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TEDGlobal 2010

Christien Meindertsma: How pig parts make the world turn

クリスティン・メンデルツマ 「世界はブタで回っている」

July 9, 2010

“Pig 05049”の著者であるクリスティン・メンデルツマは、ふつうの一匹のブタの体が、銃弾から人工心臓まで、185にも及ぶブタ肉以外の製品へと変わっていく驚くべき様に目を向けています。

Christien Meindertsma - Artist
Christien Meindertsma uses art (and craft) to expose the hidden processes and connections of our modern life. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Hello. I would like to start my talk
こんにちは 最初に2つの
00:16
with actually two questions, and the first one is:
質問から始めたいと思います
00:18
How many people here actually eat pig meat?
ブタ肉を食べるという人はどれくらいいますか?
00:20
Please raise your hand --
手を挙げてください
00:23
oh, that's a lot.
たくさんいますね
00:25
And how many people have actually seen
ではブタ肉の元になる
00:27
a live pig producing this meat?
生きたブタを見たことのある人は?
00:29
In the last year?
最近1年以内に見た人?
00:31
In the Netherlands -- where I come from --
私の国オランダでは
00:34
you actually never see a pig, which is really strange,
ブタはまず見かけません 変な話です
00:36
because, on a population of 16 million people,
人口1600万の国に
00:39
we have 12 million pigs.
ブタが1200万匹もいるんですから
00:41
And well, of course, the Dutch can't eat all these pigs.
オランダだけで全部は食べられません
00:44
They eat about one-third, and the rest is exported
3分の1を食べて 後はヨーロッパや
00:46
to all kinds of countries in Europe and the rest of the world.
世界中に輸出されています
00:49
A lot goes to the U.K., Germany.
イギリスとドイツが多いですね
00:52
And what I was curious about --
私が興味があったのは
00:54
because historically, the whole pig would be used up until the last bit
歴史的に ブタは少しも無駄にすることなく
00:56
so nothing would be wasted --
全部何かに使われたそうですが
00:59
and I was curious to find out
今でもそうなのか
01:01
if this was actually still the case.
ということです
01:03
And I spent about three years researching.
それで3年かけて調査しました
01:05
And I followed this one pig
ある一匹のブタ
01:07
with number "05049,"
“05049”を
01:09
all the way up until the end
最後まで追いかけ続け
01:11
and to what products it's made of.
何が作られるのか調べました
01:13
And in these years, I met all kinds people
そして様々な人たちに会いました
01:15
like, for instance, farmers and butchers, which seems logical.
たとえば農家や肉屋さんは 当然ですよね
01:17
But I also met aluminum mold makers,
でもそれだけでなく アルミ金型製造会社や
01:20
ammunition producers
兵器製造業者といった
01:23
and all kinds of people.
あらゆる人々に会ったのです
01:25
And what was striking to me
私が驚いたのは 農家の人が
01:27
is that the farmers actually had no clue
自分のブタから何が作られるのか
01:29
what was made of their pigs,
全然知らなかったことです
01:31
but the consumers -- as in us --
私たちのような消費者もまた
01:33
had also no idea
ブタが様々な製品に使われているのを
01:36
of the pigs being in all these products.
知らずにいます
01:38
So what I did is,
そこで私は
01:40
I took all this research
様々な調査をして 最終的には
01:42
and I made it into a -- well, basically it's a product catalog of this one pig,
1匹のブタから作られる製品のカタログにまとめました
01:44
and it carries a duplicate of his ear tag
背のところに ブタさんの耳タグを
01:47
on the back.
飾りに付けてあります
01:50
And it consists of seven chapters --
7つの章があって それぞれ
01:52
the chapters are skin, bones, meat, internal organs,
皮、骨、肉、内臓、
01:55
blood, fat and miscellaneous.
血、脂肪、それに…その他もろもろ
01:57
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:00
In total,
全部で
02:02
they weigh 103.7 kilograms.
103.7キロになります
02:04
And to show you how often you actually
日常生活の中で ブタの一部に どれほど多く
02:06
meet part of this pig in a regular day,
出会っているか分かるように
02:09
I want to show you some images of the book.
本にある写真をいくつかお見せしましょう
02:11
You probably start the day with a shower.
1日の始めにシャワーを浴びますが
02:15
So, in soap, fatty acids
石鹸には
02:17
made from boiling pork bone fat
ブタの骨脂を煮て作る
02:19
are used as a hardening agent,
脂肪酸が硬化剤に使われていて
02:21
but also for giving it a pearl-like effect.
それが真珠のような光沢も生み出しています
02:23
Then if you look around you in the bathroom,
お風呂場を見回すと
02:26
you see lots more products
他にもいろいろあります
02:28
like shampoo, conditioner,
シャンプー、コンディショナー、
02:30
anti-wrinkle cream, body lotion,
しわ取りクリーム、ボディローション、
02:32
but also toothpaste.
それに歯磨きもそう
02:35
Then, so, before breakfast,
だから朝食前だけでこんなに
02:37
you've already met the pig so many times.
ブタと出会っているわけです
02:39
Then, at breakfast, the pig that I followed,
それから朝食では
02:42
the hairs off the pig or proteins from the hairs off the pig
ブタの毛から取れるタンパク質が
02:44
were used as an improver of dough.
パン生地の改良剤として使われています
02:47
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:50
Well, that's what the producer says: it's "improving the dough,
製造業者がそう言ってるんです
02:52
of course."
それで「改良」されるんだと
02:54
In low-fat butter, or actually in many low-fat products,
低脂肪バターのような製品の多くは
02:57
when you take the fat out, you actually take the taste and the texture out.
脂肪を除くと 風味や歯触りがなくなるので
02:59
So what they do is they put gelatin back in,
製造業者は質感を取り戻すために
03:02
in order to retain the texture.
ゼラチンを入れています
03:05
Well, when you're off to work, under the road or under the buildings that you see,
仕事に行くとき 道の下や 建物の下には
03:09
there might very well be cellular concrete,
気泡コンクリートがあります
03:12
which is a very light kind of concrete
とても軽いコンクリートで
03:14
that's actually got proteins from bones inside
中には骨から取られたタンパク質が入っていて
03:16
and it's also fully reusable.
再利用も可能になっています
03:19
In the train brakes -- at least in the German train brakes --
ドイツの電車のブレーキには
03:22
there's this part of the brake
骨灰でできた
03:24
that's made of bone ash.
部分があります
03:26
And in cheesecake and all kinds of desserts,
チーズケーキのようなデザート チョコレートムースや
03:28
like chocolate mousse, tiramisu, vanilla pudding,
ティラミス、バニラプディング、
03:31
everything that's cooled in the supermarket,
スーパーで冷やしてあるものはみな
03:33
there's gelatin to make it look good.
きれいに見えるよう ゼラチンが使われています
03:35
Fine bone china -- this is a real classic.
陶器には長い伝統がありますが
03:38
Of course, the bone in fine-bone china
ファイン・ボーン・チャイナの中の
03:40
gives it its translucency
ボーン(骨)が
03:42
and also its strength,
透明感と強さを与えていて
03:44
in order to make these really fine shapes,
このシカのような
03:46
like this deer.
繊維な形にできるのです
03:48
In interior decorating, the pig's actually quite there.
室内装飾にも ブタはたくさん使われています
03:51
It's used in paint for the texture,
塗料には肌合いや
03:54
but also for the glossiness.
光沢感を与えています
03:57
In sandpaper, bone glue
紙やすりでは にかわが
03:59
is actually the glue between the sand and the paper.
紙と砂を接着するのに使われています
04:01
And then in paintbrushes,
それからペンキ用の刷毛には
04:05
hairs are used because, apparently, they're very suitable for making paintbrushes
ブタの毛が使われていますが 丈夫なので
04:07
because of their hard-wearing nature.
刷毛を作るのにぴったりなんです
04:10
I was not planning on showing you any meat
肉はお見せしないつもりでした
04:13
because, of course, half the book's meat
本の半分は肉の話ですが
04:15
and you probably all know what meats they are.
ブタ肉は 皆さんご存知ですよね
04:17
But I didn't want you to miss out on this one,
でも見逃してほしくないのは
04:19
because this, well, it's called "portion-controlled meat cuts."
「包装肉」と呼ばれているものです
04:21
And this is actually sold
スーパーの冷凍コーナーで
04:24
in the frozen area of the supermarket.
実際に売られています
04:26
And what it is -- it's actually steak.
何なのかというと ステーキ肉で
04:28
So, this is sold as cow,
一種の牛肉なんですが
04:30
but what happens when you slaughter a cow --
牛を解体したとき
04:32
at least in industrial factory farming --
工場式農場の場合特に
04:34
they have all these little bits of steak left
ステーキとしては売れない
04:37
that they can't actually sell as steak,
細かい切れ端が残ります
04:39
so what they do is they glue them all together
それでどうするかというと ブタの血から取った
04:41
with fibrin from pig blood
繊維素でくっつけ
04:44
into this really large sausage,
すごく大きなソーセージを作り
04:46
then freeze the sausage, cut it in little slices
それを凍らせて スライスして
04:48
and sell those as steak again.
再びステーキとして売るのです
04:51
And this also actually happens with tuna and scallops.
同じことはツナやスカロップでも行われています
04:54
So, with the steak, you might drink a beer.
ステーキと一緒にビールを
05:00
In the brewing process, there's lots of cloudy elements in the beer,
飲むかもしれませんね ビールは醸造プロセスで
05:02
so to get rid of these cloudy elements,
濁りができます
05:05
what some companies do
それでビール会社は
05:07
is they pour the beer through a sort of gelatin sieve
ゼラチンの濾し器を通すことで
05:09
in order to get rid of that cloudiness.
ビールの濁りを取っています
05:11
This actually also goes for wine as well as fruit juice.
これはワインや果物ジュースでも行われています
05:14
There's actually a company in Greece
ギリシャのあるタバコ会社では
05:19
that produces these cigarettes
ブタのヘモグロビンを
05:21
that actually contain hemoglobin from pigs in the filter.
フィルタに入れたタバコを作っています
05:23
And according to them,
彼らによれば それで
05:26
this creates an artificial lung in the filter.
フィルタに人工肺ができるそうです
05:28
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:30
So, this is actually a healthier cigarette.
だからそれで健康的なタバコになるわけです
05:32
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:35
Injectable collagen -- or, since the '70s, collagen from pigs --
70年代以降 ブタのコラーゲンは
05:37
has been used for injecting into wrinkles.
皮膚のしわへの注入に使われてきました
05:40
And the reason for this is that pigs are actually quite close to human beings,
ブタが実際ヒトにとても近いためで
05:42
so the collagen is as well.
コラーゲンもそうなんです
05:45
Well, this must be the strangest thing I found.
これは私が見つけた中で一番奇妙なものでした
05:49
This is a bullet coming from
アメリカの大手兵器会社が
05:52
a very large ammunition company in the United States.
作っている銃弾です
05:54
And while I was making the book,
本を書いていたとき
05:57
I contacted all the producers of products
製品の製造者すべてに連絡して
05:59
because I wanted them to send me the real samples
実物のサンプルや見本を
06:01
and the real specimens.
送ってくれるよう頼んでいました
06:03
So I sent this company an email
この会社にもメールを書きました
06:06
saying, "Hello. I'm Christien. I'm doing this research.
「こんにちは 私クリスティン 研究をしています
06:08
And can you send me a bullet?"
弾を一発送ってくださいな」
06:10
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:12
And well, I didn't expect them to even answer my email.
返事をもらえるとは期待してませんでしたが
06:14
But they answered
彼らは返事をくれました
06:16
and they said, "Why, thank you for your email. What an interesting story.
「メールをありがとう とても興味深い話ですね
06:18
Are you in anyway related to the Dutch government?"
あなたはオランダ政府関係の方なんですか?」
06:21
I thought that was really weird,
オランダ政府が誰かにメールするなんて
06:24
as if the Dutch government sends emails to anyone.
すごく変なことだと思いました
06:26
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:28
So, the most beautiful thing I found --
私が見つけた中で一番美しいと思ったものは
06:33
at least what I think is the most beautiful -- in the book, is this heart valve.
心臓の弁です
06:36
It's actually a very low-tech
これはローテクであると同時に
06:39
and very high-tech product at the same time.
ハイテクな製品です
06:41
The low-tech bit is that it's literally a pig's heart valve
ブタの心臓弁そのものというローテクなものが
06:43
mounted in the high-tech bit,
形状記憶合金の枠という
06:46
which is a memory metal casing.
ハイテクなものに取り付けられています
06:48
And what happens is this can be implanted into a human heart
それで何をするかというと 人の心臓に移植します
06:50
without open heart surgery.
心臓切開せずにできるんです
06:53
And once it's in the right spot,
適切な場所に行ったところで
06:55
they remove the outer shell,
外枠をはずしてやると
06:57
and the heart valve, well, it gets this shape
心臓弁がこの形になって
06:59
and at that moment it starts beating, instantly.
即座に鼓動を始めます
07:01
It's really a sort of magical moment.
本当に魔法のような瞬間です
07:04
So this is actually a Dutch company,
そこはオランダの会社だったので
07:07
so I called them up, and I asked,
電話をかけて頼みました
07:09
"Can I borrow a heart valve from you?"
「心臓弁をお借りできませんか?」
07:11
And the makers of this thing were really enthusiastic.
彼らはすごく協力的で
07:14
So they were like, "Okay, we'll put it in a jar for you with formalin,
「ではホルマリンに漬けて容器に入れてお送りします」
07:16
and you can borrow it."
と言いました
07:19
Great -- and then I didn't hear from them for weeks,
でも何週間しても届かないので
07:21
so I called,
また電話しました
07:24
and I asked, "What's going on with the heart valve?"
「心臓弁はどうなりました?」
07:26
And they said, "Well the director of the company
そしたら「会社の重役が 貸さないと決めたんです
07:28
decided not to let you borrow this heart valve,
製品をブタと
07:31
because want his product
関連付けられたくないので」
07:33
to be associated with pigs."
とのことでした
07:35
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:38
Well, the last product from the book that I'm showing you is renewable energy --
紹介する最後の製品は 再生可能エネルギーです
07:41
actually, to show that my first question,
ブタは今でも 全部使われているのか―
07:44
if pigs are still used up until the last bit, was still true.
という最初の疑問への答えは イエスでした
07:46
Well it is, because everything that can't be used for anything else
使い道のない部分はすべて
07:49
is made into a fuel
再生可能エネルギーの
07:52
that can be used as renewable energy source.
燃料に使われているからです
07:54
In total, I found 185 products.
私は全部で185種類の製品を見つけました
07:58
And what they showed me
それが示しているのは
08:01
is that, well, firstly,
第1に 私たちが
08:03
it's at least to say odd
ブタたちを
08:05
that we don't treat these pigs
大切に扱っていないのは
08:07
as absolute kings and queens.
変だということです
08:09
And the second, is that we actually don't have a clue
第2に 身の回りの製品が何から作られているのか
08:12
of what all these products that surround us are made of.
私たちは まったく知らずにいるということです
08:15
And you might think I'm very fond of pigs,
私が大のブタ好きだとお思いでしょうね…
08:18
but actually -- well, I am a little bit --
まあ 少しだけ…
08:21
but I'm more fond
一般に私は
08:23
of raw materials in general.
素材が好きなんです
08:25
And I think that, in order to take better care
私たちが使う製品の裏にあるものに
08:27
of what's behind our products --
もっと配慮するためには…
08:30
so, the livestock, the crops, the plants,
家畜、穀物、植物、
08:32
the non-renewable materials,
非再生可能原料、
08:35
but also the people that produce these products --
それに製品を作っている人たちもですが…
08:37
the first step would actually be to know that they are there.
第一歩は それがそこにあると知ることだと思います
08:40
Thank you very much.
どうもありがとうございました
08:43
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:45
Translator:Yasushi Aoki
Reviewer:Kayo Mizutani

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Christien Meindertsma - Artist
Christien Meindertsma uses art (and craft) to expose the hidden processes and connections of our modern life.

Why you should listen

Dutch artist Christien Meindertsma explores raw materials in thoughtful ways, making simple books and products that lay bare complex and once-hidden processes. For her first book, Checked Baggage, she purchased a container filled with a week's worth of objects confiscated at security checkpoints at Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport after 9/11. She meticulously categorized all 3,267 items and photographed them on a white seamless background. Her second book, PIG 05049, documents the astounding array of products that different parts of a pig named 05049 could support -- revealing the lines that link raw materials with producers, products and consumers that have become so invisible in an increasingly globalized world. PIG 05049 was acquired by New York's Museum of Modern Art this winter.

With her product designs, Meindertsma plays with ancient, natural materials and processes. In a project for the Nature Conservancy last year, she made the sensuous Idaho rug, knitted from inch-thick felted wool yarn from the fleece of sheep at Lava Lake Ranch in Idaho. Each panel of the massive rug was knitted (on giant wooden needles) from the fleece of one sheep, using a different stitch per animal to display the personalities that make up a flock.

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