07:29
TEDxBerkeley

John Koenig: Beautiful new words to describe obscure emotions

Džons Kēnigs: Skaisti jaunvārdi grūti aprakstāmām sajūtām

Filmed:

Džonam Kēnigam patīk atrast vārdus, kas izsaka mūsu neizteiktās sajūtas, piemēram „lachesism”, kas ir alkas pēc nelaimes un „sonder”, apjausma, ka citu dzīves ir tikpat sarežģītas un neizzināmas kā mūsu paša. Šajā runā viņš prāto par jēgu, ko piešķiram vārdiem un kā šī jēga mums atspēlējas.

- Writer
John Koenig is writing an original dictionary of made-up words. Full bio

Šodien es vēlos runāt par vārdu jēgu,
00:13
Today I want to talk
about the meaning of words,
kā to nosakām mēs
00:16
how we define them
un kā tie gandrīz vai atriebjoties
00:17
and how they, almost as revenge,
nosaka mūs.
00:20
define us.
Angļu valoda ir milzu sūklis.
00:21
The English language
is a magnificent sponge.
Man ļoti patīk angļu valoda.
Priecājos, ka tajā runāju.
00:24
I love the English language.
I'm glad that I speak it.
Bet ar visu to tajā ir daudz robu.
00:27
But for all that, it has a lot of holes.
Grieķu valodā ir vārds „lachesism”,
00:30
In Greek, there's a word, "lachesism"
kas nozīmē alkas pēc nelaimes.
00:32
which is the hunger for disaster.
Kad pie apvāršņa redzat negaisu
00:36
You know, when you see
a thunderstorm on the horizon
un saprotat, ka ilgojaties pēc vētras.
00:40
and you just find yourself
rooting for the storm.
Mandarīnu valodā ir tāds vārds „yù yī”.
00:44
In Mandarin, they have a word "yù yī" --
Es gan to neizrunāju pareizi,
00:46
I'm not pronouncing that correctly --
bet tas nozīmē ilgoties
atkal kaut ko tik spēcīgi izjust
00:48
which means the longing
to feel intensely again
kā to izjutāt bērnībā.
00:51
the way you did when you were a kid.
Poļu valodā ir vārds „jouska”,
00:55
In Polish, they have a word "jouska"
kas ir it kā hipotētiska saruna,
00:58
which is the kind of
hypothetical conversation
ko piespiedu kārtā izspēlē prātā.
01:02
that you compulsively
play out in your head.
Un visbeidzot vācu valodā, protams, vācu,
01:06
And finally, in German,
of course in German,
ir tāds vārds „Zielschmerz”,
01:09
they have a word called "zielschmerz"
kas ir bailes tikt pie gribētā.
01:12
which is the dread
of getting what you want.
(Smiekli)
01:15
(Laughter)
Beidzot sasniegts mūža sapnis.
01:20
Finally fulfilling a lifelong dream.
Es pats esmu vācietis,
tāpēc ļoti labi pazīstu šo sajūtu.
01:23
I'm German myself,
so I know exactly what that feels like.
Es gan nezinu, vai
ikdienā lietotu kādu no šiem vārdiem,
01:27
Now, I'm not sure
if I would use any of these words
01:29
as I go about my day,
bet ļoti priecājos, ka tādi ir.
01:31
but I'm really glad they exist.
Vienīgais iemesls, kāpēc tie pastāv,
ir tāpēc, ka es tos izdomāju.
01:33
But the only reason they exist
is because I made them up.
Es esmu The Dictionary
of Obscure Sorrows
autors,
01:37
I am the author of "The Dictionary
of Obscure Sorrows,"
kas esmu bijis jau pēdējos septiņus gadus.
01:41
which I've been writing
for the last seven years.
Visa projekta misija
01:44
And the whole mission of the project
ir atrast robus emociju valodā
01:46
is to find holes
in the language of emotion
un mēģināt tos aizpildīt,
01:51
and try to fill them
lai varētu runāt
par visām tām cilvēku sajūtu niansēm
01:52
so that we have a way of talking
about all those human peccadilloes
un cilvēku untumainajiem stāvokļiem,
01:56
and quirks of the human condition
ko visi jūtam,
bet varbūt nedomājam izteikt,
01:58
that we all feel
but may not think to talk about
jo mums tiem nav vārdu.
02:02
because we don't have the words to do it.
Un apmēram projekta pusceļā
02:05
And about halfway through this project,
es aprakstīju „sonder”,
02:08
I defined "sonder,"
ideju, ka visi uzskatām sevi
par galveno varoni
02:09
the idea that we all think of ourselves
as the main character
un visi apkārtējie ir tikai otrajā plānā.
02:13
and everyone else is just extras.
Īstenībā mēs visi esam galvenie varoņi,
02:15
But in reality,
we're all the main character,
un paši esam otrais plāns
kāda cita stāstā.
02:18
and you yourself are an extra
in someone else's story.
Līdzko es to publicēju,
02:23
And so as soon as I published that,
es saņēmu daudz atbilžu,
02:26
I got a lot of response from people
kas bija: „Paldies, ka piešķīrāt balsi
tam, ko biju jutis visu savu dzīvi,
02:28
saying, "Thank you for giving voice
to something I had felt all my life
bet tam nebija vārda.”
02:32
but there was no word for that."
Viņi jutās mazāk vientuļi.
02:35
So it made them feel less alone.
Tāds ir vārdu spēks
02:38
That's the power of words,
– ļaut justies mazāk vientuļiem.
02:40
to make us feel less alone.
Un neilgi pēc tam
02:44
And it was not long after that
es sāku pamanīt,
02:46
that I started to notice sonder
ka „sonder” visā nopietnībā
lieto interneta sarunās,
02:47
being used earnestly
in conversations online,
un neilgi pēc tā pamanīšanas
02:52
and not long after I actually noticed it,
es izdzirdēju to sev blakus
kādā runātā sarunā.
02:55
I caught it next to me
in an actual conversation in person.
Nav dīvainākas sajūtas par to,
kad tevis izdomāts vārds
02:58
There is no stranger feeling
than making up a word
03:01
and then seeing it
take on a mind of its own.
sāk dzīvot pats savu dzīvi.
Šai sajūtai man
vēl nav nosaukuma, bet būs.
03:05
I don't have a word
for that yet, but I will.
03:07
(Laughter)
(Smiekli)
Es pie tā strādāju.
03:09
I'm working on it.
Es sāku domāt par to,
kas vārdus padara īstus,
03:11
I started to think
about what makes words real,
jo daudzi man jautā,
03:15
because a lot of people ask me,
visbiežākais jautājums, ko man uzdod, ir:
03:17
the most common thing
I got from people is,
„Vai šie vārdi ir izdomāti?
Es īsti nesaprotu.”
03:19
"Well, are these words made up?
I don't really understand."
Es īsti nezināju, ko viņiem atbildēt,
03:22
And I didn't really know what to tell them
jo kad „sonder” sāka ieviesties,
03:24
because once sonder started to take off,
kā gan man spriest par to,
kuri vārdi ir īsti un kuri nē.
03:26
who am I to say what words
are real and what aren't.
Tad es sajutos kā Stīvs Džobss,
viņam aprakstot savu epifāniju,
03:30
And so I sort of felt like Steve Jobs,
who described his epiphany
kad viņš saprata,
ka vairums no mums ikdienā
03:34
as when he realized that most of us,
as we go through the day,
baidās pārāk stipri atsisties pret sienām
03:37
we just try to avoid
bouncing against the walls too much
un it kā cenšas dzīvot tālāk.
03:40
and just sort of get on with things.
Bet, kad saproti, ka cilvēki,
03:43
But once you realize that people --
ka šo pasauli veidojuši cilvēki,
kas nebija gudrāki par tevi,
03:48
that this world was built
by people no smarter than you,
tad var pastiept roku
un pieskarties šīm sienām,
03:52
then you can reach out
and touch those walls
03:54
and even put your hand through them
un pat izbāzt roku tām cauri
un saprast, ka vari to izmainīt.
03:55
and realize that you have
the power to change it.
Kad man jautā: „Vai šie vārdi ir īsti?”
03:59
And when people ask me,
"Are these words real?"
man ir dažādas atbildes,
ko esmu izmēģinājis.
04:02
I had a variety of answers
that I tried out.
Dažas šķita jēdzīgas, citas nē.
04:04
Some of them made sense.
Some of them didn't.
Bet viena no izmēģinātajām bija:
04:07
But one of them I tried out was,
„Vārds ir īsts, ja gribi,
lai tas tāds būtu.”
04:08
"Well, a word is real
if you want it to be real."
Tāpat kā šī taka ir īsta,
jo cilvēki to tur vēlējās.
04:12
The way that this path is real
because people wanted it to be there.
(Smiekli)
04:16
(Laughter)
Augstskolu pilsētiņās
tas notiek ik dienas.
04:18
It happens on college
campuses all the time.
To sauc par „vēlmju taku”.
04:20
It's called a "desire path."
(Smiekli)
04:21
(Laughter)
Bet tad es nolēmu,
ka tas, ko man patiesībā jautā,
04:22
But then I decided,
what people are really asking
jautājot, vai vārds ir īsts,
viņi patiesībā jautā:
04:25
when they're asking if a word is real,
they're really asking,
„Cik daudzus prātus es ar to sasniegšu?”
04:27
"Well, how many brains
will this give me access to?"
Jo, manuprāt, pārsvarā tā
mēs redzam valodu.
04:33
Because I think that's
a lot of how we look at language.
Vārds principā ir atslēga,
04:35
A word is essentially a key
kas ļauj piekļūt noteiktu ļaužu prātiem.
04:38
that gets us into certain people's heads.
Ja tas ļauj mums piekļūt
tikai vienam prātam,
04:41
And if it gets us into one brain,
tad to nav īsti vērts lietot,
04:44
it's not really worth it,
nav vērts ielāgot.
04:46
not really worth knowing.
Divi prāti... atkarīgs no tā,
kas tie tādi ir.
04:47
Two brains, eh, it depends on who it is.
Miljons prātu – nu jau cita runa.
04:49
A million brains, OK, now we're talking.
Īsts vārds sniedz pieeju
pēc iespējas vairāk prātiem.
04:52
And so a real word is one that gets you
access to as many brains as you can.
Tāpēc to ir vērts zināt.
04:59
That's what makes it worth knowing.
Sagadīšanās pēc, visīstākais vārds
pēc šīs mērauklas ir šis.
05:02
Incidentally, the realest word of all
by this measure is this.
[O.K.]
05:06
[O.K.]
Viss.
05:08
That's it.
Visīstākais vārds, kāds mums ir.
05:09
The realest word we have.
05:11
That is the closest thing we have
to a master key.
Tas ir vistuvākais universālajai atslēgai.
Tas ir visvairāk saprastais vārds pasaulē,
05:13
That's the most commonly
understood word in the world,
lai kur arī nenonāktu.
05:16
no matter where you are.
Nelaime gan tāda,
05:17
The problem with that is,
ka neviens īsti nezina,
ko šie divi burti nozīmē.
05:18
no one seems to know
what those two letters stand for.
(Smiekli)
05:21
(Laughter)
Tas ir diezgan dīvaini, vai ne?
05:23
Which is kind of weird, right?
Tas varētu būt nepareizi
saīsināts „all correct”, varbūt,
05:26
I mean, it could be a misspelling
of "all correct," I guess,
vai „old kinderhook”.
05:29
or "old kinderhook."
Neviens īsti nezina.
Bet tas, ka nav svarīga tā izcelsme,
05:30
No one really seems to know,
but the fact that it doesn't matter
kaut ko saka par to,
kā vārdiem piešķiram nozīmi.
05:34
says something about
how we add meaning to words.
Nozīme nav pašos vārdos.
05:38
The meaning is not
in the words themselves.
Mēs esam tie, kas ieliekam sevi tajos.
05:41
We're the ones
that pour ourselves into it.
Un, manuprāt, kad visi meklējam
savas dzīves jēgu
05:45
And I think, when we're all searching
for meaning in our lives,
un dzīves jēgu kā tādu,
05:50
and searching for the meaning of life,
tam ir kāds sakars ar vārdiem.
05:51
I think words have
something to do with that.
Manuprāt, ja meklējat kaut kā nozīmi,
05:56
And I think if you're looking
for the meaning of something,
vārdnīca ir labs sākums.
05:58
the dictionary is a decent place to start.
Tā piešķir sakārtotības sajūtu
06:01
It brings a sense of order
ļoti haotiskajam visumam.
06:04
to a very chaotic universe.
Mūsu skatījums ir tik ierobežots,
06:06
Our view of things is so limited
ka jāizgudro principi un īsceļi
06:09
that we have to come up
with patterns and shorthands
un jāizdomā, kā to skaidrot
06:12
and try to figure out
a way to interpret it
un ar to sadzīvot ikdienā.
06:14
and be able to get on with our day.
Mums vajadzīgi vārdi,
kas apvalda un nosaka, kas esam.
06:17
We need words to contain us,
to define ourselves.
Manuprāt, daudzi
no mums jūtas ieslodzīti
06:21
I think a lot of us feel boxed in
tajā, kā lietojam šos vārdus.
06:24
by how we use these words.
Mēs aizmirstam, ka vārdi ir izdomāti.
06:25
We forget that words are made up.
Tādi nav tikai mani vārdi.
Visi vārdi ir izdomāti,
06:28
It's not just my words.
All words are made up,
bet ne visi no tiem kaut ko nozīmē.
06:31
but not all of them mean something.
Mēs visi esam it kā ierobežoti
savā vārdu krājumā,
06:33
We're all just sort of
trapped in our own lexicons
kas ne vienmēr saskan ar cilvēkiem,
kas vairs nav tādi kā mēs,
06:38
that don't necessarily correlate
with people who aren't already like us,
un tāpēc rodas sajūta, ka ar katru gadu
viens no otra arvien vairāk attālināmies,
06:42
and so I think I feel us drifting apart
a little more every year,
jo nopietnāk uztveram vārdus.
06:47
the more seriously we take words.
Jo atcerieties, vārdi nav īsti.
06:51
Because remember, words are not real.
Tiem nav nozīmes. Mums ir.
06:55
They don't have meaning. We do.
Kā pēdējo vēlētos nolasīt
06:58
And I'd like to leave you with a reading
fragmentu ar vienu no maniem
mīļākajiem filosofiem ‒
07:01
from one of my favorite philosophers,
Bila Vatersona, kas radījis grāmatu sēriju
„Kelvins un Hobss.”
07:04
Bill Watterson, who created
"Calvin and Hobbes."
07:06
He said,
Viņš ir teicis:
„Radīt dzīvi, kas atspoguļo
jūsu vērtības un apmierina dvēseli,
07:09
"Creating a life that reflects
your values and satisfies your soul
ir rets sasniegums.
07:12
is a rare achievement.
Izgudrot pašam savas dzīves jēgu
07:14
To invent your own life's meaning
nav vienkārši,
07:17
is not easy,
bet tomēr to drīkst darīt,
07:18
but it is still allowed,
un, manuprāt, pēc tam
būsiet laimīgāks, ka papūlējāties.”
07:20
and I think you'll be
happier for the trouble."
Paldies.
07:23
Thank you.
(Aplausi)
07:24
(Applause)
Translated by Raimonds Jaks
Reviewed by Kristaps Kadiķis

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About the Speaker:

John Koenig - Writer
John Koenig is writing an original dictionary of made-up words.

Why you should listen

John Koenig has spent the last seven years writing an original dictionary of made-up words, The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows, which fills gaps in the language with hundreds of new terms for emotions. This project seeks to restore sadness to its original meaning (from Latin satis, "fullness") by defining moments of melancholy that we may all feel, but never think to mention -- deepening our understanding of each other by broadening the emotional palette, from avenoir, "the desire to see memories in advance," to zenosyne, "the sense that time keeps going faster."

Each entry is a collage of word roots borrowed from languages all around the world. Some entries are even beginning to enter the language outright:

sonder n. The realization that each random passerby is living a life as vivid and complex as your own -- populated with their own ambitions, friends, routines, worries and inherited craziness -- an epic story that continues invisibly around you like an anthill sprawling deep underground, with elaborate passageways to thousands of other lives that you'll never know existed, in which you might appear only once, as an extra sipping coffee in the background, as a blur of traffic passing on the highway, as a lighted window at dusk.

His original YouTube series, The Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows, which he writes, edits and narrates himself, has drawn acclaim from John Green and Beyoncé to Michael from Vsauce. "Each episode is a soothing meditation on its subject, fortified by a hypnotic soundtrack and Koenig’s twistingly intelligent narration," writes The Daily Dot.

He currently works as a freelance video editor, voice actor, graphic designer, illustrator, photographer, director and writer. His writing has been published in countless tattoos, stories, song titles and band names, but never on paper -- though he is currently working on publishing a book adaptation. Originally from Minnesota and Geneva, Switzerland, John lives in Budapest with his wife.

More profile about the speaker
John Koenig | Speaker | TED.com