23
I tripped on the reality of this ecology of creativity
現実の環境に目を向け
14:25
just last week.
つい先週
14:28
I created a video which was based
ビデオを作りました
14:30
on a Wireside Chat that I'd given,
Wiresideチャットでね
14:32
and I uploaded it to YouTube.
YouTubeへアップしたら
14:34
I then got this email from YouTube
メールが届きました
14:37
weirdly notifying me
その警告によれば
14:39
that there was content in that
『Warner Music Groupの
14:41
owned by the mysterious WMG
所有する内容が含まれていて
14:43
that matched their content ID.
作品IDと一致した』そうです
14:46
So I didn't think much about it.
深く考えてなかったんですが
14:48
And then on Twitter, somebody said to me,
Twitterで誰かが
14:50
"Your talk on YouTube was DMCA'd. Was that your purpose?"
"著作権違反は故意か"と書き
14:52
imagining that I had this deep conspiracy
著作権法の欠点を明らかにする
14:55
to reveal the obvious flaws in the DMCA.
深い陰謀の存在を感じました
14:57
I answered, "No." I didn't even think about it.
”いいえ”と答えましたが
15:00
But then I went to the site
後で私のサイトを見ると
15:02
and all of the audio in my site had been silenced.
音声が全て消えていました
15:05
My whole 45-minute video
45分間のビデオが
15:09
had been silenced
無音になっていた
15:11
because there were snippets in that video,
音声の断片をつないだ
15:13
a video about fair use,
フェアユースのビデオで
15:15
that included Warner Music Group music.
Warner の音楽も入っていました
15:18
Now, interestingly,
興味深いことに
15:21
they still sold ads for that music,
その無音ビデオには
15:23
if you played the silent video.
音楽広告が出てきて
15:25
You could still buy the music,
音楽を買えるのです
15:27
but you couldn't hear anything
全体に無音声で
15:29
because it had been silenced.
何も聞こえないのに
15:31
So I did what the current regime
現行の制度で
15:33
says I must do
YouTubeの利用を
15:35
to be free to use
自由にしようと
15:37
YouTube to talk about fair use.
フェアユースを教えました
15:39
I went to this site, and I had to answer these questions.
このサイトで答えた質問は
15:42
And then in an extraordinarily
異常なほどに
15:45
Bart Simpson-like, juvenile way
子供じみたもので
15:47
you've actually got to type out these words
これらの言葉を正しく
15:50
and get them right
全部入力して
15:53
to reassert your freedom to speak.
言論の自由を主張する
15:55
And I felt like I was in third grade again.
まるで小学3年生が
15:57
"I will not put tacks on the teacher's chair.
教師のイスに画鋲なんて
16:00
I will not put tacks on the teacher's chair."
置いていませんと繰り返すよう
16:03
This is absurd.
こんなのバカらしい
16:07
It is outrageous.
理不尽です
16:09
It is an extraordinary perversion of the system of freedom
自由制度の乱用には
16:11
we should be encouraging.
勇気を持ちましょう
16:13
And the question I ask you is: Who's fighting it?
実際に闘っている人は?
16:15
Well, interestingly, in the last presidential election,
前回の大統領選で
16:17
who was the number one, active
オンライン演説で
16:20
opponent of this system of regulation
規制システムへの対抗に
16:22
in online speech?
熱心だったのは
16:25
John McCain.
ジョン・マケインです
16:27
Letter after letter attacking YouTube's refusal
YouTubeの警告と削除に対して
16:29
to be more respectful of fair use
フェアユースに敬意を払えと
16:32
with their extraordinary notice and take down system,
たくさん手紙を書いたのです
16:35
that led his campaign so many times
彼のキャンペーンは
16:37
to be thrown off the Internet.
ネットを越えて広がりました
16:39
Now, that was the story of me then,
私の話に戻りましょう
16:42
my good old days of right-wing lunacy.
愚かな右派だった子供の頃
16:45
Let me come back to now,
現在はどうか
16:48
now when I'm a little leftist --
やや左寄りです
16:50
I'm certainly left-handed, so at least a lefty --
まちがいなく左利きですよ
16:52
And I wonder, can we on the Left
では左派の人々が
16:55
expect to build this
自由な使用権の環境を
16:58
ecology of freedom, now,
築くでしょうか
17:01
in a world where
この世界には
17:03
we know the extraordinarily powerful
自由な使用に反対する
17:06
influences against it,
巨大な勢力があり
17:08
where even icons of the Left like this
このような左派の有名人が
17:10
entertain and push bills
法律を押し付けて
17:13
that would effectively ban the requirement
政府の調査の開示要求を
17:16
of open access for government-funded research?
効果的に禁じてしまうのです
17:19
The president, who has supported
大統領が支持しているのは
17:23
a process that secretly negotiates agreements,
ミレニアム著作権法という
17:26
which effectively lock us into the insane system
おかしな法律で国民を
17:29
of DMCA
規制することです
17:32
that we have adopted
この適用で私達は
17:34
and likely lock us down a path of three strikes, you're out
アウトも同然なのですが
17:36
that, of course, the rest of the world are increasingly adopting.
他の国でも適用が進んでいます
17:39
Not a single example of reform
まだ一つの改正例も
17:42
has been produced yet.
出されていないのです
17:45
And we're not going to see this change
この社会体制では
17:49
in this system
近いうちには
17:51
anytime soon.
変化はない
17:53
So here's the lessons of openness
だから寛容さというものを
17:55
that I think we need to learn.
私達は学ぶべきなのです
17:58
Openness is a commitment
別の価値観に
18:01
to a certain set of values.
耳を傾けるのです
18:03
We need to speak of those values.
話し合いが必要です
18:05
The value of freedom. It's a value of community.
自由利用権という価値は
18:07
It's a value of the limits in regulation.
規制を制限し
18:10
It's a value respecting the creator.
クリエイターを尊重します
18:12
Now, if we can learn those values
右派からの影響で
18:16
from at least some influences on the Right,
こうした価値を学ぶか
18:18
if we can take them and incorporate them,
自ら具体化すれば
18:20
maybe we could do a little trade.
少しは改善されます
18:22
We learn those values on the Left,
左派から学ぶ価値観は
18:24
and maybe they'll do health care
保健医療の実施や
18:27
or global warming legislation or something in the Right.
温暖化規制法ですか
18:29
Anyway, please join me
私の仲間に加わって
18:31
in teaching these values.
これを教えましょう
18:33
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
18:35
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:37
Translator:Noriyuki KOIKE
Reviewer:Chieko Tamakawa

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Lawrence Lessig - Legal activist
Lawrence Lessig has already transformed intellectual-property law with his Creative Commons innovation. Now he's focused on an even bigger problem: The US' broken political system.

Why you should listen

Lawyer and activist Lawrence Lessig spent a decade arguing for sensible intellectual property law, updated for the digital age. He was a founding board member of Creative Commons, an organization that builds better copyright practices through principles established first by the open-source software community.

In 2007, just after his last TED Talk, Lessig announced he was leaving the field of IP and Internet policy, and moving on to a more fundamental problem that blocks all types of sensible policy -- the corrupting influence of money in American politics.

In 2011, Lessig founded Rootstrikers, an organization dedicated to changing the influence of money in Congress. In his latest book, Republic, Lost, he shows just how far the U.S. has spun off course -- and how citizens can regain control. As The New York Times wrote about him, “Mr. Lessig’s vision is at once profoundly pessimistic -- the integrity of the nation is collapsing under the best of intentions --and deeply optimistic. Simple legislative surgery, he says, can put the nation back on the path to greatness.”

Read an excerpt of Lessig's new book, Lesterland >>

The original video is available on TED.com
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