13:39
TEDGlobal 2005

Jacqueline Novogratz: Invest in Africa's own solutions

ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツ 貧困に終止符をうつ投資

Filmed:

ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツは、世界中でアフリカと貧困への関心が高まりつつあることを称賛しつつも、説得力をもって新しいアプローチを主張します

- Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid. Full bio

I want to start with a story, a la Seth Godin,
セス・ゴーディン流に物語からはじめます
00:25
from when I was 12 years old.
12歳の時
00:28
My uncle Ed gave me a beautiful blue sweater --
叔父のエドから青いセーターをもらいました
00:30
at least I thought it was beautiful.
とても素敵なセーターで
00:33
And it had fuzzy zebras walking across the stomach,
柔毛のシマウマがお腹の辺りを横切り
00:35
and Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru were kind of
キリマンジャロ山とメル山が
00:38
right across the chest, that were also fuzzy.
胸の辺りにあって それも柔毛でした
00:41
And I wore it whenever I could,
機会があるごとに それを着て
00:43
thinking it was the most fabulous thing I owned.
最高のお気に入りでしたが
00:44
Until one day in ninth grade,
高校一年のある日
00:47
when I was standing with a number of the football players.
フットボール選手達と一緒にいたとき
00:49
And my body had clearly changed, and Matt Mussolina,
私の体つきは明らかに変貌を遂げ
00:52
who was undeniably my nemesis in high school,
高校での私の宿敵 マット・ムッソリーナが
00:56
said in a booming voice that
大きな声で
01:00
we no longer had to go far away to go on ski trips,
「スキー旅行に遠くへ行く必要なくなったね
01:01
but we could all ski on Mount Novogratz.
ノヴォグラッツ山でスキーできるからさ」
01:05
(Laughter)
(笑い)
01:07
And I was so humiliated and mortified
私は恥ずかしさと屈辱で
01:08
that I immediately ran home to my mother and chastised her
家に飛んで帰って母親に
01:11
for ever letting me wear the hideous sweater.
趣味の悪いセーターを着させたと非難し
01:15
We drove to the Goodwill and we threw the sweater away
グッドウィルへセーターを持って行き
01:16
somewhat ceremoniously,
儀式的な意味合いも込め セーターを投げ入れ
01:19
my idea being that I would never have to think about the sweater
このセーターを二度と思い出すことも
01:21
nor see it ever again.
見ることもないと思ってました
01:24
Fast forward -- 11 years later, I'm a 25-year-old kid.
それから 11年が経って 私は25歳の 子供で
01:25
I'm working in Kigali, Rwanda, jogging through the steep slopes,
ルワンダのキガリで働き 急な坂道をジョギングしていたとき
01:29
when I see, 10 feet in front of me, a little boy -- 11 years old --
3メートルほど先を、小さな男の子が --11歳の--
01:36
running toward me, wearing my sweater.
私のセーターを着て走ってきたのです
01:40
And I'm thinking, no, this is not possible.
私は そんな馬鹿な と思い
01:43
But so, curious, I run up to the child -- of course
でも 好奇心から その子供に走りより
01:45
scaring the living bejesus out of him --
--もちろん 彼をとても恐がらせてしまいました--
01:49
grab him by the collar, turn it over, and there is my name
襟元を掴んで 裏返し そこには
01:51
written on the collar of this sweater.
私の名前が書いてありました
01:54
I tell that story, because it has served and continues to serve
この話は いかに私達が この地球上で
01:56
as a metaphor to me about the level of connectedness
繋がっているかを 私に教えてくれる
02:01
that we all have on this Earth.
象徴的意味合いを持っています
02:05
We so often don't realize what our action and our inaction
私達は 自分の行動や 行動しないことが
02:07
does to people we think we will never see and never know.
見ず知らずの人に及ぼす影響など考えません
02:11
I also tell it because it tells a larger contextual story
この話は また もっと大きな文脈で 援助とは何か
02:15
of what aid is and can be.
どんな可能性があるのか を教えてくれます
02:18
That this traveled into the Goodwill in Virginia,
私のセーターは ヴァージニアのグッドウィルから
02:20
and moved its way into the larger industry,
その時 アフリカやアジアに何千万トンもの古着を
02:24
which at that point was giving millions of tons of secondhand clothing to Africa and Asia.
送っていた大きな産業界へと旅をしました
02:27
Which was a very good thing, providing low cost clothing.
低価格で洋服を提供するのは良いことです
02:31
And at the same time, certainly in Rwanda,
でも 同時に 特にルワンダでは
02:35
it destroyed the local retailing industry.
現地の小売業に打撃をあたえました
02:37
Not to say that it shouldn't have,
いけない事だとは言いません
02:39
but that we have to get better at answering the questions
ただ 私達は 影響や反応について考えるとき
02:41
that need to be considered when we think about consequences
考慮が必要な問題点に答えることを
02:44
and responses.
上手にやるべきです
02:47
So, I'm going to stick in Rwanda, circa 1985, 1986,
ルワンダに話を戻します 1985年 1986年頃
02:49
where I was doing two things.
私は2つのことをしていました
02:54
I had started a bakery with 20 unwed mothers.
20人の未婚の母たちとパン屋を初めました
02:55
We were called the "Bad News Bears," and our notion was
私達は 「かんばれ!ベアーズ」 と呼ばれ
02:58
we were going to corner the snack food business in Kigali,
キガリでスナック食品ビジネスを独占するつもりでした
03:00
which was not hard because there were no snacks before us.
それまでキガリにはスナックなんてなかったので 難しくはありませんでした
03:03
And because we had a good business model, we actually did it,
良いビジネスモデルがあり 達成できました
03:07
and I watched these women transform on a micro-level.
マイクロレベルで その女性達が 変化していくのを見ました
03:10
But at the same time, I started a micro-finance bank,
同じ時期に マイクロファイナンス銀行もはじめました
03:12
and tomorrow Iqbal Quadir is going to talk about Grameen,
明日 イクバル・カディールが グラミン銀行について話しますが
03:15
which is the grandfather of all micro-finance banks,
グラミンは すべてのマイクロファイナンス元祖です
03:18
which now is a worldwide movement -- you talk about a meme --
世界的運動になりました -ミーム現象のように-
03:21
but then it was quite new, especially in an economy
でも 当時は新しい試みでした 特に物々交換から貿易に
03:24
that was moving from barter into trade.
移行中の経済においては…
03:27
We got a lot of things right.
私達は多くのことを正しく行いました
03:30
We focused on a business model; we insisted on skin in the game.
ビジネスモデルに焦点をおき 自分の会社に投資することを主張しました
03:32
The women made their own decisions at the end of the day
女性達は どのようにこのクレジットを使って
03:35
as to how they would use this access to credit
小さな商売をはじめ 収入をふやし
03:38
to build their little businesses, earn more income
家族により良い暮らしをさせるか
03:40
so they could take care of their families better.
最終的には自ら決断しました
03:43
What we didn't understand, what was happening all around us,
でも私達は 周囲で何が起こっているかを理解していませんでした
03:46
with the confluence of fear, ethnic strife
恐れや 民族闘争
03:50
and certainly an aid game, if you will, that was playing into
そして もちろん援助ゲーム等がまじりあい
03:57
this invisible but certainly palpable movement inside Rwanda,
ルワンダ国内で 表には出ないものの明白な運動になりつつありました
04:02
that at that time, 30 percent of the budget was all foreign aid.
ルワンダでは其の頃 国家予算の30%を外国からの援助に頼っていました
04:08
The genocide happened in 1994,
民族虐殺が起こったのは 1994年
04:11
seven years after these women all worked together
女性達が同じ夢に向かって 共に働いた
04:13
to build this dream.
7年後の事でした
04:15
And the good news was that the institution,
私達のマイクロファイナンス銀行は
04:17
the banking institution, lasted.
幸いにも無事でした
04:19
In fact, it became the largest rehabilitation lender in the country.
国で一番大きな復興金融業者になりました
04:21
The bakery was completely wiped out,
パン屋は跡形もなくなりましたが
04:25
but the lessons for me were that accountability counts --
私は説明責任の大切さを学びました
04:27
got to build things with people on the ground,
現場の人と一緒に造り上げること そして
04:32
using business models where, as Steven Levitt would say,
スティーブン・レヴィが言うように インセンティブが重要になる
04:34
the incentives matter.
ビジネスモデルにすること
04:37
Understand, however complex we may be, incentives matter.
私達がどれほど複雑であれ インセンティブは重要なのです
04:39
So when Chris raised to me how wonderful everything
クリスがこういいました 世界中で素晴らしい事が
04:43
that was happening in the world,
おこっている
04:47
that we were seeing a shift in zeitgeist,
私達は 時代精神の変動を目の当たりにしてると
04:49
on the one hand I absolutely agree with him,
彼は全く正しいと思います
04:51
and I was so thrilled to see what happened with the G8 --
私は G8で起こっている事に感動しています
04:53
that the world, because of people like Tony Blair and Bono
--トニー・ブレアやボノ そして ボブ・ゲルドフのような人々のおかげで--
04:56
and Bob Geldof -- the world is talking about global poverty;
世界中の人々がグローバルな貧困について語っています
05:00
the world is talking about Africa
世界が 今までになかった調子で
05:04
in ways I have never seen in my life.
アフリカについて話しています
05:06
It's thrilling.
感動です
05:08
And at the same time, what keeps me up at night
でも一方 夜中に眠れなかったりするのは
05:09
is a fear that we'll look at the victories of the G8 --
私達がG8に期待する勝利が --
05:12
50 billion dollars in increased aid to Africa,
アフリカ援助に500億ドル増加
05:16
40 billion in reduced debt -- as the victory,
400億ドルの債務削減--これを勝利
05:19
as more than chapter one, as our moral absolution.
道徳的赦免 第一章以上進んだ と受け取ることへの恐れです
05:22
And in fact, what we need to do is see that as chapter one,
実際 私達はやっと第一章目を終えたところです
05:26
celebrate it, close it, and recognize that we need a chapter two
喜び 章を閉じた後で 二章目が必要だと気付くべきです
05:30
that is all about execution, all about the how-to.
すべて実行次第です やり方次第です
05:34
And if you remember one thing from what I want to talk about today,
今日私が言いたいことの中で 1つだけ覚えておいて欲しいのは
05:37
it's that the only way to end poverty, to make it history,
貧困に終止符を打つたった一つの方法は
05:40
is to build viable systems on the ground
存続能力のあるシステムをその土地に築くこと
05:44
that deliver critical and affordable goods and services to the poor,
貧しい人に手の届く必需品やサービスを提供する
05:47
in ways that are financially sustainable and scaleable.
財政面で持続可能かつ拡張性のあるシステムをです
05:51
If we do that, we really can make poverty history.
そうすれば貧困を過去のものにすることができます
05:54
And it was that -- that whole philosophy --
そしてそのことが --この哲学全体が--
05:57
that encouraged me to start my current endeavor
アキュメン・ファンドを立ち上げる励みとなりました
06:00
called "Acumen Fund,"
アキュメン・ファンドは
06:04
which is trying to build some mini-blueprints
パキスタン インド ケニア タンザニア そしてエジプトに
06:06
for how we might do that in water, health and housing
水や 医療 住居をどう提供するか
06:08
in Pakistan, India, Kenya, Tanzania and Egypt.
小さなブループリントを作ろうとしています
06:11
And I want to talk a little bit about that, and some of the examples,
皆さんが 私達の活動をイメージし易い様
06:14
so you can see what it is that we're doing.
例を交えて少し話します
06:19
But before I do this -- and this is another one of my pet peeves --
でも その前に -- これは私を苛立たせるのですが--
06:21
I want to talk a little bit about who the poor are.
貧しい人とはいったい誰をさすでしょう
06:24
Because we too often talk about them as these
私達はよく 自由を切望する
06:26
strong, huge masses of people yearning to be free,
強く 巨大な群集について話します
06:30
when in fact, it's quite an amazing story.
でも実は驚くような話です
06:33
On a macro level, four billion people on Earth make less than four dollars a day.
マクロレベルでは 地球上の40億人が1日4ドル以下で生活しています
06:38
That's who we talk about when we think about "the poor."
その人たちを 私達は貧しいと呼んでいます
06:43
If you aggregate it, it's the third largest economy on Earth,
総計すると 地球上で3番目に大きな経済です
06:45
and yet most of these people go invisible.
にもかかわらず ほとんどが目に見えない存在です
06:48
Where we typically work, there's people making between
私が活動するような場所では 人々は1日
06:51
one and three dollars a day.
1ドルから3ドル稼ぎます
06:53
Who are these people?
彼らは誰でしょう?
06:55
They are farmers and factory workers.
農家や工場で働く人々です
06:57
They work in government offices. They're drivers.
官庁で働く人 運転手
07:00
They are domestics.
家政婦
07:02
They typically pay for critical goods and services like water,
彼らは主に水や医療 住居などの必需品やサービスに出費します
07:05
like healthcare, like housing, and they pay 30 to 40 times
彼らは同じ国の中産階級者の
07:08
what their middleclass counterparts pay --
30から40倍支払います --
07:12
certainly where we work in Karachi and Nairobi.
特にカラチやナイロビでは
07:14
The poor also are willing to make, and do make, smart decisions,
貧しい人は 賢い選択をしようとし 事実賢い選択をします
07:18
if you give them that opportunity.
もし機会が与えられればです
07:22
So, two examples.
2つの例を上げます
07:24
One is in India, where there are 240 million farmers,
ひとつ目は24百万の農民がいるインド
07:26
most of whom make less than two dollars a day.
ほとんどの人の収入が一日2ドル以下です
07:29
Where we work in Aurangabad, the land is extraordinarily parched.
私達の働くオーランガバードでは 土地が非常に乾燥しており
07:31
You see people on average making 60 cents to a dollar.
人々の平均収入は60セントから1ドルです
07:35
This guy in pink is a social entrepreneur named Ami Tabar.
このピンクの服を着ている男性は アミ・タバー 社会起業家です
07:38
What he did was see what was happening in Israel, larger approaches,
彼はイスラエルで起こっている 大きな取り組みを見て
07:42
and figure out how to do a drip irrigation,
点滴灌漑をする方法を編み出しました
07:45
which is a way of bringing water directly to the plant stock.
水を直接植物に運んでくる方法です
07:48
But previously it's only been created for large-scale farms,
以前は 大型農場でのみ可能でした
07:53
so Ami Tabar took this and modularized it down to an eighth of an acre.
アミ・タバーは これを8分の1エーカーに モジュール化しました
07:56
A couple of principles:
原則は
08:01
build small.
小さく作る
08:03
Make it infinitely expandable and affordable to the poor.
無限に拡張出来 貧しい人に手が届くように作る
08:05
This family, Sarita and her husband, bought a 15-dollar unit
この家族 サリタと彼女の夫は 一式15ドルの設備を購入したとき
08:07
when they were living in a -- literally a three-walled lean-to
彼らは 壁が3つしかないトタン屋根の
08:12
with a corrugated iron roof.
小屋に住んでいました
08:15
After one harvest, they had increased their income enough
収穫の後 彼らの収入は4分の1エーカーすべてをカバーする
08:18
to buy a second system to do their full quarter-acre.
システムが購入出来るまでに増えました
08:22
A couple of years later, I meet them.
2年後 彼らに会いました
08:25
They now make four dollars a day, which is pretty much middle class for India,
彼らは1日4ドル稼ぎ インドの中流階級並です
08:27
and they showed me the concrete foundation they had just laid
彼らは 家を建てるために敷いたばかりのコンクリート基礎を
08:30
to build their house.
見せてくれました
08:35
And I swear, you could see the future in that woman's eyes.
本当に 彼女の目には未来に輝いていました
08:36
Something I truly believe.
私はそう信じます
08:39
You can't talk about poverty today without talking about malaria bed nets,
マラリア用蚊帳を語らずに 今日の貧困は語れません
08:41
and I again give Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard
ハーバードのジェフリー・サックスが
08:44
huge kudos for bringing to the world
-5ドルで命が救える- という流行的概念を
08:47
this notion of his rage -- for five dollars you can save a life.
世界にもたらしたことを 大いに称賛します
08:50
Malaria is a disease that kills one to three million people a year.
マラリアで毎年100-300万の人が亡くなり
08:54
300 to 500 million cases are reported.
3億から5億件が報告されます
08:58
It's estimated that Africa loses
アフリカはこの疾患で毎年
09:00
about 13 billion dollars a year to the disease.
130億を喪失すると推定されます
09:02
Five dollars can save a life.
5ドルで命が救えます
09:04
We can send people to the moon; we can see if there's life on Mars --
私達は人々を月に送り 火星に生命体がいるか調査することが出来ます--
09:06
why can't we get five-dollar nets to 500 million people?
なぜ5億人に5ドルのネットを提供できないのでしょう?
09:09
The question, though, is not "Why can't we?"
それは なぜ出来ないか が問題なのではなく
09:13
The question is how can we help Africans do this for themselves?
問題は どうすればアフリカ人が自分で出来るよう支援できるか?
09:16
A lot of hurdles.
ハードルは沢山あります
09:21
One: production is too low. Two: price is too high.
1つ:生産性が低すぎる 2つ:価格が高すぎる
09:22
Three: this is a good road in -- right near where our factory is located.
3つ目: これが良い道です -- 工場のすぐ近くにあります
09:25
Distribution is a nightmare, but not impossible.
流通は悪夢です でも不可能ではありません
09:30
We started by making a 350,000-dollar loan
私達は従来の蚊帳を生産するアフリカ最大の工場に
09:33
to the largest traditional bed net manufacturer in Africa
35万ドルの融資をし
09:37
so that they could transfer technology from Japan
日本からの技術を導入し
09:39
and build these long-lasting, five-year nets.
5年間は長持ちする蚊帳の生産を始めました
09:44
Here are just some pictures of the factory.
これらは工場の写真です
09:46
Today, three years later, the company has employed
3年後の今日 会社は追加で1000人の
09:48
another thousand women.
女性を雇用
09:51
It contributes about 600,000 dollars in wages to the economy of Tanzania.
タンザニア経済に60万ドルの賃金を貢献しています
09:54
It's the largest company in Tanzania.
タンザニアで一番大きな会社です
09:59
The throughput rate right now is 1.5 million nets,
現在の年間生産能力は150万蚊帳です
10:01
three million by the end of the year.
年末には300万になります
10:04
We hope to have seven million at the end of next year.
来年末には700万を見込んでいます
10:06
So the production side is working.
生産サイドは上手く行っています
10:09
On the distribution side, though,
一方で流通面は
10:11
as a world, we have a lot of work to do.
まだまだ やることが 沢山あります
10:12
Right now, 95 percent of these nets are being bought by the U.N.,
現在では これらの蚊帳の95パーセントを国連が購入します
10:14
and then given primarily to people around Africa.
そして主にアフリカ各地の人に配布されます
10:18
We're looking at building
私達はアフリカの
10:22
on some of the most precious resources of Africa: people.
最も貴重な資源を開発しています --人間という資源です
10:24
Their women.
女性達です
10:27
And so I want you to meet Jacqueline,
ジャクリーンを紹介します
10:29
my namesake, 21 years old.
私と同じ名前ですが 21歳です
10:31
If she were born anywhere else but Tanzania,
もし彼女がタンザニア以外で生まれていたら
10:33
I'm telling you, she could run Wall Street.
彼女はウォールストリートを取り仕切っていたでしょう
10:35
She runs two of the lines, and has already saved enough money
彼女は2つのラインを担当し
10:37
to put a down payment on her house.
家の頭金として十分な貯金も蓄え
10:41
She makes about two dollars a day, is creating an education fund,
1日2ドルの収入があり 教育基金を作っています
10:43
and told me she is not marrying nor having children
これをやり遂げるまでは
10:47
until these things are completed.
結婚もしないし 子供も作らないと言っています
10:50
And so, when I told her about our idea --
彼女に私達のアイデアを話したとき
10:53
that maybe we could take a Tupperware model from the United States,
--米国のタッパーウェアーモデルを取り入れ
10:55
and find a way for the women themselves to go out
女性達自身が外に出て
10:58
and sell these nets to others --
他の女性にこれらの蚊帳を売る--
11:01
she quickly started calculating what she herself could make
彼女はすばやく自分がこれでいくら稼げるか計算し
11:03
and signed up.
加入しました
11:06
We took a lesson from IDEO, one of our favorite companies,
私のお気に入りの会社の一つ IDEO から学んで
11:08
and quickly did a prototyping on this,
すぐに試作品をつくり
11:13
and took Jacqueline into the area where she lives.
ジャクリンと彼女の住む界隈に行きました
11:15
She brought 10 of the women with whom she interacts
彼女は10人の顔見知りの女性を連れてきて
11:18
together to see if she could sell these nets, five dollars apiece,
5ドルでこの蚊帳を売れるかを試してみました
11:22
despite the fact that people say nobody will buy one,
誰も買わないと人々は言いました
11:24
and we learned a lot about how you sell things.
売る方法について沢山学びがありました
11:27
Not coming in with our own notions,
私達の常識どおりではなく
11:30
because she didn't even talk about malaria until the very end.
彼女はマラリアについては最後の方までふれず
11:32
First, she talked about comfort, status, beauty.
最初に 快適さ ステータス 美しさを説き
11:34
These nets, she said, you put them on the floor, bugs leave your house.
彼女は言いました この蚊帳を床に敷けば 虫は家に寄り付かなくなり
11:37
Children can sleep through the night;
子供は夜目を覚まさず
11:40
the house looks beautiful; you hang them in the window.
窓にかければ家がお洒落に見える
11:42
And we've started making curtains,
そして私達はカーテンを作り始め
11:44
and not only is it beautiful, but people can see status --
それはお洒落だけでなく ステータスを表わします--
11:46
that you care about your children.
子供のことを考えているという
11:50
Only then did she talk about saving your children's lives.
そして最後に 彼女は子供の命を守るということを話します
11:51
A lot of lessons to be learned in terms of how we sell
貧しい人に物やサービスを売る方法について
11:56
goods and services to the poor.
いろいろ学びがありました
11:59
I want to end just by saying that there's enormous opportunity
最後に言わせて下さい 貧困を過去のものにするには
12:03
to make poverty history.
たくさんの可能性があります
12:08
To do it right, we have to build business models that matter,
正しくやるためには そのためのビジネスモデルが必要です
12:10
that are scaleable and that work with Africans, Indians,
拡張可能でアフリカやインド
12:13
people all over the developing world
開発途上国のカテゴリーに入る
12:17
who fit in this category, to do it themselves.
世界中すべての人々が自分達で出来るビジネスモデルです
12:19
Because at the end of the day, it's about engagement.
なぜなら 結局のところは 係わり合いなのです
12:22
It's about understanding that people really don't want handouts,
人々は本当は施しなんて求めていない事への理解
12:25
that they want to make their own decisions;
彼らは自分達で選択権を持ち
12:28
they want to solve their own problems;
自分達で問題を解決したく
12:30
and that by engaging with them,
彼らと係わり合うことで
12:32
not only do we create much more dignity for them,
彼らが誇りを感じるだけでなく
12:34
but for us as well.
私達も誇りを感じます
12:37
And so I urge all of you to think next time
私達がもっている この観念と可能性に
12:39
as to how to engage with this notion and this opportunity
どう係わっていくか 次回から考えてください
12:42
that we all have -- to make poverty history --
--貧困を過去のものにする為に--
12:46
by really becoming part of the process
プロセスの一部となり
12:49
and moving away from an us-and-them world,
-私達と彼ら- という世界から
12:51
and realizing that it's about all of us,
すべて私達だと悟り
12:53
and the kind of world that we, together, want to live in and share.
皆が共に住まい 分かち合える世界に移行するように
12:55
Thank you.
有難うございました
12:58
(Applause)
(拍手)
12:59
Translated by Kayo Mizutani
Reviewed by Masaaki Ueno

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About the Speaker:

Jacqueline Novogratz - Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

Why you should listen

One of the most innovative players shaping philanthropy today, Jacqueline Novogratz is redefining the way problems of poverty can be solved around the world. Drawing on her past experience in banking, microfinance and traditional philanthropy, Novogratz has become a leading proponent for financing entrepreneurs and enterprises that can bring affordable clean water, housing and healthcare, energy, agriculture and education to poor people so that they no longer have to depend on the disappointing results and lack of accountability seen in traditional charity and old-fashioned aid.

Acumen, which she founded in 2001, has an ambitious plan: to change the way the world tackles poverty. Indeed, Acumen has more in common with a venture capital fund than a typical nonprofit. Rather than handing out grants, Acumen invests in early stage companies and organizations that bring critical -- often life-altering -- products and services to the world's poor. Like VCs, Acumen offers not just money, but also infrastructure and management expertise. From drip-irrigation systems in India to high quality solar lighting solutions in East Africa to a low-cost mortgage program in Pakistan, Acumen's portfolio offers important case studies for entrepreneurial efforts aimed at the vastly underserved market of those making less than $4/day.

It's a fascinating model that's shaken up philanthropy and investment communities alike. Acumen manages more than $80 million in investments aimed at serving the poor. And most of their projects deliver stunning, inspiring results. Their success can be traced back to Novogratz herself, who possesses that rarest combination of business savvy and cultural sensitivity. In addition to seeking out sound business models, she places great importance on identifying solutions from within communities rather than imposing them from the outside. “People don't want handouts," Novogratz said at TEDGlobal 2005. "They want to make their own decisions, to solve their own problems.”

In her book, The Blue Sweater, she tells stories from the new philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

More profile about the speaker
Jacqueline Novogratz | Speaker | TED.com