18:34
TEDGlobal 2010

Jessica Jackley: Poverty, money -- and love

ジェシカ・ジャクリー: 貧困、お金、そして愛

Filmed:

貧しい人のことをあなたはどう考えているでしょうか。かつてのジェシカ・ジャクリーと同じように、「彼ら」は「私たち」の助けを必要としていると考え、ボトルにコインを貯めたりしていませんか。Kiva.org の共同創立者のジェシカ・ジャクリーが、彼女の考え方がどう変わり、彼女が進めるマイクロファイナンスが一日数ドルで暮らす人たちにどんなに新しい力をもたらしているかを語ります。

- Microlender
Jessica Jackley is the co-founder of Kiva.org, an online community that helps individuals loan small amounts of money, called microloans, to entrepreneurs throughout the world. Full bio

The stories we tell about each other
お互いを語り合う物語は
00:16
matter very much.
大切です
00:18
The stories we tell ourselves about our own lives matter.
自分の人生を語ることも大切です
00:21
And most of all,
そして何よりも
00:24
I think the way that we participate in each other's stories
お互いの物語にいかに関わって行くかが
00:26
is of deep importance.
非常に大切だと思います
00:28
I was six years old
6歳のときのこと
00:31
when I first heard stories about the poor.
初めて 貧しい人の話を聞きました
00:33
Now I didn't hear those stories from the poor themselves,
貧しい人から直接聞いたのではなくて
00:35
I heard them from my Sunday school teacher
日曜学校の先生を通じて
00:37
and Jesus, kind of via my Sunday school teacher.
キリストの話を聞いたのです
00:40
I remember learning that people who were poor
彼らは いろんな物を必要としていると
00:43
needed something material --
教わったことを覚えています
00:46
food, clothing, shelter -- that they didn't have.
衣食住で困っているのです
00:48
And I also was taught, coupled with that,
またそれと合わせて
00:50
that it was my job -- this classroom full of five and six year-old children --
日曜学校に通う5-6歳の自分たちの務めは
00:53
it was our job, apparently, to help.
助けることだと教わりました
00:56
This is what Jesus asked of us.
これはキリストからのお願いなのです
00:58
And then he said, "What you do for the least of these, you do for me."
「最も小さな者への行いは わたしへの行いである」
01:00
Now I was pretty psyched.
私はすごく楽しみだと思い
01:03
I was very eager to be useful in the world --
世界の役に立ちたいと思いました
01:05
I think we all have that feeling.
誰もが感じたことのある あの感覚です
01:07
And also, it was kind of interesting that God needed help.
神が助けを求めているとは
01:09
That was news to me,
初耳でしたが これに貢献することが
01:11
and it felt like it was a very important thing to get to participate in.
重要だと感じました
01:13
But I also learned very soon thereafter
でも その後すぐにキリストが
01:15
that Jesus also said, and I'm paraphrasing,
こんなことを言っていたと学びました
01:17
the poor would always be with us.
貧者は常に共にいるというのです
01:19
This frustrated and confused me;
このことには不満で困惑しました
01:21
I felt like I had been just given a homework assignment
やるべき宿題が出されて
01:23
that I had to do, and I was excited to do,
わくわくする課題なのに
01:25
but no matter what I would do, I would fail.
どう頑張っても失敗すると言われては
01:27
So I felt confused, a little bit frustrated and angry,
混乱するし 不服で腹も立ちます
01:30
like maybe I'd misunderstood something here.
何か私が誤解しているように思えて
01:33
And I felt overwhelmed.
気後れしてしまいました
01:35
And for the first time,
このとき初めて
01:37
I began to fear this group of people
貧しい人たちに対する恐れと
01:39
and to feel negative emotion towards a whole group of people.
不快感を感じるようになりました
01:41
I imagined in my head, a kind of long line of individuals
脳裏に浮かんだのは一列に並んだ人々が
01:44
that were never going away, that would always be with us.
いつも付きまとうイメージです
01:47
They were always going to ask me to help them and give them things,
救いの手や物資をいつも求め
01:49
which I was excited to do,
私の助けたいという気持ちも
01:52
but I didn't know how it was going to work.
どう役に立つのかがわかりません
01:54
And I didn't know what would happen when I ran out of things to give,
差し出すものも尽きたらどうなるのでしょう
01:56
especially if the problem was never going away.
まして 永遠に続く問題だというのです
02:01
In the years following,
私は大人になるまで
02:03
the other stories I heard about the poor growing up
貧困の話をいろいろ聞きましたが
02:05
were no more positive.
暗い話ばかりでした
02:07
For example, I saw pictures and images
例えば 悲しみにくれて苦しんでいる人たちの
02:09
frequently of sadness and suffering.
写真や映像を見たり
02:12
I heard about things that were going wrong in the lives of the poor.
困難に陥る貧しい人たちの話や
02:14
I heard about disease, I heard about war --
病気や戦争の話を聞きました
02:17
they always seemed to be kind of related.
互いにつながりがあるように見える
02:19
And in general,
それらの話から私は
02:21
I got this sort of idea
こんな状況であろうと理解しました
02:23
that the poor in the world lived lives
世界中の貧しい人たちは
02:25
that were wrought with suffering and sadness,
苦しみや悲しみや破壊や絶望が
02:27
devastation, hopelessness.
つきまとう人生を送るのです
02:29
And after a while, I developed what I think many of us do,
やがて 多くの人と同じように
02:32
is this predictable response,
こんなふうに反応するようになりました
02:34
where I started to feel bad every time I heard about them.
貧困の話を耳にするたびに可哀想に思い
02:36
I started to feel guilty for my own relative wealth,
相対的に豊かな自分に罪悪感を覚えるのです
02:39
because I wasn't doing more, apparently, to make things better.
十分な貢献をできていないからです
02:42
And I even felt a sense of shame because of that.
そのために恥ずかしさも感じました
02:45
And so naturally,
そこで自然に
02:48
I started to distance myself.
私は距離をおくようになり
02:50
I stopped listening to their stories
貧しい人たちの話を 以前のように
02:52
quite as closely as I had before.
こと細かに聞かなくなりました
02:54
And I stopped expecting things to really change.
事態が改善するとも思えなくなりました
02:56
Now I still gave -- on the outside it looked like I was still quite involved.
でも 時間とお金を積極的に
02:59
I gave of my time and my money,
割いているように見えたでしょう
03:02
I gave when solutions were on sale.
買える解決策には お金を出していました
03:04
The cost of a cup of coffee can save a child's life, right.
コーヒー1杯分のお金で
03:06
I mean who can argue with that?
子ども1人が救えるのは事実です
03:08
I gave when I was cornered, when it was difficult to avoid
気持ちが追いつめられたら寄付しました
03:10
and I gave, in general, when the negative emotions built up enough
哀れみの感情が高まったときも寄付して
03:13
that I gave to relieve my own suffering,
他の誰でもない自分の苦しみが
03:16
not someone else's.
和らぐのです
03:18
The truth be told, I was giving out of that place,
本当はそんな理由で寄付していました
03:20
not out of a genuine place of hope
純粋に希望を抱いての行為ではなく
03:23
and excitement to help and of generosity.
援助の心とか親切心でもないのです
03:26
It became a transaction for me,
私に取って単なる取引や
03:28
became sort of a trade.
売買に成り下がりました
03:30
I was purchasing something --
日々を過ごす権利のような物を
03:32
I was buying my right to go on with my day
買っていたのです
03:34
and not necessarily be bothered by this bad news.
悲しいニュースに悩まされない権利です
03:37
And I think the way that we go through that sometimes
悩みを切り抜けようとするあまり
03:40
can, first of all,
なによりもまず 彼らの
03:43
disembody a group of people, individuals out there in the world.
人間性や個性のことを忘れて
03:45
And it can also turn into a commodity,
ある種の商品のように扱ってしまうのは
03:48
which is a very scary thing.
実に恐ろしい振る舞いです
03:50
So as I did this, and as I think many of us do this,
私と同じように 対処した人も多いでしょう
03:52
we kind of buy our distance,
いわば距離を買うようなものです
03:55
we kind of buy our right to go on with our day.
日常の暮らしを続ける権利を買うのです
03:57
I think that exchange can actually get in the way of the very thing that we want most.
この取引は 一番望んでいるはずの
03:59
It can get in the way of our desire
意味ある形で誰かの人生に
04:02
to really be meaningful and useful in another person's life
役立ちたいという願いを妨げます
04:04
and, in short to love.
つまり簡単に言えば愛の妨げになります
04:07
Thankfully, a few years ago, things shifted for me
ありがたいことに 数年前に転機がありました
04:10
because I heard this gentleman speak, Dr. Muhammad Yunus.
私はムハマド・ユヌス博士の講演を聞いたのです
04:12
I know many in the room probably know exactly who he is,
多くの皆さんは彼のことをよくご存知でしょうが
04:15
but to give the shorthand version
知らない方のために
04:18
for any who have not heard him speak,
ごく簡単に紹介します
04:20
Dr. Yunus won the Nobel Peace Prize a few years ago
ユヌス博士はマイクロファイナンスを
04:22
for his work pioneering modern microfinance.
確立した功績でノーベル平和賞を受賞しました
04:24
When I heard him speak, it was three years before that.
私が彼の話を聞いたのは受賞の3年前でした
04:27
But basically, microfinance -- if this is new to you as well --
簡単にマイクロファイナンスを説明します
04:30
think of that as financial services for the poor.
貧しい人のための金融サービスです
04:33
Think of all the things you get at your bank
銀行が提供するサービスを
04:35
and imagine those products and services
一日数ドルで暮らす人に合わせて
04:37
tailored to the needs of someone living on a few dollars a day.
提供する仕組みです
04:39
Dr. Yunus shared his story,
ユヌス博士は彼の物語と
04:41
explaining what that was,
グラミン銀行で成し遂げたことを
04:43
and what he had done with his Grameen Bank.
語りました
04:45
He also talked about, in particular, microlending,
特に小額貸与について説明しました
04:47
which is a tiny loan
これは小額の融資で
04:49
that could help someone start or grow a business.
起業と事業の成長を支援するものです
04:51
Now, when I heard him speak, it was exciting for a number of reasons.
彼の話を聞いて いくつかの理由で興奮しました
04:53
First and foremost, I learned about this new method of change in the world
まず何より 世界を変える新しい方法を学んだのです
04:56
that, for once, showed me, maybe,
関わり合いを持ちながら
04:59
a way to interact with someone
資金を貸与するのは
05:01
and to give, to share of a resource in a way that wasn't weird
無理のない方法だと知りました
05:03
and didn't make me feel bad --
可哀想だからすることではありません
05:05
that was exciting.
これには わくわくしました
05:08
But more importantly, he told stories about the poor
さらに重要なことは 貧しい人についての話は
05:10
that were different than any stories I had heard before.
これまで聞いたこともないような話でした
05:13
In fact, those individuals he talked about who were poor was sort of a side note.
たまたま貧しいけれども
05:15
He was talking about strong, smart,
力と知恵と熱意のある起業家が
05:19
hardworking entrepreneurs who woke up every day
自分と家族の生活を良くするために
05:21
and were doing things to make their lives and their family's lives better.
努力しているという話だったのです
05:24
All they needed to do that more quickly and to do it better
それをもっと素早く 適切に実行するために
05:27
was a little bit of capital.
彼らに必要なのは少しの資金でした
05:30
It was an amazing sort of insight for me.
この見方には 驚かされました
05:32
And I, in fact, was so deeply moved by this --
大きく心を動かされました
05:34
it's hard to express now how much that affected me --
どれほど心を捉えられたのか言葉にできません
05:36
but I was so moved that I actually quit my job a few weeks later,
とても感動したので 数週間後には仕事を辞めて
05:39
and I moved to East Africa
東アフリカに向かい
05:42
to try to see for myself what this was about.
自分の眼で確かめることにしました
05:44
For the first time, actually, in a long time
人生で初めて 一人ひとりの個人と
05:46
I wanted to meet those individuals, I wanted to meet these entrepreneurs,
会いたいと思いました 起業家たちと会って
05:48
and see for myself what their lives were actually about.
その暮らしを 自分で確かめたかったのです
05:51
So I spent three months in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania
ケニアとウガンダとタンザニアで3ヶ月を過ごし
05:54
interviewing entrepreneurs that had received 100 dollars
100ドルで起業や事業拡大をした
05:57
to start or grow a business.
起業家にインタビューしました
05:59
And in fact, through those interactions,
そしてこれらの交流を通して
06:01
for the first time, I was starting to get to be friends
形の見えない 遠い存在だと
06:03
with some of those people in that big amorphous group out there
ずっと思っていた人たちと
06:05
that was supposed to be far away.
初めて友人になりました
06:08
I was starting to be friends and get to know their personal stories.
友達になって一人ずつの話を知りました
06:11
And over and over again,
そしてインタビューを何度も
06:14
as I interviewed them and spent my days with them,
繰り返して 彼らと過ごす日々の中で
06:16
I did hear stories of life change
人生が変化した話を
06:18
and amazing little details of change.
細部にわたって聴きました
06:20
So I would hear from goat herders
融資でヤギを数頭買ったという
06:22
who had used that money that they had received to buy a few more goats.
ヤギ飼いの話を聞くのです
06:24
Their business trajectory would change.
商売を軌道に乗せて
06:27
They would make a little bit more money;
もう少しの収入を得ると
06:29
their standard of living
生活水準を高めて
06:31
would shift and would get better.
より良い暮らしを送れます
06:33
And they would make really interesting little adjustments in their lives,
暮らしの中の小さな改善が興味深いのです
06:35
like they would start to send their children to school.
子どもを学校にやるとか
06:38
They might be able to buy mosquito nets.
蚊帳を買えるようになるとか
06:40
Maybe they could afford a lock for the door and feel secure.
扉の鍵を買って安心できるようになるとか
06:42
Maybe it was just that they could put sugar in their tea
客をもてなすお茶をいれるときに
06:45
and offer that to me when I came as their guest
砂糖も入れられることが
06:47
and that made them feel proud.
誇らしいとか
06:49
But there were these beautiful details, even if I talked to 20 goat herders in a row,
20人のヤギ飼いに順番に話を聞いても
06:51
and some days that's what happened --
素敵なディテールがいろいろあるのです
06:54
these beautiful details of life change
あるとき生じた素晴らしい人生の変化が
06:56
that were meaningful to them.
どれだけ意味あるものなのかを知って
06:58
That was another thing that really touched me.
私は感動しました
07:00
It was really humbling to see for the first time,
魔法の杖があれば
07:02
to really understand
全ての問題が解決するかのように
07:04
that even if I could have taken a magic wand and fixed everything,
考えていた自分の思い違いに
07:06
I probably would have gotten a lot wrong.
初めて気がつきました
07:09
Because the best way for people to change their lives
本人が最善だと思う方法こそが
07:11
is for them to have control and to do that in a way that they believe is best for them.
人生を変える一番良い方法だからです
07:14
So I saw that and it was very humbling.
こうして自分の思い込みに気づきました
07:17
Anyway, another interesting thing happened while I was there.
向こうではさらに面白いことがありました
07:20
I never once was asked for a donation,
一度たりとも 寄付を求められなかったのです
07:23
which had kind of been my mode, right.
貧困と援助を結びつけていた私は
07:26
There's poverty, you give money to help --
寄付を求められるだろうと覚悟していました
07:28
no one asked me for a donation.
だれ一人として寄付を求めませんでした
07:30
In fact, no one wanted me to feel bad for them at all.
可哀想と思ってほしい人などいなかったのです
07:32
If anything, they just wanted to be able to do more of what they were doing already
強いて言えば すでに取り組んでいることを
07:35
and to build on their own capabilities.
さらに進めて能力を高めたいというのです
07:37
So what I did hear, once in a while,
時々私が耳にしたことは
07:39
was that people wanted a loan --
お金を借りたい人がいること
07:41
I thought that sounded very reasonable and really exciting.
合理的で素晴らしいことだと思いました
07:43
And by the way, I was a philosophy and poetry major in school,
私の専攻は哲学と詩学だったので
07:46
so I didn't know the difference between profit and revenue when I went to East Africa.
現地訪問の時には 利益と収入の区別もつかず
07:49
I just got this impression that the money would work.
ただお金が役に立つという印象を受けただけでした
07:52
And my introduction to business
私がビジネスに触れたのは
07:55
was in these $100 little infuses of capital.
わずか100ドルの資本提供からでした
07:57
And I learned about profit and revenue, about leverage, all sorts of things,
利益と収入やレバレッジなどについては
08:00
from farmers, from seamstresses, from goat herders.
農家や仕立て屋やヤギ飼いたちから学びました
08:03
So this idea
さて ビジネスと希望についての
08:06
that these new stories of business and hope
こんな新しい話を
08:08
might be shared with my friends and family,
友人や家族に伝えて
08:11
and through that, maybe we could get some of the money that they needed
必要とするお金を集めて貸し出し
08:13
to be able to continue their businesses as loans,
ビジネスを続けられるようにできるはずです
08:17
that's this little idea that turned into Kiva.
この小さなアイデアから Kiva が生まれました
08:20
A few months later, I went back to Uganda
数ヶ月後 デジカメを手に
08:22
with a digital camera and a basic website
ウガンダに戻って 簡単なウェブサイトを
08:24
that my partner, Matthew, and I had kind of built,
パートナーのマシューと作ると
08:27
and took pictures of seven of my new friends,
新しい友人たち 7 人の写真を載せて
08:29
posted their stories, these stories of entrepreneurship, up on the website,
彼らの起業家としてのエピソードを添えて
08:32
spammed friends and family and said, "We think this is legal.
周囲に嘆願メールを送りました
08:36
Haven't heard back yet from SEC on all the details,
「法律面もOK SECからの問い合わせも受けていません
08:38
but do you say, do you want to help participate in this,
この人たちが必要なお金を
08:41
provide the money that they need?"
提供してもらえませんか?」
08:43
The money came in basically overnight.
資金はほぼ一晩で集まりました
08:45
We sent it over to Uganda.
ウガンダに送金して
08:47
And over the next six months, a beautiful thing happened;
そのあと6ヶ月 素晴らしい展開です
08:49
the entrepreneurs received the money,
起業家たちはお金を受け取り
08:51
they were paid, and their businesses, in fact, grew,
受け取ったお金で事業を発展させて
08:53
and they were able to support themselves
自立を進めることができ
08:56
and change the trajectory of their lives.
人生の軌道を変えることができました
08:58
In October of '05,
2005年の10月には
09:01
after those first seven loans were paid,
最初の7件のローンは返済され
09:03
Matt and I took the word beta off of the site.
ウェブサイトもベータ版ではなくなりました
09:05
We said, "Our little experiment has been a success.
「ささやかな実験は成功した
09:07
Let's start for real." That was our official launch.
ここからが本番だ」 公式なスタートでした
09:09
And then that first year, October '05 through '06,
2005年10月から2006年までの初年度に
09:12
Kiva facilitated $500,000 in loans.
Kiva は50万ドルの貸出を行い
09:14
The second year, it was a total of 15 million.
2年目には1500万ドルになりました
09:17
The third year, the total was up to around 40.
3年目には4000万ドルでした
09:20
The fourth year, we were just short of 100.
4年目は1億ドル弱
09:22
And today, less than five years in,
そして今日 まだ5年に満たないのですが
09:24
Kiva's facilitated
一口25ドルからの融資を
09:26
more than 150 million dollars, in little 25-dollar bits,
Kiva は1億5千万ドル以上行いました
09:28
from lenders and entrepreneurs --
貸主と借主合わせて100万人以上が
09:31
more than a million of those, collectively in 200 countries.
200ヶ国に広がっています
09:33
So that's where Kiva is today, just to bring you right up to the present.
Kiva の現状をご理解いただけたと思います
09:35
And while those numbers and those statistics
これらの数字と統計についての
09:38
are really fun to talk about and they're interesting,
話も興味は尽きないのですが
09:40
to me, Kiva's really about stories.
私にとって エピソードこそがKivaなのです
09:43
It's about retelling
貧しい人のエピソードを
09:46
the story of the poor,
伝え直すことです
09:48
and it's about giving ourselves
私たちにとっても
09:50
an opportunity to engage
貧しい人の尊厳を保ちながら
09:52
that validates their dignity,
彼らと関わる機会をもたらし
09:54
validates a partnership relationship,
パートナーとしての関係を実証するものです
09:56
not a relationship that's based
従来スタイルの施しを受けたときの
09:58
on the traditional sort of donor beneficiary
歪みがちな関係とは
10:00
weirdness that can happen.
別のものなのです
10:03
But instead a relationship that can promote respect
従来の関係ではなくて
10:05
and hope
敬意と希望を育む関係に
10:08
and this optimism
楽観主義を携えて
10:10
that together we can move forward.
我々は前進していきます
10:12
So what I hope is that,
私はこんなことを望んでいます
10:15
not only can the money keep flowing forth through Kiva --
お金の行き来は大事ですが
10:17
that's a very positive and meaningful thing --
それだけではなく
10:19
but I hope Kiva can blur those lines, like I said,
これまで語られてきたような
10:21
between the traditional rich and poor categories
金持ちと貧者 ―我々と彼ら―
10:23
that we're taught to see in the world,
持てるものと持たざるものとを
10:25
this false dichotomy of us and them, have and have not.
隔てる境界線を Kiva で消したいのです
10:27
I hope that Kiva can blur those lines.
Kiva にできることだと期待しています
10:30
Because as that happens,
なぜなら 実際に起きていることですが
10:32
I think we can feel free to interact
もっとオープンで公正で
10:34
in a way that's more open, more just and more creative,
創造的なやり取りが自由に行えるのです
10:36
to engage with each other and to help each other.
お互いに積極的に助け合えるのです
10:39
Imagine how you feel
路上に物乞いがいたとします
10:42
when you see somebody on street who is begging
助けを差し伸べようとするときに
10:44
and you're about to approach them.
どんな気持ちがするか
10:47
Imagine how you feel;
考えてみて下さい
10:49
and then imagine the difference when you might see somebody
一方 働き者の起業家から
10:51
who has a story of entrepreneurship and hard work
事業の話を聞くときには
10:53
who wants to tell you about their business.
どんな気持ちがするでしょう
10:56
Maybe they're smiling, and they want to talk to you about what they've done.
これまでの成果を笑顔で語りたいという
10:59
Imagine if you're speaking with somebody
人たちと話すことを考えてみてください
11:02
who's growing things and making them flourish,
何かを育てて花咲かせている人や
11:04
somebody who's using their talents
才能を活かして
11:07
to do something productive,
何かを創っている人や
11:10
somebody who's built their own business from scratch,
ゼロから自分の事業を興した人や
11:12
someone who is surrounded by abundance,
身の周りの豊かさに囲まれ
11:15
not scarcity,
不足を訴えない人
11:17
who's in fact creating abundance,
自ら豊かさを作り出している人です
11:19
somebody with full hands with something to offer,
からっぽの手を差し出して
11:21
not empty hands
何かを求めるのではなく
11:24
asking for you to give them something.
両手に山盛りで差し出せる人や
11:26
Imagine if you could hear a story you didn't expect
毎朝きちんと起きて
11:29
of somebody who wakes up every day
より良い生活のために懸命に働く人たちは
11:31
and works very, very hard to make their life better.
予想もつかない話をしてくれます
11:33
These stories can really change the way that we think about each other.
お互いの思い込みを砕くストーリーです
11:36
And if we can catalyze
そんな人たちを支援する
11:39
a supportive community to come around these individuals
コミュニティー作りを Kiva が助け
11:41
and to participate in their story
少額の融資によって
11:44
by lending a little bit of money,
彼らの人生の一部となれば
11:46
I think that can change the way we believe in each other
お互いの可能性に対する見方を
11:48
and each other's potential.
変えられると思います
11:50
Now for me, Kiva is just the beginning.
私にとって Kiva は始まりにすぎません
11:52
And as I look forward to what is next,
将来の展開を考えるために
11:54
it's been helpful to reflect on the things I've learned so far.
学んできたことを思い返してみると
11:56
The first one is, as I mentioned, entrepreneurship was a new idea to me.
まず第一に 起業家精神は私にとって新しいものでした
11:59
Kiva borrowers, as I interviewed them and got to know them over the last few years,
ここ何年か Kiva から借金する人たちと話してきて
12:02
have taught me what entrepreneurship is.
起業家精神の何たるかを教えられました
12:05
And I think, at its core, it's deciding that you want your life to be better.
その中核にあるのは人生を良くしようという決意です
12:07
You see an opportunity
機会に気づき
12:10
and you decide what you're going to do to try to seize that.
それを掴むために これをやろうと決めること
12:12
In short, it's deciding that tomorrow can better than today
つまり 明日は今日より良くなると信じて
12:14
and going after that.
それに向かって進むのです
12:16
Second thing that I've learned is that loans are a very interesting tool for connectivity.
第二に 融資は人をつなげる面白い役割を果たします
12:18
So they're not a donation.
寄付ではないのです
12:21
Yeah, maybe it doesn't sound that much different.
似たり寄ったりのようですが
12:23
But in fact, when you give something to someone
実際は誰かに与えてしまったら
12:25
and they say, "Thanks," and let you know how things go,
感謝されて その後は
12:27
that's one thing.
結果を聞くだけです
12:29
When you lend them money, and they slowly pay you back over time,
貸し付けの場合には 時間をかけて少しずつ返済します
12:31
you have this excuse to have an ongoing dialogue.
そこに継続的な対話が生まれ
12:34
This continued attention -- this ongoing attention --
長期にわたって注目することが
12:36
is a really big deal
本当に大事なのです
12:38
to build different kinds of relationships among us.
お互いの間に生じる関係が別物になります
12:40
And then third, from what I've heard from the entrepreneurs I've gotten to know,
第三に 知り合いになった起業家たちから聞いたことですが
12:43
when all else is equal,
他の全ての条件が同じなら
12:46
given the option to have just money to do what you need to do,
必要な資金だけを提供されるのと
12:48
or money plus the support and encouragement
資金に加えて支援と応援を
12:51
of a global community,
世界のコミュニティーから受けられるのとでは
12:54
people choose the community plus the money.
コミュニティー付きの資金を選ぶというのです
12:56
That's a much more meaningful combination, a more powerful combination.
意味と力のある組み合わせなのです
12:58
So with that in mind, this particular incident
以上のことを心に留めたとき
13:01
has led to the things that I'm working on now.
あるきっかけで 次の私の取り組みが決まりました
13:03
I see entrepreneurs everywhere now, now that I'm tuned into this.
起業家は至る所で見つかります
13:06
And one thing that I've seen
さらに世界中には
13:08
is there are a lot of supportive communities that already exist in the world.
支援グループがたくさんあります
13:10
With social networks,
社会ネットワークの助けによって
13:12
it's an amazing way, growing the number of people that we all have around us
身の回りで応援してくれる人たちが
13:14
in our own supportive communities, rapidly.
驚くほど急速に増えるのです
13:17
And so, as I have been thinking about this,
そこで こんな助け合いのネットワークを
13:20
I've been wondering: how can we engage these supportive communities
もっと多くの起業家精神の触媒として
13:22
to catalyze even more entrepreneurial ideas
みんなに変化をもたらし
13:25
and to catalyze all of us
より良い明日を作るための
13:27
to make tomorrow better than today?
方法はないかと考えていました
13:29
As I've researched what's going on in the United States,
アメリカ国内での現状調査から
13:32
a few interesting little insights have come up.
いくつかの面白い洞察が得られました
13:34
So one is that, of course, as we all might expect,
一つは予想どおり
13:36
many small businesses in the U.S. and all over the world
世界中どこでも 小規模事業は
13:39
still need money to grow and to do more of what they want to do
成長してより多くを行うための資金や
13:41
or they might need money during a hard month.
苦境を乗り切る資金が必要なのです
13:44
But there's always a need for resources close by.
いつでも身の周りに資金源が必要なのです
13:46
Another thing is, it turns out,
もう一つ わかったことは
13:49
those resources don't usually come from the places you might expect --
その資金の出どころは銀行でも
13:51
banks, venture capitalists,
ベンチャーキャピタルや
13:54
other organizations and support structures --
各種組織や支援機構でもなく
13:56
they come from friends and family.
友人や家族から得ているのです
13:58
Some statistics say 85 percent or more of funding for small businesses
ある統計では小規模事業の資金の85%は
14:00
comes from friends and family.
友人や家族から得ているといいます
14:02
That's around 130 billion dollars a year --
年間にすると1300億ドルです
14:04
it's a lot.
大量の資金です
14:06
And third, so as people are doing this friends and family fundraising process,
第三に友人や家族から資金集めをするには
14:08
it's very awkward, people don't know exactly what to ask for,
何をどう頼むべきかという問題があります
14:11
how to ask, what to promise in return,
どんなにやる気があっても
14:13
even though they have the best of intentions
支援者たちに感謝したいと思っていても
14:15
and want to thank those people that are supporting them.
結果として何を約束すべきかわからないのです
14:17
So to harness the power of these supportive communities in a new way
支援コミュニティーの力を新たな方法で引き出し
14:20
and to allow entrepreneurs to decide for themselves
起業家たちの自らの決断を支援するために
14:23
exactly what that financial exchange should look like,
金融取引はどうあるべきか
14:25
exactly what fits them and the people around them,
起業家たちに何が適するかを考えた末
14:27
this week actually,
まさに今週 プロファウンダーという
14:30
we're quietly doing a launch of Profounder,
プラットフォームを立ち上げました
14:32
which is a crowd funding platform for small businesses to raise what they need
小規模事業に必要な資金を友人や家族から
14:34
through investments from their friends and family.
投資してもらう仕組みです
14:37
And it's investments, not donations, not loans,
これは寄付でも借金でもありません
14:39
but investments that have a dynamic return.
ダイナミックな見返りが望める投資です
14:41
So the mapping of participating in the story,
関与という意味で捉えれば
14:43
it actually flows with the up and down.
まさに山あり谷ありを共に歩むわけです
14:45
So in short, it's a do-it-yourself tool
要するに 小規模事業が資金集めを
14:47
for small businesses to raise these funds.
セルフサービスで行うための仕組みです
14:50
And what you can do is go onto the site, create a profile,
ウェブサイトではプロファイルや投資の条件を
14:52
create investment terms in a really easy way.
手軽に作れるようにしました
14:55
We make it really, really simple for me
私にも 利用者にとっても
14:57
as well as anyone else who wants to use the site.
本当に簡単なように作ってあります
14:59
And we allow entrepreneurs to share a percentage of their revenues.
起業家たちは収入からある割合を選ぶようにしました
15:01
They can raise up to a million dollars
無数のアマチュア投資家たち
15:03
from an unlimited number of unaccredited, unsophisticated investors --
つまり普通の人たちから
15:05
everyday people, heaven forbid --
100万ドルまで集めることができます
15:08
and they can share those returns over time --
そして時期が来たら 定めた条件に従って
15:10
again, whatever terms they set.
収益を分配するのです
15:12
As investors choose to become involved
これらの条件に従って
15:14
based on those terms,
関わっている投資家は
15:16
they can either take their rewards back as cash,
投資成果を現金で受け取ったり
15:18
or they can decide in advance
事前に決めたNPOに
15:20
to give those returns away to a non-profit.
寄付することができます
15:22
So they can be a cash, or a cause, investor.
利益のためでも 社会貢献のためでも投資できます
15:24
It's my hope that this kind of tool can show anybody who has an idea
こんな仕組みによってアイデアのある人が誰でも
15:27
a path to go do what they want to do in the world
やりたいことに取り組む方法を示し
15:30
and to gather the people around them that they already have,
すでに自分の周りにいる人たちを集めて
15:32
the people that know them best
―自分のことを最も知っていて
15:34
and that love them and want to support them,
愛して応援しようと思ってくれる人たちの力で
15:36
to gather them to make this happen.
実現できるようにしたいのです
15:38
So that's what I'm working on now.
こんなことに 私は今取り組んでいます
15:40
And to close, I just want to say, look these are tools.
そして最後にお願いです
15:42
Right now, Profounder's right at the very beginning,
プロファウンダーは生まれたての仕組みで
15:44
and it's very palpable; it's very clear to me, that it's just a vessel, it's just a tool.
見てのとおり ただの器や道具にすぎません
15:46
What we need are for people to care, to actually go use it,
実際に利用する人の助けが必要なのです
15:49
just like they've cared enough to use Kiva
Kiva に多くの人が関与して
15:52
to make those connections.
多くの繋がりが生じたのと同じことです
15:54
But the good news is I don't think I need to stand here and convince you to care --
皆さんを説得するまでもなく
15:56
I'm not even going to try.
分かって頂けることでしょう
15:58
I don't think, even though we often hear,
助けることは幸せをもたらすという
16:00
you know, hear the ethical and moral reasons,
倫理とか道徳による理由づけや
16:02
the religious reasons,
宗教的な理由なども
16:04
"Here's why caring and giving will make you happier."
よく耳にするものですが
16:06
I don't think we need to be convinced of that. I think we know;
私が何か言うまでもなく
16:09
in fact, I think we know so much,
分かっていることでしょう
16:12
and it's such a reality
助けようと思いが
16:14
that we care so deeply,
強すぎるとかえって
16:16
that in fact, what usually stops us
失敗を恐れてしまって
16:18
is that we're afraid to try and to mess up,
何もできなくなることもあります
16:20
because we care so very much about helping each other
助け合って共に意味ある人生を
16:22
and being meaningful in each other's lives.
送りたいと心底願っているからこそです
16:24
So what I think I can do today,
今日は私のエピソードを伝えることが
16:27
that best thing I can give you --
私にできる
16:30
I've given you my story, which is the best I can do.
一番のことだと考えました
16:32
And I think I can remind us that we do care.
すでにお持ちの人助けの気持ちを
16:34
I think we all already know that.
呼び起こせたでしょうか
16:37
And I think we know that love is resilient enough
くじけることのない愛があれば
16:39
for us to get out there and try.
思い切ってやれるはずです
16:42
Just a sec.
ごめんなさい
16:45
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:51
Thanks.
ありがとう
16:53
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:55
Thanks.
ありがとう
17:05
(Applause)
(拍手)
17:07
For me, the best way to be inspired to try
私にとっては 挑戦する勇気を貰う一番の方法は
17:09
is to stop and to listen
立ち止まって他の誰かの
17:12
to someone else's story.
話を聞くことです
17:14
And I'm grateful that I've gotten to do that here at TED.
このTEDでそれができて感謝しています
17:16
And I'm grateful that whenever I do that,
いつでも誰かから話を聴くと
17:19
guaranteed, I am inspired --
ありがたいことに
17:22
I am inspired by the person I am listening to.
意欲が湧いてきます
17:24
And I believe more and more every time I listen
話を聞くたびに人びとが
17:27
in that that person's potential to do great things in the world
偉大なことを成し遂げる可能性と
17:30
and in my own potential to maybe help.
私がそれを支援できる可能性を確信します
17:33
And that --
ツールのことや
17:36
forget the tools, forget the moving around of resources --
お金のやりとりのことは忘れましょう
17:38
that stuff's easy.
そんなことは簡単なのです
17:40
Believing in each other,
お互いを信じて
17:42
really being sure when push comes to shove
自信をもって いざとなったら一人ひとりが
17:44
that each one of us can do amazing things in the world,
素晴らしいことをできると信じましょう
17:46
that is what can make our stories into love stories
こうして 我々の物語は愛の物語となり
17:49
and our collective story
それを集め続ける中から
17:52
into one that continually perpetuates hope
永続する希望を生み出せば
17:54
and good things for all of us.
誰にとっても素晴らしいことでしょう
17:56
So that, this belief in each other,
こうしてお互いを信頼して
17:58
knowing that without a doubt
疑うことなく毎日続けることで
18:00
and practicing that every day in whatever you do,
今日よりも良い明日の世界に
18:02
that's what I believe will change the world and make tomorrow better than today.
変えて行けると信じています
18:04
Thank you.
ありがとう
18:07
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:09
Translated by Natsuhiko Mizutani
Reviewed by Takako Sato

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About the Speaker:

Jessica Jackley - Microlender
Jessica Jackley is the co-founder of Kiva.org, an online community that helps individuals loan small amounts of money, called microloans, to entrepreneurs throughout the world.

Why you should listen

Seven years ago, Jessica Jackley heard a speech by Grameen Bank founder Muhammad Yunus, an economist from Bangladesh who had developed the idea of microcredit: loans offered to entrepreneurs too poor to qualify for traditional bank loans. She says, "I was so completely blown away by the idea that I quit my job, dropped everything and moved to East Africa to help." In late 2005 she co-founded Kiva.org with Matt Flannery.

Kiva uses a peer-to-peer model in which lenders sort through profiles of potential borrowers -- be they a farmer in Cambodia, a pharmacist in Sierra Leone, or a shopkeeper in Mongolia -- and make loans to those they find most appealing. The minimum loan is $25, and the interest rate is 0%. The repayment rate for loans is more than 98%, Jackley says, and since the group was founded almost 700,000 people have pledged $128 million in loans to more than 325,000 people. Jackley's latest project is ProFounder, a new platform that helps small businesses in the United States access startup funding through community investing.

More profile about the speaker
Jessica Jackley | Speaker | TED.com