Double-click the English transcript below to play the video.
So it was the fall of 1902,
and President Theodore Roosevelt
needed a little break from the White House,
so he took a train to Mississippi
to do a little black bear hunting outside of a town
흑곰 사냥을 하기 위해
미시시피행 열차를 탔습니다.
The first day of the hunt,
they didn't see a single bear,
사냥 첫째날에는 한 마리의
곰도 볼 수 없었습니다.
so it was a big bummer for everyone,
but the second day, the dogs cornered one
after a really long chase, but by that point,
the president had given up
and gone back to camp for lunch,
so his hunting guide cracked the animal
on the top of the head with the butt of his rifle,
and then tied it up to a tree
and started tooting away on his bugle
루스벨트에게 총을 쏴서 마무리
하는 영광을 주려고 했습니다.
to call Roosevelt back so he could have the honor
of shooting it.
The bear was a female.
It was dazed, injured,
severely underweight, a little mangy-looking,
피부병을 앓고 있었습니다.
and when Roosevelt saw this animal
tied up to the tree,
he just couldn't bring himself to fire at it.
He felt like that would go against his code
as a sportsman.
A few days later, the scene was memorialized
in a political cartoon back in Washington.
그 장면은 "미시시피에서 선을 긋다"
It was called "Drawing a Line in Mississippi,"
and it showed Roosevelt with
his gun down and his arm out,
sparing the bear's life,
and the bear was sitting on its hind legs
with these two big, frightened, wide eyes
and little ears pricked up at the top of its head.
It looked really helpless, like you just wanted to
sweep it up into your arms
and reassure it.
It wouldn't have looked familiar at the time,
but if you go looking for the cartoon now,
you recognize the animal right away:
It's a teddy bear.
And this is how the teddy bear was born.
Essentially, toymakers took
the bear from the cartoon,
장난감을 만드는 회사들이 이
만화의 이미지를 가지고
turned it into a plush toy, and then named it
루스벨트 대통령의 이름을 따서
'테디 베어' 라는 이름을 붙였죠.
after President Roosevelt -- Teddy's bear.
And I do feel a little ridiculous
that I'm up here on this stage
and I'm choosing to use my time
to tell you about a 100-year-old story
여러분께 100년이나 지난 어린이
장난감 이야를 하는게 말이죠.
about the invention of a squishy kid's toy,
but I'd argue that the invention of the teddy bear,
더 중요한 이야기가 담겨
있다고 말하고 싶습니다.
inside that story is a more important story,
a story about how dramatically our ideas
바로 "자연에 대한 우리의 생각이
어떻게 변화할 수 있는가?" 입니다.
about nature can change,
and also about how, on the planet right now,
the stories that we tell
어떻게 자연을 바꿔 놓는가"
에 대해서도 말입니다.
are dramatically changing nature.
Because think about the teddy bear.
For us, in retrospect, it feels like an obvious fit,
because bears are so cute and cuddly,
and who wouldn't want to give
one to their kids to play with,
but the truth is that in 1902,
bears weren't cute and cuddly.
곰들은 귀엽거나 껴안고 싶은
존재가 아니었다는 겁니다.
I mean, they looked the same,
but no one thought of them that way.
In 1902, bears were monsters.
Bears were something that frickin' terrified kids.
For generations at that point,
the bear had been a shorthand for all the danger
곰은 각 주의 경계에서 만날 수
있는 공포의 대명사였습니다.
that people were encountering on the frontier,
and the federal government was actually
연방정부는 사실상 곰들을
systematically exterminating bears
and lots of other predators too,
뿐만아니라, 코요태나 늑대 같은
다른 동물도 많이 죽였죠.
like coyotes and wolves.
These animals, they were being demonized.
They were called murderers
because they killed people's livestock.
한 정부 생물학자는 이런 동물과의
전쟁을 이렇게 표현했습니다.
One government biologist, he explained this
war on animals like the bear by saying
that they no longer had a place
"진화하는 우리의 문명 안에
그들의 자리는 더이상 없을 것이다.
in our advancing civilization,
and so we were just clearing them out of the way.
왜냐하면 우리가 그들을
계속해서 내쫓았기 때문이다."
In one 10-year period, close to half a million wolves
had been slaughtered.
The grizzly would soon be wiped out
from 95 percent of its original territory,
and whereas once there had been 30 million bison
약 3천만 마리의 들소 무리가
트랙위를 지나가는 바람에
moving across the plains, and you would have
these stories of trains having to stop
for four or five hours so that these thick,
living rivers of the animals could pour over the tracks,
now, by 1902, there were maybe
less than 100 left in the wild.
그러나 1902년에 이르러서
야생에는 약 100종만이 남았습니다.
And so what I'm saying is, the teddy bear was born
into the middle of this great spasm of extermination,
and you can see it as a sign that
maybe some people deep down
were starting to feel conflicted about all that killing.
깊은 갈등이 시작되었음을
아실 수 있을 겁니다.
America still hated the bear and feared it,
but all of a sudden, America also wanted
to give the bear a great big hug.
이것이 바로 제가 지난 몇 년간
무척 궁금했던 점이었습니다.
So this is something that I've been really
curious about in the last few years.
How do we imagine animals,
how do we think and feel about them,
동물들에 대해 어떠한
생각과 감정을 갖고 있으며,
and how do their reputations get written
우리의 마음 속에 어떻게
다시 쓰여지는지 궁금했던 것이죠.
and then rewritten in our minds?
We're here living in the eye of a great storm
of extinction where half the species on the planet
could be gone by the end of the century,
and so why is it that we come to care about
이런 멸종위기의 동물들에
관심을 기울이게 된 걸까요.
some of those species and not others?
Well, there's a new field, a relatively new field
사회과학의 한 분야로 이런
문제에 지속적인 관심을 갖고,
of social science that started looking at
these questions and trying to unpack the powerful
and sometimes pretty schizophrenic relationships
that we have to animals,
and I spent a lot of time looking through
전 많은 시간을 이 분야의
학술지를 읽는 데에 투자했습니다.
their academic journals,
and all I can really say is that their findings
그들의 발견은 정말 놀랍도록
are astonishingly wide-ranging.
So some of my favorites include that
the more television a person
watches in Upstate New York,
흑곰에서 공격 당할 것을 더욱
the more he or she is afraid
of being attacked by a black bear.
If you show a tiger to an American,
수컷이 아닌 암컷이라고
생각 할 확률이 높습니다.
they're much more likely to assume that it's female
and not male.
In a study where a fake snake
가짜 뱀과 가짜 거북이를 도로의
양쪽에 두고 진행했던 한 연구에서
and a fake turtle were put on the side of the road,
drivers hit the snake much
more often than the turtle,
운전자들은 거북이보다 뱀을
더 자주 치고 갔으며
and about three percent of
drivers who hit the fake animals
seemed to do it on purpose.
Women are more likely than men to get a
남자보다 더 "신비로운 기분"을
느낄 확률이 높다고 합니다.
"magical feeling" when they see dolphins in the surf.
Sixty-eight percent of mothers with
68퍼센트의 높은 자존감과
자격을 가진 어머니들이
"high feelings of entitlement and self-esteem"
identified with the dancing cats
in a commercial for Purina. (Laughter)
비둘기보다 중요시 여기고,
Americans consider lobsters
more important than pigeons
but also much, much stupider.
야생 칠면조를 수달보다
더욱 위험한 녀석으로 보며
Wild turkeys are seen as only slightly
more dangerous than sea otters,
and pandas are twice as lovable as ladybugs.
판다를 무당벌레 보다 두 배 더
사랑스럽게 여긴다고 합니다.
So some of this is physical, right?
We tend to sympathize more
with animals that look like us,
우리는 우리 같이 생긴 동물들에게
더욱 공감하는 경향이 있습니다.
and especially that resemble human babies,
이를테면 오뚝이처럼 크고
얼굴 앞 쪽에 큰 눈을 갖고
so with big, forward-facing eyes
and circular faces,
kind of a roly-poly posture.
This is why, if you get a Christmas card from, like,
이는 미네소타주의 고모할머니로부터
크리스마스 카드를 받게되면
your great aunt in Minnesota,
there's usually a fuzzy penguin chick on it,
and not something like a Glacier Bay wolf spider.
독거미같은 동물은 그려져
있지 않은 이유입니다.
But it's not all physical, right?
그러나 모두가 물질적이지는
않죠. 그렇지 않습니까?
There's a cultural dimension to
how we think about animals,
and we're telling stories about these animals,
and like all stories,
they are shaped by the times and the places
우리가 언제, 어디서 말하느냐에
따라 형성되어 왔습니다.
in which we're telling them.
So think about that moment
back in 1902 again where a ferocious bear
became a teddy bear.
What was the context?
Well, America was urbanizing.
무슨 말이냐구요? 미국은
당시 도시화되고 있었습니다.
인류사상 처음으로 대부분의
사람들이 도시에 살게 되면서
For the first time, nearly a
majority of people lived in cities,
so there was a growing distance
between us and nature.
그래서 곰에 대한 인식을 재고하고
낭만화 할 수 있었던 것이죠.
There was a safe space where we could
reconsider the bear and romanticize it.
Nature could only start to
seem this pure and adorable
자연이 이렇게 사랑스럽고
순수한 공간이 된 것은
because we didn't have to be afraid of it anymore.
더이상 곰을 두려워 할
필요가 없기 때문이죠.
그리고 이제 동물들에 관한
이 순환을 알아채셨을 겁니다.
And you can see that cycle playing out
again and again with all kinds of animals.
It seems like we're always stuck between
이는 우리가 동물을 악마로
만들고 쓸어내길 원했던 것과
demonizing a species and wanting to wipe it out,
and then when we get very close to doing that,
empathizing with it as an underdog
and wanting to show it compassion.
So we exert our power,
but then we're unsettled
by how powerful we are.
So for example, this is one of
probably thousands of letters and drawings
that kids sent to the Bush administration,
begging it to protect the polar bear
북극곰을 멸종 위기 종 보호법
아래 보호 해달라고 말이죠.
under the Endangered Species Act,
그리고 이것은 2000년대
and these were sent back in the mid-2000s,
when awareness of climate
change was suddenly surging.
We kept seeing that image of a polar bear
stranded on a little ice floe
looking really morose.
I spent days looking through these files.
I really love them. This one's my favorite.
이 사진들을 정말 사랑합니다.
이건 제가 가장 좋아하는 사진입니다.
If you can see, it's a polar bear that's drowning
and then it's also being eaten simultaneously
by a lobster and a shark.
This one came from a kid named Fritz,
and he's actually got a solution to climate change.
이 아이는 실제 기후 변화에
대한 해결책을 갖고 있습니다.
He's got it all worked out to an ethanol-based solution.
He says, "I feel bad about the polar bears.
I like polar bears.
모두 차를 위해 위스키를
썼으면 좋겠어. 프린츠로부터"
Everyone can use corn juice for cars. From Fritz."
So 200 years ago, you would have Arctic explorers
writing about polar bears leaping into their boats
and trying to devour them,
even if they lit the bear on fire,
but these kids don't see the polar bear that way,
그리고 사실 제가 80년대에 생각했던
시각으로 북극곰을 보지 않습니다.
and actually they don't even see the polar bear
the way that I did back in the '80s.
I mean, we thought of these animals
as mysterious and terrifying lords of the Arctic.
북극의 신비하고 무서운
But look now how quickly that climate change
has flipped the image of the animal in our minds.
It's gone from that bloodthirsty man-killer
to this delicate, drowning victim,
and when you think about it, that's kind of
the conclusion to the story
that the teddy bear started telling back in 1902,
because back then, America had more or less
conquered its share of the continent.
We were just getting around to
우리는 야생 최후의 포식자들을
polishing off these last wild predators.
Now, society's reach has expanded
이제 사회 시각의 범위는
세계 꼭대기까지 확장되어
all the way to the top of the world,
and it's made even these, the most remote,
the most powerful bears on the planet,
seem like adorable and blameless victims.
매우 사랑스럽고, 비난할 수 없는
희생물처럼 보이게 됐죠.
But you know, there's also a
postscript to the teddy bear story
that not a lot of people talk about.
We're going to talk about it,
because even though it didn't really take long
1902년 루즈벨트 사냥이 이후,
얼마 지나지 않아
after Roosevelt's hunt in 1902
for the toy to become a full-blown craze,
most people figured it was a fad,
it was a sort of silly political novelty item
and it would go away once the president left office,
대통령의 퇴임 이후 자연스럽게
사라질 거라 생각했습니다.
and so by 1909, when Roosevelt's successor,
William Howard Taft,
was getting ready to be inaugurated,
the toy industry was on the hunt
장난감산업은 또 다른 대박을
for the next big thing.
They didn't do too well.
그 해 1월, 테프트는 아틀란타에서
열린 연회에 참석했습니다.
That January, Taft was the guest of honor
at a banquet in Atlanta,
and for days in advance,
the big news was the menu.
They were going to be serving him
a Southern specialty, a delicacy, really,
called possum and taters.
So you would have a whole opossum
통으로 구운 주머니쥐가
고구마 위에 누워 있습니다.
roasted on a bed of sweet potatoes,
and then sometimes they'd leave
가금씩 큰 꼬리를 남기는데
고기 국수처럼 보입니다.
the big tail on it like a big, meaty noodle.
The one brought to Taft's table
weighed 18 pounds.
So after dinner, the orchestra started to play,
and the guests burst into song,
그 때, 테프트는 지역 후원자들의
선물을 보고 깜짝 놀랐습니다.
and all of a sudden, Taft was surprised
with the presentation of a gift
from a group of local supporters,
and this was a stuffed opossum toy,
all beady-eyed and bald-eared,
and it was a new product they were putting forward
루즈벨트의 테디베어를 이은
테프트의 차기 테디베어였습니다.
to be the William Taft presidency's answer
to Teddy Roosevelt's teddy bear.
They were calling it the "billy possum."
Within 24 hours, the Georgia Billy Possum Company
was up and running, brokering deals
for these things nationwide,
and the Los Angeles Times announced,
very confidently, "The teddy bear
has been relegated to a seat in the rear,
and for four years, possibly eight,
the children of the United States
will play with billy possum."
So from that point, there was a fit of opossum fever.
There were billy possum postcards, billy possum pins,
billy possum pitchers for your cream at coffee time.
아이들이 깃발처럼 갖고 놀 수 있는
작은 빌리 주머니쥐 막대도 있었죠.
There were smaller billy possums on a stick
that kids could wave around like flags.
But even with all this marketing,
the life of the billy possum
turned out to be just pathetically brief.
The toy was an absolute flop,
and it was almost completely forgotten
by the end of the year,
and what that means is that the billy possum
빌리 주머니쥐가 심지어 크리스마스
시즌까지 가지 못했는 것은
didn't even make it to Christmastime,
which when you think about it is
a special sort of tragedy for a toy.
So we can explain that failure two ways.
이 실패의 원인를 2가지로
설명 할 수 있습니다.
The first, well, it's pretty obvious.
I'm going to go ahead and say it out loud anyway:
Opossums are hideous. (Laughter)
But maybe more importantly is that
the story of the billy possum was all wrong,
to the backstory of the teddy bear.
Think about it: for most of
human's evolutionary history,
what's made bears impressive to us
has been their complete independence from us.
It's that they live these parallel lives
위협적인 존재 혹은
경쟁자로 살았기 때문입니다.
as menaces and competitors.
By the time Roosevelt went hunting in Mississippi,
that stature was being crushed,
and the animal that he had roped to a tree
really was a symbol for all bears.
Whether those animals lived or died now
was entirely up to the compassion
or the indifference of people.
That said something really ominous
about the future of bears,
동시에 우리가 어떻게
변할 지 굉장히 불안합니다.
but it also said something very
unsettling about who we'd become,
if the survival of even an animal like that
was up to us now.
So now, a century later, if you're at all
지금으로부터 한 세기가 지나고
우리 모두 자연에 관심이 없다면,
paying attention to what's
happening in the environment,
you feel that discomfort so much more intensely.
We're living now in an age of what scientists
have started to call "conservation reliance,"
and what that term means is that we've disrupted
너무나도 많이 훼손시켰기 때문에
자연은 스스로 자립할 수 없고,
so much that nature can't possibly
stand on its own anymore,
and most endangered species
are only going to survive
if we stay out there in the landscape
riggging the world around them in their favor.
So we've gone hands-on
and we can't ever take our hands off,
and that's a hell of a lot of work.
Right now, we're training condors
not to perch on power lines.
우리는 흰두루미들에게 겨울에
대비해 남쪽으로 이주 할 때
We teach whooping cranes
to migrate south for the winter
초소형 비행기 뒤를 따라
behind little ultra-light airplanes.
We're out there feeding plague vaccine to ferrets.
We monitor pygmy rabbits with drones.
So we've gone from annihilating species
to micromanaging the survival of a lot of species
이젠 동물들을 보호하기 위해
가까이서 돌보고 있습니다.
indefinitely, and which ones?
Well, the ones that we've told
compelling stories about,
the ones we've decided ought to stick around.
다른 하나는 우리가 잊지
않기로 결정한 것 입니다.
The line between conservation and domestication
So what I've been saying is that the stories
우리가 다룬 야생 동물 이야기는
굉장히 주관적이기 때문에
that we tell about wild animals are so subjective
they can be irrational
or romanticized or sensationalized.
과장 될 수 있다는 것입니다.
Sometimes they just have
nothing to do with the facts.
But in a world of conservation reliance,
those stories have very real consequences,
because now, how we feel about an animal
affects its survival
more than anything that you read about
in ecology textbooks.
Storytelling matters now.
Our imagination has become an ecological force.
이제 우리의 상상은 생태계에
영향을 미치게 되었습니다.
그리고 아마도 그 테디베어도
중요한 역할을 했을 것입니다.
And so maybe the teddy bear worked in part
because the legend of Roosevelt
and that bear in Mississippi
당시 우리 사회가 막 마주하기 시작한
막대한 책임감이란 것을 보여준
was kind of like an allegory
of this great responsibility that society
was just beginning to face up to back then.
It would be another 71 years
멸종위기 동물 보호 법이 통과되기
무려 71년 전 일이었습니다.
before the Endangered Species Act was passed,
but really, here's its whole ethos
boiled down into something like a scene
스테인드 글라스 창의 한 장면으로
요약 할 수 있습니다.
you'd see in a stained glass window.
그 곰은 나무에 묶여있는
도움이 절실한 희생자였고,
The bear is a helpless victim tied to a tree,
and the president of the United States
decided to show it some mercy.
[Illustrations by Wendy MacNaughton]