14:17
TED2014

Jon Mooallem: How the teddy bear taught us compassion

乔恩 莫阿拉姆: 关于泰迪熊的奇怪故事,以及它所揭示的我们与动物之间的关系

Filmed:

1902年,总统西奥多·罗斯福传奇性地给了一只黑熊一条生路 - 这促使了人们对一个叫做”泰迪熊“玩具的狂热。作家乔恩·莫阿拉姆深入讲述了这个故事,并让我们思考我们如何讲述关于野外动物的故事对一个种类的生存机会,以及整个自然世界会有怎样真正的影响。

- Writer
Jon Mooallem is the author of "Wild Ones: A Sometimes Dismaying, Weirdly Reassuring Story About Looking at People Looking at Animals in America." Full bio

So it was the fall of 1902,
1902年的秋天
00:12
and President Theodore Roosevelt
西奥多·罗斯福总统
00:15
needed a little break from the White House,
需要一个暂别白宫的小假期
00:17
so he took a train to Mississippi
于是他坐火车去了密西西比
00:19
to do a little black bear hunting outside of a town
在一个镇外狩猎黑熊
00:21
called Smedes.
这个镇叫斯密德思
00:23
The first day of the hunt,
they didn't see a single bear,
在打猎的第一天他们没有看到熊
00:25
so it was a big bummer for everyone,
大家都觉得很无奈
00:27
but the second day, the dogs cornered one
然而第二天 猎犬在很长的追逐后把一只熊逼进角落
00:29
after a really long chase, but by that point,
但在那个时候
00:32
the president had given up
总统已经放弃了追逐
00:34
and gone back to camp for lunch,
并回到营帐吃午餐
00:36
so his hunting guide cracked the animal
于是他的狩猎指导敲昏了动物
00:37
on the top of the head with the butt of his rifle,
用他步枪的尾部去敲击熊头顶
00:40
and then tied it up to a tree
然后把它绑在一棵树上
00:43
and started tooting away on his bugle
随后吹着号角
嘟嘟地走了
00:44
to call Roosevelt back so he could have the honor
他想让罗斯福回来时
00:47
of shooting it.
享受射击的乐趣
00:49
The bear was a female.
这是一只母熊
00:51
It was dazed, injured,
它有些迷糊 也受了伤
00:53
severely underweight, a little mangy-looking,
体重严重不足 看起来脏脏的
00:56
and when Roosevelt saw this animal
当罗斯福看到这个动物
00:59
tied up to the tree,
被绑在树上时
01:01
he just couldn't bring himself to fire at it.
他实在不忍心朝它开枪
01:03
He felt like that would go against his code
他觉得这样做会违反他的行为准则
01:05
as a sportsman.
和运动员精神
01:07
A few days later, the scene was memorialized
几天后 这个情景被记录了下来
01:09
in a political cartoon back in Washington.
出现在华盛顿的一个政治卡通中
01:11
It was called "Drawing a Line in Mississippi,"
它叫做《在密西西比划清底线》
01:14
and it showed Roosevelt with
his gun down and his arm out,
画面展现了罗斯福放下了他的枪
01:17
sparing the bear's life,
同时伸出他的手臂
01:19
and the bear was sitting on its hind legs
给熊留了一条生路
01:21
with these two big, frightened, wide eyes
这只熊坐在它的后腿上
01:22
and little ears pricked up at the top of its head.
两只大眼睛 睁得圆圆的 充满了恐惧
01:24
It looked really helpless, like you just wanted to
它的耳朵竖在头顶上
01:26
sweep it up into your arms
它看起来很无助 你恨不得
01:28
and reassure it.
想把它拥入怀中
01:30
It wouldn't have looked familiar at the time,
让它不要担心
01:31
but if you go looking for the cartoon now,
在那时它看起来不太眼熟
01:32
you recognize the animal right away:
但如果你现在看这个卡通
01:34
It's a teddy bear.
你能马上认出这个动物:
01:37
And this is how the teddy bear was born.
它就是泰迪熊
01:39
Essentially, toymakers took
the bear from the cartoon,
这就是泰迪熊诞生的故事
01:41
turned it into a plush toy, and then named it
简单说 玩具制造商将这个卡通中的熊
01:43
after President Roosevelt -- Teddy's bear.
做成了毛绒玩具 并用罗斯福总统的名字
01:45
And I do feel a little ridiculous
给它命了名:泰迪熊
01:48
that I'm up here on this stage
我觉得自己有点傻
01:50
and I'm choosing to use my time
我站在这个舞台上
01:53
to tell you about a 100-year-old story
并决定用我的时间
01:54
about the invention of a squishy kid's toy,
来告诉你们一个一百年前的故事
01:57
but I'd argue that the invention of the teddy bear,
关于一个软绵绵的儿童玩具的发明
02:00
inside that story is a more important story,
但我想说在泰迪熊的发明的故事里
02:04
a story about how dramatically our ideas
有个更重要的故事
02:07
about nature can change,
这个故事关系到我们对自然的想法
02:09
and also about how, on the planet right now,
可以如此戏剧化的变化
02:11
the stories that we tell
这也关系到此时在这个星球上
02:14
are dramatically changing nature.
我们所讲述的故事
02:16
Because think about the teddy bear.
正戏剧化地改变自然
02:18
For us, in retrospect, it feels like an obvious fit,
您想想泰迪熊
02:20
because bears are so cute and cuddly,
对于我们来说它像一个自然的产物
02:22
and who wouldn't want to give
one to their kids to play with,
因为熊那么可爱 让人忍不住想抱
02:24
but the truth is that in 1902,
谁不想自己的孩子跟其玩耍呢?
02:26
bears weren't cute and cuddly.
而在1902年
02:29
I mean, they looked the same,
熊并不那么可爱 也不让人想拥抱
02:30
but no one thought of them that way.
我是说他们看起来一样
02:32
In 1902, bears were monsters.
可是当时没人这么看待他们
02:33
Bears were something that frickin' terrified kids.
在1902年熊是野兽
02:36
For generations at that point,
熊当时是让孩子们异常害怕的动物
02:39
the bear had been a shorthand for all the danger
对几代人来说
02:41
that people were encountering on the frontier,
熊一直象征着所有
02:44
and the federal government was actually
人们在前线遇到的危险
02:46
systematically exterminating bears
联邦政府其实曾经
02:47
and lots of other predators too,
系统性地灭绝狗熊
02:49
like coyotes and wolves.
以及其它捕食动物
02:51
These animals, they were being demonized.
比如说小狼和野狼
02:52
They were called murderers
这些动物当时被妖魔化
02:54
because they killed people's livestock.
它们被称为杀人犯
02:56
One government biologist, he explained this
因为它们杀害人们的家禽
02:58
war on animals like the bear by saying
一个政府生物学家解释说
03:00
that they no longer had a place
针对动物的战争 比如说熊
03:02
in our advancing civilization,
是因为在我们日益发展的文明中
03:05
and so we were just clearing them out of the way.
它们不再有一席之地
03:07
In one 10-year period, close to half a million wolves
所以我们将它们清除掉
03:11
had been slaughtered.
在十年之间 将近50万只狼被屠杀
03:15
The grizzly would soon be wiped out
在95%的原本属于灰熊的领地上
03:16
from 95 percent of its original territory,
灰熊也濒临绝境
03:18
and whereas once there had been 30 million bison
在那些曾经一时有3千万野牛穿越的平原上
03:21
moving across the plains, and you would have
你会听说这样的事儿:
03:24
these stories of trains having to stop
一些火车必须停靠四到五个小时
03:26
for four or five hours so that these thick,
才能让这群黑压压、
03:28
living rivers of the animals could pour over the tracks,
活生生的动物如潮水一般穿过轨道
03:30
now, by 1902, there were maybe
less than 100 left in the wild.
到1902年 这里只剩下不到100只野牛存活于野外
03:33
And so what I'm saying is, the teddy bear was born
所以我想说的是 泰迪熊诞生于
03:38
into the middle of this great spasm of extermination,
一个异常严峻的灭绝时代
03:41
and you can see it as a sign that
你可以把它看成一个征兆
03:45
maybe some people deep down
也许有些人从心底
03:46
were starting to feel conflicted about all that killing.
开始对这些屠杀感到矛盾
03:48
America still hated the bear and feared it,
美国始终痛恨熊 也害怕它
03:52
but all of a sudden, America also wanted
但突然间 美国也想要
03:55
to give the bear a great big hug.
给熊一个大拥抱
03:57
So this is something that I've been really
curious about in the last few years.
这是我在过去几年来很好奇的事
04:00
How do we imagine animals,
我们如何想像动物
04:02
how do we think and feel about them,
我们如何思考和感受它们
04:03
and how do their reputations get written
它们的名声如何形成
04:05
and then rewritten in our minds?
又是如何在我们的头脑里被改写
04:08
We're here living in the eye of a great storm
我们生活在一个灭绝风暴迫在眉睫的时代
04:10
of extinction where half the species on the planet
这个星球上一半的生物种类
04:13
could be gone by the end of the century,
都可能在这个世纪末消失
04:16
and so why is it that we come to care about
那么为什么我们会关心
04:18
some of those species and not others?
其中一部分种类 而不是其它的呢
04:19
Well, there's a new field, a relatively new field
社会科学有一个新的领域
04:22
of social science that started looking at
一个相对新的领域 研究这些问题
04:24
these questions and trying to unpack the powerful
同时尝试解析人类与动物之间
04:26
and sometimes pretty schizophrenic relationships
具有神奇力量 却也令人费解的
04:28
that we have to animals,
这种关系
04:30
and I spent a lot of time looking through
我花了很多时间来阅读
04:32
their academic journals,
他们的学术期刊
04:33
and all I can really say is that their findings
我能说的是他们的发现
04:35
are astonishingly wide-ranging.
广泛得让人吃惊
04:37
So some of my favorites include that
我最喜欢的一些发现包括
04:39
the more television a person
watches in Upstate New York,
一个人在纽约北部看越多的电视
04:41
the more he or she is afraid
他或她就越害怕
04:43
of being attacked by a black bear.
受到黑熊的攻击
04:45
If you show a tiger to an American,
如果你给一个美国人看一只老虎
04:47
they're much more likely to assume that it's female
他们更可能假设它是母的
04:50
and not male.
而不是公的
04:52
In a study where a fake snake
在一个研究中 一条假的蛇
04:53
and a fake turtle were put on the side of the road,
和一只假的乌龟被放在路边
04:55
drivers hit the snake much
more often than the turtle,
驾驶者撞击蛇的比例远大于乌龟
04:57
and about three percent of
drivers who hit the fake animals
而在撞击假动物的驾驶者中有3%
04:59
seemed to do it on purpose.
是故意这么做的
05:01
Women are more likely than men to get a
相对于男人 女人更有可能
05:03
"magical feeling" when they see dolphins in the surf.
在冲浪时看到海豚而有"美妙的感觉"
05:06
Sixty-eight percent of mothers with
68%具有"强烈的权利和自尊感"的母亲们
05:09
"high feelings of entitlement and self-esteem"
在观看Purina广告时 [猫粮品牌]
05:11
identified with the dancing cats
能和跳舞的猫能产生同鸣(笑声)
05:14
in a commercial for Purina. (Laughter)
美国人觉得龙虾
05:16
Americans consider lobsters
比鸽子更重要
05:18
more important than pigeons
但也更加愚蠢
05:20
but also much, much stupider.
野生火鸡被认为比海獭更危险一点点
05:21
Wild turkeys are seen as only slightly
more dangerous than sea otters,
熊猫比瓢虫可爱两倍
05:23
and pandas are twice as lovable as ladybugs.
这其中有些是因为外表的关系对吗?
05:26
So some of this is physical, right?
我们更同情看起来像我们的动物
05:32
We tend to sympathize more
with animals that look like us,
尤其是那些像人类婴儿的
05:33
and especially that resemble human babies,
大而朝前的眼睛
05:36
so with big, forward-facing eyes
圆形脸
05:37
and circular faces,
类似不倒翁的姿势
05:39
kind of a roly-poly posture.
这就是为什么如果你收到
05:40
This is why, if you get a Christmas card from, like,
你在明尼苏达州的姑姑寄来的圣诞卡
05:42
your great aunt in Minnesota,
上面更可能有一只带绒毛的小企鹅
05:44
there's usually a fuzzy penguin chick on it,
而不是冰川湾狼蜘蛛 [笑声]
05:45
and not something like a Glacier Bay wolf spider.
但这也不完全是因为外表 对吧?
05:46
But it's not all physical, right?
我们对动物的想法有文化的一面
05:49
There's a cultural dimension to
how we think about animals,
我们讲述关于这些动物的故事
05:52
and we're telling stories about these animals,
这些故事像所有故事一样
05:55
and like all stories,
当我们讲故事的时候
05:57
they are shaped by the times and the places
用时间和地点给故事塑形
05:58
in which we're telling them.
所以请想想那个时刻
06:00
So think about that moment
回到1902年 一只凶猛的熊
06:01
back in 1902 again where a ferocious bear
成为一只泰迪熊
06:03
became a teddy bear.
当时是什么环境?美国正经历城市化
06:06
What was the context?
Well, America was urbanizing.
历史上第一次 大部分人住到了城市
06:07
For the first time, nearly a
majority of people lived in cities,
我们与自然的距离日益剧增
06:10
so there was a growing distance
between us and nature.
我们有了一个安全的空间
06:13
There was a safe space where we could
可以重新想象熊 并将其浪漫化
06:15
reconsider the bear and romanticize it.
于是自然开始显得这么纯粹和可爱
06:17
Nature could only start to
seem this pure and adorable
因为我们不再害怕
06:20
because we didn't have to be afraid of it anymore.
你可以看到这个循环不断上演
06:22
And you can see that cycle playing out
一遍又一遍出现在所有动物身上
06:25
again and again with all kinds of animals.
我们似乎总是这样
06:27
It seems like we're always stuck between
妖魔化然后灭绝一个物种
06:29
demonizing a species and wanting to wipe it out,
而当我们快要成功时
06:31
and then when we get very close to doing that,
又开始怜惜弱者
06:33
empathizing with it as an underdog
展现出无限的同情心
06:35
and wanting to show it compassion.
我们人类乐于运用自己的力量
06:37
So we exert our power,
却又为这能量之大
06:40
but then we're unsettled
而惶惶不安起来
06:42
by how powerful we are.
举个例子 这是
06:43
So for example, this is one of
几千封信件和图画之一
06:46
probably thousands of letters and drawings
这是孩子们寄给布什政府
06:48
that kids sent to the Bush administration,
请求政府遵循《濒危动物保护法案》
06:51
begging it to protect the polar bear
保护北极熊
06:52
under the Endangered Species Act,
这些信是在2000至2010年寄出的
06:54
and these were sent back in the mid-2000s,
当时我们对气候变化的关注剧增
06:55
when awareness of climate
change was suddenly surging.
我们一直看到这样一个画面
06:58
We kept seeing that image of a polar bear
一只北极熊被困在一小块冰上
07:00
stranded on a little ice floe
看起来非常惆怅
07:01
looking really morose.
我花了很多天看这些文件
07:02
I spent days looking through these files.
我非常喜欢它们 这张是我的最爱
07:04
I really love them. This one's my favorite.
您可以看到这是只被淹没的北极熊
07:06
If you can see, it's a polar bear that's drowning
与此同时它正被
07:08
and then it's also being eaten simultaneously
一只龙虾和鲨鱼吃掉
07:10
by a lobster and a shark.
这个来自于叫一个叫弗利兹的孩子
07:12
This one came from a kid named Fritz,
他实际上已经找到对付气候变化方法
07:15
and he's actually got a solution to climate change.
在乙醇的基础上他研究出了方案
07:17
He's got it all worked out to an ethanol-based solution.
他说 "我为北极熊感到难过
07:18
He says, "I feel bad about the polar bears.
我喜欢北极熊
07:20
I like polar bears.
大家可以用玉米汁来开车 -弗利兹"
07:23
Everyone can use corn juice for cars. From Fritz."
200年前 极地探险家
07:25
So 200 years ago, you would have Arctic explorers
会记载说北极熊跳到他们的船上
07:31
writing about polar bears leaping into their boats
尝试活吞他们
07:34
and trying to devour them,
即使他们在熊身上点火
07:36
even if they lit the bear on fire,
然而这些孩子们不这么看北极熊
07:37
but these kids don't see the polar bear that way,
实际上他们看待北极熊的角度
07:39
and actually they don't even see the polar bear
也不同于我在80年代的看法
07:41
the way that I did back in the '80s.
我们认为这些动物
07:43
I mean, we thought of these animals
是北极神秘而恐怖的主人
07:45
as mysterious and terrifying lords of the Arctic.
然而你看现在气候快速地变化
07:46
But look now how quickly that climate change
这已经颠倒了我们对动物的看法
07:49
has flipped the image of the animal in our minds.
它们从嗜血的杀人犯
07:51
It's gone from that bloodthirsty man-killer
变成了纤弱垂死的受害者
07:54
to this delicate, drowning victim,
如果你仔细想想
07:56
and when you think about it, that's kind of
这也算泰迪熊的故事的
07:59
the conclusion to the story
一个结论
08:01
that the teddy bear started telling back in 1902,
因为在那时 美国或多或少
08:03
because back then, America had more or less
征服了属于它的领地
08:06
conquered its share of the continent.
我们当时正接近
08:09
We were just getting around to
消灭这些最后的野外捕食者
08:10
polishing off these last wild predators.
现在 社会的影响已经扩大
08:12
Now, society's reach has expanded
一路通往世界的最顶端
08:14
all the way to the top of the world,
这使那些甚至最遥远
08:16
and it's made even these, the most remote,
世界上最凶猛的熊
08:18
the most powerful bears on the planet,
看起来也像可爱的和无辜的受害者
08:21
seem like adorable and blameless victims.
其实 泰迪熊故事还有一个
08:23
But you know, there's also a
postscript to the teddy bear story
不为人知的后记
08:26
that not a lot of people talk about.
我想讲给大家听
08:29
We're going to talk about it,
因为即使没有过多久
08:31
because even though it didn't really take long
在1902年罗斯福打猎之后
08:33
after Roosevelt's hunt in 1902
这个玩具成为完全的热潮
08:35
for the toy to become a full-blown craze,
大多数人认为它只是一时流行
08:36
most people figured it was a fad,
它只是一种无聊的政治新奇物品
08:38
it was a sort of silly political novelty item
在总统退职后就会消失
08:41
and it would go away once the president left office,
所以在1909年 当罗斯福的后任
08:43
and so by 1909, when Roosevelt's successor,
威廉·霍华德·塔夫脱
08:45
William Howard Taft,
准备任职
08:49
was getting ready to be inaugurated,
玩具界开始寻找
08:51
the toy industry was on the hunt
下一个流行产品
08:52
for the next big thing.
他们没有成功
08:54
They didn't do too well.
在那年一月份 塔夫脱作为嘉宾
08:57
That January, Taft was the guest of honor
参加在亚特兰大的一个舞会
08:59
at a banquet in Atlanta,
在这之前的几天来
09:02
and for days in advance,
最大的新闻就是菜单
09:03
the big news was the menu.
他们打算为他准备
09:05
They were going to be serving him
一道特别而美味的南方菜肴
09:06
a Southern specialty, a delicacy, really,
叫做红薯烤负鼠
09:08
called possum and taters.
一整只负鼠
09:10
So you would have a whole opossum
放在一堆红薯上烤
09:12
roasted on a bed of sweet potatoes,
有时候他们会把大尾巴留在上面
09:15
and then sometimes they'd leave
就好像一根宽面条
09:16
the big tail on it like a big, meaty noodle.
放在塔夫特桌上的那只
09:18
The one brought to Taft's table
重达18磅
09:21
weighed 18 pounds.
在晚宴结束后 乐团开始演奏
09:23
So after dinner, the orchestra started to play,
客人们开始唱歌
09:26
and the guests burst into song,
突然间塔夫特惊讶地
09:29
and all of a sudden, Taft was surprised
收到一份礼物
09:31
with the presentation of a gift
来自于一群当地的支持者
09:32
from a group of local supporters,
那是一个填充的负鼠玩具
09:34
and this was a stuffed opossum toy,
珠状眼睛和光秃秃的耳朵
09:36
all beady-eyed and bald-eared,
这是他们推荐的新产品
09:38
and it was a new product they were putting forward
作为威廉·塔夫特担任总统的答案
09:41
to be the William Taft presidency's answer
呼应泰迪·罗斯福的泰迪熊
09:43
to Teddy Roosevelt's teddy bear.
他们称它为"比利负鼠"
09:46
They were calling it the "billy possum."
24小时之内 乔治比利负鼠公司
09:50
Within 24 hours, the Georgia Billy Possum Company
成立并开始运营
09:54
was up and running, brokering deals
在全国进行中介交易
09:58
for these things nationwide,
当时洛杉矶时报
09:59
and the Los Angeles Times announced,
非常自信地宣称 "泰迪熊
10:01
very confidently, "The teddy bear
已经退到后幕
10:03
has been relegated to a seat in the rear,
在将来的四年 甚至八年
10:05
and for four years, possibly eight,
美国的儿童
10:07
the children of the United States
将和比利负鼠一起玩耍”
10:10
will play with billy possum."
从那时起 负鼠的流行具备了条件
10:12
So from that point, there was a fit of opossum fever.
有比利负鼠名信片、比利负鼠顶针、
10:15
There were billy possum postcards, billy possum pins,
比利负鼠奶油罐 喝咖啡的时候用
10:17
billy possum pitchers for your cream at coffee time.
还有更小的比利负鼠 攀在一根棍子上
10:20
There were smaller billy possums on a stick
小孩子们可以把它当旗子一样挥动
10:22
that kids could wave around like flags.
即使借助这些市场营销手段
10:23
But even with all this marketing,
比利负鼠的生命
10:26
the life of the billy possum
结果还是短暂得可怜
10:28
turned out to be just pathetically brief.
这个玩具彻底地失败了
10:30
The toy was an absolute flop,
到那年的年底
10:34
and it was almost completely forgotten
它几乎完全地被遗忘了
10:36
by the end of the year,
这意味着比利负鼠
10:37
and what that means is that the billy possum
甚至没有持久到圣诞节
10:38
didn't even make it to Christmastime,
你可以想像
10:41
which when you think about it is
这对一个玩具来说是个悲催的灾难
10:42
a special sort of tragedy for a toy.
对于这个失败 我们有两种解释
10:43
So we can explain that failure two ways.
第一 很明显
10:47
The first, well, it's pretty obvious.
我就明说吧:
10:49
I'm going to go ahead and say it out loud anyway:
负鼠太狰狞了
10:51
Opossums are hideous. (Laughter)
但也许更重要的是
10:53
But maybe more importantly is that
比利负鼠的故事完全错了
10:56
the story of the billy possum was all wrong,
尤其是比起
10:59
especially compared
泰迪熊的背景故事
11:01
to the backstory of the teddy bear.
大多数人类进化历史
11:03
Think about it: for most of
human's evolutionary history,
让我们觉得熊很厉害的是
11:05
what's made bears impressive to us
他们完全独立于我们
11:07
has been their complete independence from us.
他们过着与我们平行的生活
11:09
It's that they live these parallel lives
如同威胁和竞争者
11:12
as menaces and competitors.
当罗斯福在密西西比打猎时
11:14
By the time Roosevelt went hunting in Mississippi,
这个印象完全被破灭了
11:17
that stature was being crushed,
那个被他绑在树上的动物
11:19
and the animal that he had roped to a tree
成为了所有熊的象征
11:21
really was a symbol for all bears.
这些动物现在是死是活
11:23
Whether those animals lived or died now
完全取决于人们是给予同情心
11:26
was entirely up to the compassion
还是漠然无视
11:28
or the indifference of people.
这预示了一种不详的
11:31
That said something really ominous
熊的未来
11:33
about the future of bears,
它也预示了发展中的人类
11:35
but it also said something very
unsettling about who we'd become,
心中的不安
11:38
if the survival of even an animal like that
如果一个像熊那样的动物的生存
11:41
was up to us now.
现在完全取决于我们
11:43
So now, a century later, if you're at all
那现在 一个世纪以后
11:46
paying attention to what's
happening in the environment,
如果你还关注环境的发展
11:48
you feel that discomfort so much more intensely.
你会感觉到更强烈的不适
11:50
We're living now in an age of what scientists
我们住在一个这样的时代
11:54
have started to call "conservation reliance,"
科学家称之为“保护依赖”
11:57
and what that term means is that we've disrupted
这意味着我们已经过度的破坏了自然
11:59
so much that nature can't possibly
stand on its own anymore,
它不能再单纯依靠自我修复了
12:01
and most endangered species
大多数濒临灭绝的种类
12:04
are only going to survive
唯一能生存的条件是
12:06
if we stay out there in the landscape
人类必须置身野外
12:08
riggging the world around them in their favor.
监控着环境 并把环境改造得利于动物的生存
12:10
So we've gone hands-on
我们必须亲自参与
12:12
and we can't ever take our hands off,
我们永远不能放手不管
12:14
and that's a hell of a lot of work.
这个工作量太大了
12:16
Right now, we're training condors
现在我们正在训练秃鹰
12:18
not to perch on power lines.
不在电线上歇脚
12:21
We teach whooping cranes
to migrate south for the winter
我们开着小型的超光波飞机
12:23
behind little ultra-light airplanes.
领着鹤在冬季移居南方
12:26
We're out there feeding plague vaccine to ferrets.
我们给鼬注射瘟疫疫苗
12:28
We monitor pygmy rabbits with drones.
我们用无人机器监视侏儒兔
12:32
So we've gone from annihilating species
我们从试图灭绝一些物种
12:36
to micromanaging the survival of a lot of species
到无限期地 微观地管理许多种类的生存
12:39
indefinitely, and which ones?
那么有哪些物种呢?
12:43
Well, the ones that we've told
那些我们已经说过的
12:45
compelling stories about,
在精彩的故事里出现的
12:46
the ones we've decided ought to stick around.
那些我们决定应该继续存活的
12:48
The line between conservation and domestication
保护和驯化之间的界限
12:51
is blurred.
变得模糊
12:54
So what I've been saying is that the stories
所以我一直在讲的是 这些故事
12:56
that we tell about wild animals are so subjective
这些关于野外动物的故事是很主观的
12:58
they can be irrational
它们可能是非理性的、
13:01
or romanticized or sensationalized.
浪漫化的、或情绪化的
13:02
Sometimes they just have
nothing to do with the facts.
有时它们跟事实毫无相关
13:04
But in a world of conservation reliance,
在一个“保护依赖”的世界
13:07
those stories have very real consequences,
这些故事会有很真实的后果
13:10
because now, how we feel about an animal
因为现在 我们对一种动物的看法
13:12
affects its survival
对它生存的影响
13:15
more than anything that you read about
大于你在生态课本中
13:17
in ecology textbooks.
读到的任何信息
13:19
Storytelling matters now.
如今讲故事很关键
13:21
Emotion matters.
情绪很重要
13:23
Our imagination has become an ecological force.
我们的想象已经成为一股生态力量
13:25
And so maybe the teddy bear worked in part
也许泰迪熊营销的成功
13:31
because the legend of Roosevelt
一部分归功于 这个罗斯福的传说
13:32
and that bear in Mississippi
和那只密西西比的熊
13:35
was kind of like an allegory
就好像一个寓言
13:37
of this great responsibility that society
讲述了人类意识到
13:39
was just beginning to face up to back then.
自己对于社会的巨大责任的过程
13:41
It would be another 71 years
那时还要71年
13:43
before the Endangered Species Act was passed,
《濒危动物保护法案通过》才会通过
13:46
but really, here's its whole ethos
但事实上 这是整个社会思潮
13:48
boiled down into something like a scene
浓缩成的一个景象
13:50
you'd see in a stained glass window.
就像一副琉璃画
13:52
The bear is a helpless victim tied to a tree,
熊是个被绑在树上的无辜的受害者
13:54
and the president of the United States
而美国总统
13:57
decided to show it some mercy.
决定怜惜它
14:00
Thank you.
谢谢
14:02
(Applause)
(掌声)
14:05
[Illustrations by Wendy MacNaughton]
[插画:温迪 马克诺顿]
14:07
Translated by Keke Gu
Reviewed by Chloe Chen

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About the Speaker:

Jon Mooallem - Writer
Jon Mooallem is the author of "Wild Ones: A Sometimes Dismaying, Weirdly Reassuring Story About Looking at People Looking at Animals in America."

Why you should listen

What do we see when we look at wild animals -- do we respond to human-like traits, or thrill to the idea of their utter unfamiliarity? Jon Mooallem's book, Wild Ones , examines our relationship with wild animals both familiar and feral, telling stories of the North American environmental movement from its unlikely birth, and following three species who've come to symbolize our complicated relationship with whatever "nature" even means anymore.

Mooallem has written about everything from the murder of Hawaiian monk seals, to Idahoan utopians, to the world’s most famous ventriloquist, to the sad, secret history of the invention of the high five. A recent piece, "American Hippopotamus," was an Atavist story on, really, a plan in 1910 to jumpstart the hippopotamus ranching industry in America.

More profile about the speaker
Jon Mooallem | Speaker | TED.com