17:09
TEDSummit

Rachel Botsman: We've stopped trusting institutions and started trusting strangers

Rejčel Botsman (Rachel Botsman): Prestali smo da verujemo institucijama i počeli da verujemo nepoznatim osobama

Filmed:

Nešto od dubinskog značaja menja naš koncept poverenja, kaže Rejčel Botsman. Dok smo nekada imali poverenja u institucije kao što su vlada i banke, danas se sve više oslanjamo na druge, često nepoznate ljude, na platformama kao što su Erbienbi i Uber, kao i na tehnologije kao što je blokčejn. Ova nova era poverenja može doneti sa sobom transparentnije, inkluzivnije i odgovornije društvo, ako ovo pravilno shvatimo. Kome vi verujete?

- Trust researcher
Rachel Botsman is a recognized expert on how collaboration and trust enabled by digital technologies will change the way we live, work, bank and consume. Full bio

Let's talk about trust.
Hajde da razgovaramo o poverenju.
00:12
We all know trust is fundamental,
Svi znamo da je poverenje
od suštinskog značaja,
00:16
but when it comes to trusting people,
ali kada se radi o verovanju ljudima,
00:19
something profound is happening.
nešto intenzivno se dešava.
00:22
Please raise your hand
Molim vas, podignite ruku
00:25
if you have ever been
a host or a guest on Airbnb.
ako ste ikada bili domaćin
ili gost na Erbienbiju.
00:27
Wow. That's a lot of you.
Vau. To je mnogo vas.
00:32
Who owns Bitcoin?
Ko poseduje bitkoine?
00:35
Still a lot of you. OK.
I dalje dosta vas. U redu.
00:38
And please raise your hand
if you've ever used Tinder
Molim vas, podignite ruku
ako ste ikada koristili Tinder
00:39
to help you find a mate.
da biste pronašli partnera.
00:42
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
00:44
This one's really hard to count
because you're kind of going like this.
Ovo je zaista teško izbrojati
jer pokazujete ovako nekako.
00:46
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
00:49
These are all examples of how technology
Ovo su sve primeri
načina na koji tehnologija
00:51
is creating new mechanisms
stvara nove mehanizme
00:54
that are enabling us to trust
unknown people, companies and ideas.
koji nam omogućavaju da verujemo
nepoznatim ljudima, kompanijama i idejama.
00:56
And yet at the same time,
A ipak, istovremeno,
01:02
trust in institutions --
vera u institucije -
01:04
banks, governments and even churches --
banke, vladu, pa čak i u crkve -
01:05
is collapsing.
propada.
01:08
So what's happening here,
Pa, šta se ovde dešava
01:10
and who do you trust?
i kome verujete?
01:12
Let's start in France with a platform --
with a company, I should say --
Započnimo platformom u Francuskoj -
kompanijom, hoću reći -
01:14
with a rather funny-sounding name,
sa imenom koje zvuči prilično smešno,
01:18
BlaBlaCar.
Bla bla auto.
01:20
It's a platform that matches
drivers and passengers
To je platforma koja spaja
vozače i putnike
01:22
who want to share
long-distance journeys together.
koji žele da podele duža putovanja.
01:25
The average ride taken is 320 kilometers.
Prosečna vožnja je iznosila
320 kilometara.
01:29
So it's a good idea
to choose your fellow travelers wisely.
Tako je dobra ideja
mudro odabrati svoje saputnike.
01:34
Social profiles and reviews
help people make a choice.
Društveni profili i komentari
pomažu ljudima da donesu odluke.
01:39
You can see if someone's a smoker,
you can see what kind of music they like,
Možete videti da li je neko pušač,
kakvu muziku voli,
01:43
you can see if they're going to bring
their dog along for the ride.
da li će povesti svog psa na put.
01:48
But it turns out
that the key social identifier
Međutim, ispostavilo se
da je ključni društveni identifikator
01:52
is how much you're going
to talk in the car.
koliko ćete pričati u kolima.
01:56
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
01:58
Bla, not a lot,
Bla - ne mnogo,
02:00
bla bla, you want a nice bit of chitchat,
bla bla - želite malo finog ćaskanja,
02:02
and bla bla bla, you're not going
to stop talking the entire way
i bla bla bla - nećete prestati
da pričate celim putem
02:04
from London to Paris.
od Londona do Pariza.
02:08
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
02:09
It's remarkable, right,
that this idea works at all,
Neobično je što ova ideja
uopšte funkcioniše,
02:12
because it's counter to the lesson
most of us were taught as a child:
jer se suprotstavlja lekciji
kojoj su većinu nas učili kao decu -
02:15
never get in a car with a stranger.
nikada ne ulazi u auto
sa nepoznatom osobom.
02:18
And yet, BlaBlaCar transports
more than four million people
A ipak, Bla bla auto prevozi
više od četiri milina ljudi
02:21
every single month.
svakog meseca.
02:26
To put that in context,
that's more passengers
Kada stavite to u kontekst,
to je više putnika
02:28
than the Eurostar
or JetBlue airlines carry.
nego što prevoze aviokompanije
Evrostar ili Džet Blu.
02:31
BlaBlaCar is a beautiful illustration
of how technology is enabling
Bla bla auto je prelepa ilustracija
načina na koji tehnologija omogućava
02:35
millions of people across the world
to take a trust leap.
milionima ljudi širom sveta
da načine skok poverenja.
02:39
A trust leap happens when we take the risk
to do something new or different
Skok poverenja se dešava kada rizikujemo
da uradimo nešto novo ili drugačije
02:43
to the way that we've always done it.
u odnosu na način
na koji smo to oduvek radili.
02:49
Let's try to visualize this together.
Hajde da pokušamo
da zajedno vizualizujemo ovo.
02:52
OK. I want you to close your eyes.
U redu. Želim da zatvorite oči.
02:55
There is a man staring at me
with his eyes wide open.
Jedan čovek zuri u mene
širom otvorenih očiju.
02:59
I'm on this big red circle. I can see.
Ja sam na ovom velikom crvenom krugu.
Mogu da vidim. Dakle, zatvorite oči.
03:02
So close your eyes.
(Smeh) (Aplauz)
03:04
(Laughter) (Applause)
Radiću to sa vama.
03:06
I'll do it with you.
Htela bih da zamislite
da postoji međuprostor
03:09
And I want you to imagine
there exists a gap
između vas i nečeg nepoznatog.
03:10
between you and something unknown.
To nepoznato može biti
neko koga ste tek upoznali.
03:13
That unknown can be
someone you've just met.
To može biti mesto
na kojem nikada niste bili.
03:16
It can be a place you've never been to.
To može biti nešto
što nikada pre niste probali.
03:19
It can be something
you've never tried before.
Zamislili ste?
03:21
You got it?
U redu. Sada možete otvoriti oči.
03:25
OK. You can open your eyes now.
Da biste odskočili sa mesta izvesnosti,
03:26
For you to leap from a place of certainty,
da biste preduzeli rizik ka nekome
ili nečemu nepoznatom,
03:28
to take a chance on that someone
or something unknown,
potrebna vam je sila
koja će vas odvući preko međuprostora,
03:31
you need a force to pull you over the gap,
a ta izuzetna sila je poverenje.
03:35
and that remarkable force is trust.
Poverenje je koncept
koji je teško razumeti,
03:38
Trust is an elusive concept,
a ipak, oslanjamo se na njega
da bi naši životi funkcionisali.
03:42
and yet we depend on it
for our lives to function.
Verujem svojoj deci
03:46
I trust my children
kada kažu da će noću ugasiti svetla.
03:49
when they say they're going
to turn the lights out at night.
Verovala sam pilotu
koji me je dovezao ovde
03:51
I trusted the pilot
who flew me here to keep me safe.
da će mi obezbediti sigurnost.
03:54
It's a word we use a lot,
To je reč koju mnogo koristimo,
03:58
without always thinking
about what it really means
pri čemu ne razmišljamo
uvek o tome šta zapravo znači
04:00
and how it works in different
contexts of our lives.
i kako ono funkcioniše
u različitim kontekstima našeg života.
04:03
There are, in fact,
hundreds of definitions of trust,
Postoje, zapravo,
stotine definicija poverenja,
04:06
and most can be reduced
to some kind of risk assessment
a većina se može svesti
na neku vrstu procene rizika
04:10
of how likely it is
that things will go right.
koliko je verovatno
da će stvari proteći kako treba.
04:14
But I don't like this definition of trust,
No, meni se ne dopada
ova definicija poverenja,
04:18
because it makes trust
sound rational and predictable,
jer čini da poverenje zvuči
racionalno i predvidljivo,
04:20
and it doesn't really get
to the human essence
a baš i ne doseže do ljudske suštine
04:25
of what it enables us to do
onoga što nam omogućava da radimo
04:27
and how it empowers us
i načina na koji nas osnažuje
04:29
to connect with other people.
da se povežemo sa drugima.
04:31
So I define trust a little differently.
Stoga definišem poverenje malo drugačije.
04:33
I define trust as a confident
relationship to the unknown.
Definišem poverenje
kao pouzdani odnos prema nepoznatom.
04:35
Now, when you view trust
through this lens,
Kada sagledate poverenje
iz ove perspektive,
04:41
it starts to explain
why it has the unique capacity
počinje da objašnjava
zašto ono ima jedinstveni kapacitet
04:44
to enable us to cope with uncertainty,
da nam omogući
da se izborimo sa neizvesnošću,
04:47
to place our faith in strangers,
da poverujemo nepoznatima,
04:50
to keep moving forward.
da nastavimo da se krećemo napred.
04:53
Human beings are remarkable
Ljudska bića su neverovatna
04:56
at taking trust leaps.
u pogledu preduzimanja
skokova poverenja.
04:59
Do you remember the first time
you put your credit card details
Da li se sećate kada ste prvi put uneli
podatke sa kreditne kartice na veb-sajtu?
05:01
into a website?
To je skok poverenja.
05:04
That's a trust leap.
Jasno se sećam da sam rekla tati
da hoću da kupim
05:05
I distinctly remember telling my dad
tamno plavog polovnog Pežoa na Ibeju,
05:07
that I wanted to buy a navy blue
secondhand Peugeot on eBay,
a on je s punim pravom ukazao
05:09
and he rightfully pointed out
da je ime prodavca „Nevidljivi čarobnjak“
05:15
that the seller's name
was "Invisible Wizard"
i da to verovatno baš i nije dobra ideja.
05:16
and that this probably
was not such a good idea.
(Smeh)
05:19
(Laughter)
Moj rad, moje istraživanje
fokusira se na način na koji tehnologija
05:22
So my work, my research
focuses on how technology
preobražava društveni lepak društva,
05:24
is transforming
the social glue of society,
poverenje između ljudi,
05:27
trust between people,
a to je fascinantna oblast za proučavanje,
05:30
and it's a fascinating area to study,
jer još postoji toliko toga što ne znamo.
05:31
because there's still
so much we do not know.
Na primer, da li muškarci i žene
različito veruju u digitalnim okruženjima?
05:34
For instance, do men and women
trust differently in digital environments?
Da li se način na koji gradimo poverenje
uživo prenosi onlajn?
05:37
Does the way we build trust
face-to-face translate online?
Da li se poverenje prenosi?
05:42
Does trust transfer?
Tako, ako verujete
da ćete pronaći partnera na Tinderu,
05:47
So if you trust finding a mate on Tinder,
da li ćete više verovati
da ćete pronaći vozača na Bla bla autu?
05:49
are you more likely
to trust finding a ride on BlaBlaCar?
Na osnovu proučavanja
stotina mreža i tržišta,
05:52
But from studying hundreds
of networks and marketplaces,
postoji učestali obrazac koji ljudi slede,
05:56
there is a common pattern
that people follow,
a ja ga nazivam
„penjanje uz kulu poverenja“.
05:59
and I call it "climbing the trust stack."
Dozvolite da upotrebim
primer Bla bla auta da bih to oživela.
06:02
Let me use BlaBlaCar
as an example to bring it to life.
Na prvom nivou,
06:05
On the first level,
morate verovati ideji.
06:09
you have to trust the idea.
Dakle, morate verovati
06:10
So you have to trust
da je ideja o deljenju vožnje
bezbedna i vredna isprobavanja.
06:12
the idea of ride-sharing
is safe and worth trying.
Drugi nivo se odnosi
na posedovanje poverenja u platformu,
06:13
The second level is about having
confidence in the platform,
da će vam Bla bla auto pomoći
ako nešto krene po zlu.
06:17
that BlaBlaCar will help you
if something goes wrong.
Treći nivo se odnosi
na korišćenje malih delova infomacija
06:22
And the third level is about
using little bits of information
da bismo odlučili
da li je druga osoba pouzdana.
06:26
to decide whether
the other person is trustworthy.
Prvi put kada se penjemo
uz kulu poverenja,
06:30
Now, the first time
we climb the trust stack,
deluje čudno, čak i rizično,
06:34
it feels weird, even risky,
ali stignemo do tačke u kojoj ove ideje
izgledaju potpuno normalno.
06:36
but we get to a point
where these ideas seem totally normal.
Naša ponašanja se menjaju,
06:40
Our behaviors transform,
često relativno brzo.
06:45
often relatively quickly.
Drugim rečima, poverenje omogućava
promene i inovacije.
06:47
In other words, trust enables
change and innovation.
Ideja koja me je zaintrigirala,
a koju bih htela da razmotrite,
06:49
So an idea that intrigued me,
and I'd like you to consider,
je da li možemo bolje razumeti
06:55
is whether we can better understand
glavne načine prekida i promene
kod pojedinaca u društvu
06:58
major ways of disruption and change
in individuals in society
kroz perspektivu poverenja.
07:01
through the lens of trust.
Pa, ispostavilo se da se poverenje razvilo
07:05
Well, it turns out
that trust has only evolved
tek kroz tri značajna poglavlja
tokom ljudske istorije:
07:07
in three significant chapters
throughout the course of human history:
lokalno, institucionalno
07:10
local, institutional
i ono u koje sada ulazimo, raspodeljeno.
07:15
and what we're now entering, distributed.
Tokom dužeg perioda,
07:17
So for a long time,
do sredine 19. veka,
07:20
until the mid-1800s,
poverenje se gradilo oko bliskih veza.
07:23
trust was built
around tight-knit relationships.
Recimo da živim u selu
07:24
So say I lived in a village
sa prvih pet redova ove publike
07:28
with the first five rows of this audience,
i svi se međusobno poznajemo,
07:30
and we all knew one another,
i recimo da hoću da pozajmim novac.
07:32
and say I wanted to borrow money.
Čovek sa širom otvorenim očima
bi mi ga možda pozajmio,
07:34
The man who had his eyes wide open,
he might lend it to me,
a ako mu ga ne bih vratila,
07:37
and if I didn't pay him back,
svi biste znali da sam nepouzdana.
07:40
you'd all know I was dodgy.
Stekla bih lošu reputaciju
07:42
I would get a bad reputation,
i odbili biste da ubuduće
obavljate poslove sa mnom.
07:44
and you would refuse
to do business with me in the future.
Poverenje je uglavnom bilo
lokalnog karaktera
07:46
Trust was mostly local
and accountability-based.
i zasnovano na odgovornosti.
07:49
In the mid-19th century,
Sredinom 19. veka,
07:53
society went through
a tremendous amount of change.
društvo je prošlo
kroz ogromnu količinu promena.
07:54
People moved to fast-growing cities
such as London and San Francisco,
Ljudi su se preselili
u gradove brzog razvoja
07:58
and a local banker here
was replaced by large corporations
kao što su London i San Francisko,
08:02
that didn't know us as individuals.
i lokalne bankare su tamo zamenile
velike korporacije
08:07
We started to place our trust
koje nas nisu znale kao pojedince.
08:10
into black box systems of authority,
Počeli smo da dajemo poverenje
08:12
things like legal contracts
and regulation and insurance,
sistemima crne kutije sa autoritetom,
08:15
and less trust directly in other people.
stvarima kao što su pravni ugovori,
propisi i osiguranja,
08:19
Trust became institutional
and commission-based.
a manje da direktno verujemo
drugim ljudima.
08:23
It's widely talked about how trust
in institutions and many corporate brands
Poverenje je postalo institucionalno
i zasnovano na procentima.
08:27
has been steadily declining
and continues to do so.
Naširoko se govori o tome da je poverenje
u institucije i mnoge korporativne marke
08:32
I am constantly stunned
by major breaches of trust:
konstantno opadalo i nastavlja da opada.
08:36
the News Corp phone hacking,
Stalno me iznenađuju
velika narušavanja poverenja:
08:42
the Volkswagen emissions scandal,
hakovanje telefona Njuz korporacije,
08:44
the widespread abuse
in the Catholic Church,
skandal sa Folksvagenovom
emisijom štetnih gasova,
08:47
the fact that only one measly banker
rašireno zlostavljanje u katoličkoj crkvi,
08:50
went to jail after the great
financial crisis,
činjenica da je samo jedan bedni bankar
08:54
or more recently the Panama Papers
otišao u zatvor
nakon velike finansijske krize,
08:57
that revealed how the rich
can exploit offshore tax regimes.
ili skorije, Panamski papiri
08:59
And the thing that really surprises me
koji su razotkrili kako bogati
mogu da iskoriste ofšor poreske režime.
09:04
is why do leaders find it so hard
Ono što me zaista iznenađuje
09:07
to apologize, I mean sincerely apologize,
je zašto je liderima
toliko teško da se izvine,
09:11
when our trust is broken?
mislim, da se iskreno izvine,
09:14
It would be easy to conclude
that institutional trust isn't working
kada je naše poverenje narušeno?
09:17
because we are fed up
Bilo bi olako zaključiti
da poverenje u institucije ne funkcioniše
09:21
with the sheer audacity
of dishonest elites,
jer nam je dozlogrdilo
09:23
but what's happening now
sama drskost nepoštenih elita,
09:25
runs deeper than the rampant questioning
of the size and structure of institutions.
ali ono što se sada dešava
09:27
We're starting to realize
seže dublje od neobuzdanog ispitivanja
veličine i strukture institucija.
09:33
that institutional trust
Počinjemo da shvatamo
09:35
wasn't designed for the digital age.
da institucionalno poverenje
09:37
Conventions of how trust is built,
nije predviđeno za digitalno doba.
09:40
managed, lost and repaired --
Konvencije o tome kako se poverenje gradi,
09:44
in brands, leaders and entire systems --
kontroliše, gubi i popravlja -
09:46
is being turned upside down.
kod robnih marki, vođa i čitavih sistema -
09:49
Now, this is exciting,
preokreću se naglavačke.
09:51
but it's frightening,
To je uzbudljivo,
09:53
because it forces many of us
to have to rethink
ali i zastrašujuće,
09:55
how trust is built and destroyed
with our customers, with our employees,
jer primorava mnoge od nas
da iznova razmisle
09:58
even our loved ones.
o tome kako se poverenje gradi i uništava
kod naših klijenta, naših zaposlenih,
10:02
The other day, I was talking to the CEO
of a leading international hotel brand,
čak i naših voljenih osoba.
10:05
and as is often the case,
we got onto the topic of Airbnb.
Pre neki dan sam razgovarala sa direktorom
vodeće međunarodne marke hotela,
10:12
And he admitted to me
that he was perplexed by their success.
i kao što to često biva,
pokrenuli smo temu Erbienbija.
10:15
He was perplexed at how a company
Priznao mi je da je zbunjen
njegovim uspehom.
10:20
that depends on the willingness
of strangers to trust one another
Zbunjen je time kako kompanija
10:23
could work so well across 191 countries.
koja zavisi od spremnosti ljudi
koji se ne poznaju da veruju jedni drugima
10:27
So I said to him
that I had a confession to make,
može tako dobro da radi u 191 zemlji.
10:31
and he looked at me a bit strangely,
Rekla sam mu da moram da priznam,
10:35
and I said --
pri čemu me je pogledao pomalo čudno,
10:37
and I'm sure many of you
do this as well --
i rekla sam -
10:38
I don't always bother to hang my towels up
a sigurna sam da mnogi od vas
rade to isto -
10:40
when I'm finished in the hotel,
ne trudim se uvek da okačim peškire
10:43
but I would never do this
as a guest on Airbnb.
kada završim boravak u hotelu,
10:46
And the reason why I would never do this
as a guest on Airbnb
ali to nikada ne bih uradila
kao gost na Erbienbiju.
10:49
is because guests know
that they'll be rated by hosts,
A razlog zbog kojeg to ne bih uradila
kao gost na Erbienbiju
10:52
and that those ratings
are likely to impact their ability
je zato što gosti znaju
da će ih domaćini oceniti
10:56
to transact in the future.
i da će te ocene verovatno uticati
na njihovu mogućnost
11:00
It's a simple illustration of how
online trust will change our behaviors
da obavljaju razmene u budućnosti.
11:02
in the real world,
To je jednostavna ilustracija
toga kako će onlajn poverenje
11:06
make us more accountable
promeniti naše ponašanje u stvarnom svetu
11:08
in ways we cannot yet even imagine.
i učiniti nas odgovornijim
11:10
I am not saying we do not need hotels
na načine na koje još ne možemo
ni da zamislimo.
11:14
or traditional forms of authority.
Ne kažem da nam nisu potrebni hoteli
11:17
But what we cannot deny
ili tradicionalni vidovi autoriteta.
11:20
is that the way trust
flows through society is changing,
Međutim, ne možemo poreći
11:22
and it's creating this big shift
da se menja način na koji se poverenje
kreće kroz društvo,
11:26
away from the 20th century
a to stvara veliki preokret,
11:29
that was defined by institutional trust
udaljavajući se od 20. veka
11:30
towards the 21st century
kojeg je definisalo
institucionalno poverenje,
11:33
that will be fueled by distributed trust.
ka 21. veku
11:36
Trust is no longer top-down.
kojeg će pokretati raspodeljeno poverenje.
11:39
It's being unbundled and inverted.
Poverenje više ne ide odozgo nadole.
11:43
It's no longer opaque and linear.
Razdvojeno je i preokrenuto.
11:45
A new recipe for trust is emerging
Više nije nejasno i linearno.
11:49
that once again
is distributed amongst people
Javlja se novi recept za poverenje
11:52
and is accountability-based.
koji je još jednom raspodeljen
među ljudima i zasnovan na odgovornosti.
11:56
And this shift is only going to accelerate
Ovaj preokret će dodatno ubrzati
11:58
with the emergence of the blockchain,
pojava blokčejna,
12:01
the innovative ledger technology
underpinning Bitcoin.
inovativna tehnologija registratora
u temelju bitkoina.
12:04
Now let's be honest,
Budimo iskreni,
12:08
getting our heads around
the way blockchain works
naša nastojanja da razumemo način
na koji blokčejn funkcioniše preplavljuju.
12:11
is mind-blowing.
Jedan od razloga tome
je taj što to podrazumeva obradu
12:15
And one of the reasons why
is it involves processing
nekih prilično komplikovanih koncepata
12:17
some pretty complicated concepts
sa užasnim imenima.
12:21
with terrible names.
Mislim, kriptografski algoritmi,
12:23
I mean, cryptographic algorithms
and hash functions,
heš funkcije i ljudi koji se zovu rudari,
koji vrše potvrdu transakcija -
12:25
and people called miners,
who verify transactions --
sve to je stvorila misteriozna osoba
12:29
all that was created
by this mysterious person
ili osobe po imenu Satoši Nakamoto.
12:32
or persons called Satoshi Nakamoto.
E, to je ogroman skok poverenja
koji se još nije dogodio.
12:36
Now, that is a massive trust leap
that hasn't happened yet.
(Aplauz)
12:39
(Applause)
Pokušajmo da zamislimo ovo.
12:44
But let's try to imagine this.
Časopis „Ekonomist“
je rečito opisao blokčejn
12:47
So "The Economist"
eloquently described the blockchain
kao veliki lanac sigurnosti u stvari.
12:49
as the great chain
of being sure about things.
Najlakši način na koji mogu da ga opišem
je da zamislite blokove kao tabele,
12:53
The easiest way I can describe it
is imagine the blocks as spreadsheets,
a one su pune stvari od vrednosti.
12:56
and they are filled with assets.
To može biti pravo na vlasništvo.
13:01
So that could be a property title.
To mogu biti akcije na berzi.
13:04
It could be a stock trade.
To može biti kreativna imovina,
kao što je pravo na pesmu.
13:07
It could be a creative asset,
such as the rights to a song.
Svaki put kada se nešto premesti
13:09
Every time something moves
sa jednog mesta na registru
na neko drugo mesto,
13:12
from one place on the register
to somewhere else,
taj prenos imovine
dobija oznaku sa vremenom
13:16
that asset transfer is time-stamped
i javno se objavljuje na blokčejnu.
13:19
and publicly recorded on the blockchain.
Toliko je jednostavno.
13:22
It's that simple. Right.
Stvarna implikacija blokčejna
13:26
So the real implication of the blockchain
je to da uklanja potrebu
za bilo kakvim trećim licem,
13:28
is that it removes the need
for any kind of third party,
kao što je advokat,
13:31
such as a lawyer,
pouzdani posrednik ili,
možda ne, vladin posrednik
13:36
or a trusted intermediary,
or maybe not a government intermediary
da bi olakšao razmenu.
13:37
to facilitate the exchange.
Ako se vratimo na kulu poverenja,
13:40
So if we go back to the trust stack,
i dalje morate da verujete u ideju,
13:42
you still have to trust the idea,
morate da verujete platformi,
13:44
you have to trust the platform,
ali ne morate da verujete drugoj osobi
13:47
but you don't have to trust
the other person
u tradicionalnom smislu.
13:50
in the traditional sense.
Implikacije su ogromne.
13:53
The implications are huge.
Na isti način na koji je internet
širom otvorio vrata doba informacija
13:54
In the same way the internet blew open
the doors to an age of information
tako da su dostupne svima,
13:57
available to everyone,
blokčejn će izazvati revoluciju poverenja
na globalnom nivou.
14:01
the blockchain will revolutionize
trust on a global scale.
Namerno sam čekala do kraja
da bih pomenula Uber,
14:02
Now, I've waited to the end
intentionally to mention Uber,
jer priznajem da je sporan
14:08
because I recognize
that it is a contentious
i naširoko previše korišćen primer,
14:12
and widely overused example,
ali u kontekstu novog doba poverenja,
to je sjajna studija slučaja.
14:15
but in the context of a new era of trust,
it's a great case study.
E, sad, videćemo slučajeve
zloupotrebe raspodeljenog poverenja.
14:18
Now, we will see cases of abuse
of distributed trust.
Svi smo to videli
i može strašno da pođe po zlu.
14:21
We've already seen this,
and it can go horribly wrong.
Nisam iznenađena što vidimo
proteste udruženja taksista
14:26
I am not surprised that we are seeing
protests from taxi associations
širom sveta
14:30
all around the world
koja pokušavaju da ubede vlade
da zabrane Uber
14:35
trying to get governments to ban Uber
based on claims that it is unsafe.
na osnovu tvrdnji da nije bezbedan.
14:36
I happened to be in London
the day that these protests took place,
Desilo se da sam bila u Londonu
onog dana kada su se ti protesti dogodili,
14:42
and I happened to notice a tweet
i slučajno sam primetila
tvit Meta Henkoka,
14:46
from Matt Hancock, who is
a British minister for business.
koji je britanski ministar poslovanja.
14:48
And he wrote,
Napisao je:
14:52
"Does anyone have details of this
#Uber app everyone's talking about?
„Da li neko zna nešto više
o toj Uber aplikaciji o kojoj svi govore?
14:53
(Laughter)
(Smeh)
14:57
I'd never heard of it until today."
Nisam čuo za nju do danas.“
14:59
Now, the taxi associations,
Udruženja taksista
15:03
they legitimized the first layer
of the trust stack.
dala su legitimitet
prvom sloju kule poverenja.
15:07
They legitimized the idea
that they were trying to eliminate,
Dala su legitimitet ideji
koju su pokušavali da eliminišu,
15:10
and sign-ups increased
by 850 percent in 24 hours.
i broj prijava je porastao
za 850 procenata u roku od 24 sata.
15:13
Now, this is a really strong illustration
Ovo je zaista snažna ilustracija kako,
15:19
of how once a trust shift has happened
around a behavior or an entire sector,
jednom kada se dogodi preokret u poverenju
vezan za ponašanje ili čitav sektor,
15:22
you cannot reverse the story.
ne možete promeniti pravac priče.
15:28
Every day, five million people
will take a trust leap
Svakoga dana, pet miliona ljudi
će učiniti skok poverenja
15:31
and ride with Uber.
i voziti se preko Ubera.
15:35
In China, on Didi,
the ride-sharing platform,
U Kini, na Didiju,
platformi za deljenje vožnje,
15:36
11 million rides taken every day.
11 miliona vožnji se dešava svakog dana.
15:39
That's 127 rides per second,
To je 127 vožnji po sekundi,
15:42
showing that this is
a cross-cultural phenomenon.
što pokazuje da je ovo
pojava koja se dešava u svim kulturama.
15:46
And the fascinating thing is
that both drivers and passengers report
Fascinatno je to što i vozači
i putnici izveštavaju da,
15:49
that seeing a name
kada vide ime,
15:53
and seeing someone's photo
and their rating
nečiju sliku i ocenu,
15:55
makes them feel safer,
to čini da se osećaju bezbednije,
15:58
and as you may have experienced,
i kao što ste možda iskusili,
16:01
even behave a little more nicely
in the taxi cab.
čak se i ponašaju
malo ljubaznije u taksiju.
16:02
Uber and Didi are early
but powerful examples
Uber i Didi su prvi ali jaki primeri
16:07
of how technology
is creating trust between people
načina na koje tehnologija
stvara poverenje između ljudi
16:11
in ways and on a scale
never possible before.
onako i onoliko kako nikada ranije
nije bilo moguće.
16:15
Today, many of us are comfortable
getting into cars driven by strangers.
Danas mnogi od nas sa lakoćom
ulaze u automobile koje voze nepoznati.
16:19
We meet up with someone
we swiped right to be matched with.
Srećemo se sa nekim sa kim smo spojeni
tako što prevučemo nadesno preko ekrana.
16:25
We share our homes
with people we do not know.
Delimo dom sa ljudima koje ne poznajemo.
16:29
This is just the beginning,
Ovo je samo početak,
16:33
because the real disruption happening
jer stvarno remećenje stvari
koje se dešava
16:36
isn't technological.
nije tehnološko.
16:39
It's the trust shift it creates,
To je promena u poverenju koje stvara,
16:41
and for my part, I want to help people
understand this new era of trust
i što se mene tiče, želim da pomognem
ljudima da razumeju novo doba poverenja
16:43
so that we can get it right
tako da možemo
da ga pravilno shvatimo
16:49
and we can embrace
the opportunities to redesign systems
i da možemo da prigrlimo
prilike da preosmislimo sisteme
16:50
that are more transparent,
inclusive and accountable.
koji su transparentiji,
inkluzivniji i odgovorniji.
16:54
Thank you very much.
Mnogo vam hvala.
16:58
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
17:00
Thank you.
Hvala.
17:02
(Applause)
(Aplauz)
17:03
Translated by Ivana Krivokuća
Reviewed by Tijana Mihajlović

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About the Speaker:

Rachel Botsman - Trust researcher
Rachel Botsman is a recognized expert on how collaboration and trust enabled by digital technologies will change the way we live, work, bank and consume.

Why you should listen

Rachel Botsman is the co-author, with Roo Rogers, of the book What's Mine Is Yours (2010). In it, they developed the concept of "collaborative consumption", which was recognized by Time magazine as one of the "10 ideas that will change the world" and by Thinkers 50 as a Breakthrough Idea. Her newest work focuses on trust, which is the topic of her next book. In 2015, she designed the world’s first MBA course on the collaborative economy, which she teaches at Oxford University’s Saïd School of Business.

Named a "Young Global Leader" by the World Economic Forum, Botsman examines the growth and challenges of startups such as Airbnb, Taskrabbit and Uber, with a focus on technology's impact on trust and relationships, providing context for how and why the world is changing and the broader implications of this new economy.  

More profile about the speaker
Rachel Botsman | Speaker | TED.com