24:45
TED2008

Neil Turok: My wish: Find the next Einstein in Africa

Neil Turok 教授的TED获奖愿望

Filmed:

2008年的TED获奖者,物理学家Neil Turok指出有天赋的非洲年轻人十分渴求机会。他呼吁通过解放和培养非洲大陆的创造天赋,改变非洲的未来

- Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa. Full bio

It was an incredible surprise to me
对我来说这是一个难以置信的惊喜
00:13
to find out that there was actually an organization that cared about both parts of my life.
(我发现)实际上有如此的一个机构能够涵盖我生活的两个不同方面
00:16
Because, basically,
因为,实际上
00:22
I work as a theoretical physicist.
我是一个理论物理学家
00:23
I develop and test models of the Big Bang,
我开发和测试宇宙大爆炸的模型
00:25
using observational data.
使用观测数据
00:28
And I've been moonlighting for the last five years
但是实际上在过去的五年中,我还“暗中”从事着另一个事业
00:31
helping with a project in Africa.
为在非洲的一个项目尽我所能
00:34
And, I get a lot of flak for this at Cambridge.
而且,在剑桥我受到了很多“非议”
00:37
People wonder, you know, "How do you have time to do this?" And so on.
人们疑惑:你怎么有时间去做这个事情?诸如此类
00:41
And so it was simply astonishing to me
所以我只是惊讶
00:45
to find an organization that actually appreciated both those sides.
可以找到这样一个机构能同时关心这两个方面的问题
00:48
So I thought I'd start off by just telling you a little bit about myself
我想我还是从自己的一点事情说起
00:52
and why I lead this schizophrenic life.
以及我是如何走进这种“精神分裂式”的生活的
00:55
Well, I was born in South Africa and my parents were imprisoned
我出生在南非,父母早年被监禁
00:59
for resisting the racist regime.
由于反对种族歧视的政治统治
01:04
When they were released, we left and we went as refugees to Kenya and Tanzania.
当他们被释放以后,我们离开南非流亡到肯尼亚和坦桑尼亚
01:06
Both were very young countries then,
那是都是非常年轻的国家
01:13
and full of hope for the future.
未来也都充满了希望
01:15
We had an amazing childhood. We didn't have any money,
我的童年十分奇妙,(虽然)没有太多钱
01:18
but we were outdoors most of the time.
但是我们大部分时间都奔波在外
01:20
We had fantastic friends and we saw the wonders of the world,
我们结识了非常好的朋友,见识了世界的各种奇观
01:23
like Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and the Olduvai Gorge.
比如乞力马扎罗山(非洲最高峰),塞伦盖蒂平原和奥杜威峡谷(著名人类化石产地)
01:28
Well, then we moved to London for high school.
然后我们搬去了伦敦,我在那里度过了高中
01:34
And after that -- there's nothing much to say about that.
再之后——这部分没有什么好讲的
01:36
It was rather dull. But I came back to Africa
(因为)这期间没有什么有趣的事情可以分享,不过我回到了非洲
01:41
at the age of 17, as a volunteer teacher
在我17岁的时候,以志愿教师的身份
01:45
to Lesotho, which is a tiny country,
来到了一个小国家——莱索托
01:49
surrounded at that time by apartheid South Africa.
在那时候被种族隔离的南非所环绕
01:52
Well, 80 percent of the men in Lesotho
在莱索托,80%的男人
01:57
worked in the mines over the border,
在国境之外的矿地上工作
02:00
in brutal conditions.
生活在十分低劣的环境中
02:04
Nevertheless, I -- as I'm sure -- as a rather irritating young, white man
然而,可以肯定的是,我以一个相当敏感的年轻白人的身份
02:07
coming into their village, I was welcomed with incredible hospitality and warmth.
来到了他们的村庄,(出乎我预料的是),我得到了难以置信的热情款待
02:13
But the kids were the best part.
不过孩子们才是最令人印象深刻的
02:19
The kids were amazing: extremely eager and often very bright.
这些孩子们令我叹为观止:极度渴求(知识),而且经常显露出十分聪颖的一面
02:21
And I'm just going to tell you one story,
我只需要向大家讲述一个故事(就可以证明)
02:26
which got through to me.
我也通过它认识到了这个事实
02:28
I used to try to take the kids outside as often as possible,
我经常试着带孩子们尽可能多的走出去
02:31
to try to connect the academic stuff with the real world.
试着将那些学术的东西和真实的世界联系起来
02:33
And they weren't used to that.
而且实际上他们很少得到这样的机会
02:38
But I took them outside one day and I said,
有一天我带他们出去,我说:
02:41
"I want you to estimate the height of the building."
我希望大家能够估测出这座建筑的高度
02:43
And I expected them to put a ruler next to the wall,
我当时期望他们会将尺子放在墙上
02:46
size it up with a finger, and make an estimate of the height.
用手指估算尺子的倍数,继而得到高度的估测值
02:49
But there was one little boy, very small for his age.
不过有一个小男孩,对于他这个年龄段来说非常小
02:54
He was the son of one of the poorest families in the village.
他是这个村子中那些最穷人家的孩子
02:58
And he wasn't doing that. He was scribbling with chalk on the pavement.
他并没有那样做。他在拿起一根粉笔在人行道上乱画
03:01
And so, I said -- I was annoyed -- I said, "What are you doing?
于是,我问他——我当时很生气——说:“你在干什么?”
03:06
I want you to estimate the height of the building."
我要的是你测这个建筑的高度
03:09
He said, "OK. I measured the height of a brick.
他说:“好的,我测出一块砖头的高度”
03:11
I counted the number of bricks and now I'm multiplying."
而且已经数出砖头了的个数,现在,我正在把这二者相乘
03:14
Well -- (Laughter) -- I hadn't thought of that one.
哦——(笑声)——我都没有想到这一招!
03:19
And many experiences like this happened to me.
我经历了很多像这种的事情
03:24
Another one is that I met a miner. He was home on his three-month leave from the mines.
还有一件事是,我有一次遇到了一个矿工。他是在家休假,矿地放三个月的假。
03:28
Sitting next to him one day, he said, "There's only one thing that I really loved at school.
有一天他坐在我旁边对我说:“在学校我只对一件事情非常热衷。”
03:36
And you know what it was? Shakespeare." And he recited some to me.
“你知道是什么吗?莎士比亚。”他还给我背诵了几段。
03:42
And these and many similar experiences convinced me
这两个以及许多相似的经历使我坚信
03:49
that there are just tons of bright kids in Africa
在非洲有非常非常多的聪明的孩子
03:53
-- inventive kids, intellectual kids --
有创造力的,高智力的孩子们
03:57
and starved of opportunity.
极度渴求(学习的)机会
04:01
And if Africa is going to get fixed, it's by them, not by us.
如果说非洲将来会振兴,是由他们完成的,不是我们。
04:02
Well, after -- (Applause) -- that's the truth.
然后……(掌声)——事实就是这样。
04:08
Well, after Lesotho, I traveled across Africa
在莱索托之后,我穿越旅行了非洲
04:14
before returning to England
在回到英格兰之前
04:17
-- so gray and depressing, in comparison.
对比之下非常灰暗和压抑
04:20
And I went to Cambridge. And there, I fell for theoretical physics.
之后我去了剑桥。就是在那里,我沉醉在理论物理学的世界里。
04:23
Well, I'm not going to explain this equation,
好吧,我并不准备解释这个等式
04:30
but theoretical physics is really an amazing subject.
不过理论物理学确实是一个神奇的学科
04:32
We can write down all the laws of physics we know in one line.
我们可以将已知的所有物理定律写进一行之中
04:36
And, admittedly, it's in a very shorthand notation.
不可否认的是,这是用一组非常简化的符号表示的
04:42
And it contains 18 free parameters,
这其中包含了18个自由参数
04:47
OK, which we have to fit to the data.
好吧,为了配合数据我们必须这样做
04:51
So it's not the final story,
所以,事情到这里并没有结束
04:54
but it's an incredibly powerful summary of everything we know
不过这是对我们所有获得的所有知识的一种强力的总结,不可思议
04:56
about nature at the most basic level.
关于自然,在最基本的层面之上。
05:01
And apart from a few very important loose ends, which you've heard about here --
除了一些非常重要的成果——它们还有待进一步研究,想必大家都听说过了
05:05
like dark energy and dark matter --
比如暗物质和暗能量
05:09
this equation describes,
这个等式描述了
05:12
seems to describe everything about the universe and what's in it.
似乎描述了关于宇宙的任何事情以及其中的奥秘
05:14
But there's one big puzzle remaining,
但是仍然存在一个很大的疑问。
05:19
and this was most succinctly put to me by my primary school math teacher in
这主要受到了我的小学老师的启发,非常简洁
05:21
Tanzania, who's a wonderful Scottish lady
当我还在坦桑尼亚的时候,她是一位非常好的苏格兰女士
05:26
who I still stay in touch with.
至今我仍与她保持联络
05:29
And she's now in her 80s.
如今她已经80多岁了
05:32
And when I try to explain my work to her, she waved away all the details, and she said,
当我试着向她解释我的工作时,她摇了摇手抛开了所有的细节,她说:
05:34
"Neil, there's only one question that really matters.
”Neil,真正重要的只有一个问题。
05:39
What banged?" (Laughter)
到底是什么东西爆炸了?”(笑声)
05:44
"Everyone talks about the Big Bang. What banged?"
“所有的人都在谈论大爆炸,可到底是什么东西爆炸了?”
05:48
And she's right. It's a question we've all been avoiding.
她是对的。对于这个问题,我们一直都在回避。
05:53
The standard explanation is that the universe somehow sprang into existence,
公认的解释是宇宙不知为何的一下爆炸出来
05:58
full of a strange kind of energy
充满了各种奇怪的能量
06:03
-- inflationary energy -- which blew it up.
暴胀的能量——使得宇宙发生大爆炸
06:05
But the puzzle of why the universe emerged in that peculiar state
但是有一个疑问是,为什么宇宙会在那种特殊的状态下出现
06:10
is completely unsolved.
这个问题完全无解
06:14
Now, I worked on that theory for a while, with Stephen Hawking and others.
现在,我对那种理论的研究已经有一段时间了,和史蒂芬·霍金以及其他人
06:18
But then I began to explore another alternative.
不过之后我开始探索另一种可能性
06:22
The alternative is that the Big Bang wasn't the beginning.
另一种可能性就是“大爆炸”并非开始。
06:25
Perhaps the universe existed before the bang,
也许在爆炸前宇宙就已经存在了。
06:28
and the bang was just a violent event in a pre-existing universe.
大爆炸不过是在先已存在的宇宙中发生的一个剧烈事件而已。
06:31
Well, this possibility is actually suggested
这种可能性实际上已经被佐证了
06:36
by the latest theories, the unified theories,
被最新的理论,统一理论。
06:39
which try to explain all those 18 free parameters
它试着解释那全部18个自由参数
06:42
in a single framework, which will hopefully predict all of them.
在一个单一的框架中,这个框架有希望预测所有这些变量
06:45
And I'll just share a cartoon of this idea here.
我这里仅把这种想法以动画的形式表达
06:52
It's all I can convey. According to these theories,
这就是我要传达的全部信息。根据上述理论,
06:55
there are extra dimensions of space, not just the three we're familiar with,
在宇宙中还有许多“维”,不仅仅只有我们所熟悉的三维空间,
06:58
but at every point in the room there are more dimensions.
实际在房间内的每一个点,都有更多的维度。
07:01
And in particular, there's one rather strange one,
而且特别的,有一个相当奇怪的例子。
07:05
in the most elegant unified theories we have.
这种情况在最严谨“统一理论”中也会出现。
07:07
The strange one looks likes this:
这个奇怪的“维”像这个样子:
07:10
that we live in a three-dimensional world.
我们生活在一个三维的世界中。
07:12
We live in one of these worlds, and I can only show it as a sheet,
我们生活在一个像这样的三维世界中,虽然我只能以薄片状的形式显示。
07:15
but it's really three-dimensional.
不过它确实是三维的。
07:19
And a tiny distance away, there's another sheet,
在微小的距离之外,还有另外一个薄片。
07:22
also three-dimensional, and they're separated by a gap.
同样也是三维的,它们被一条间隙所分隔开。
07:26
The gap is very tiny, and I've blown it up so you can see it.
这个间隙非常微小,为了便于大家观看我把它放大了。
07:28
But it's really a tiny fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus.
但是它实际上只相当于一个原子核的一小部分那么大。
07:31
I won't go into the details of why we think the universe is like this,
我不会详细的说明为什么这是我们认为的宇宙的样子。
07:36
but it comes out of the math and trying to explain the physics that we know.
不过这是数学推算的结果,并试图解释我们已知的物理现象
07:39
Well, I got interested in this because it seemed to me that it was an obvious question.
我之所以对它感兴趣是因为,我很自然的产生了一个疑问。
07:43
Which is, what happens if these two, three-dimensional worlds
就是,如果这两个三维的世界实际上发生碰撞
07:47
should actually collide?
那么结果会怎样?
07:50
And if they collide, it would look a lot like the Big Bang.
如果它们碰撞,就会和大爆炸十分相像。
07:54
But it's slightly different than in the conventional picture.
不过它和传统的设想有一点细微的不同。
07:57
The conventional picture of the Big Bang is a point.
传统的大爆炸源自于一个点。
08:00
Everything comes out of a point;
万事万物都由这一个点衍生出来;
08:02
you have infinite density. And all the equations break down.
它具有无穷大的密度,没有任何的等式可言。
08:04
No hope of describing that.
根本无法描述。
08:08
In this picture, you'll notice,
在这张图中,可以看到。
08:10
the bang is extended. It's not a point.
爆炸被扩充了。它不是一个点。
08:12
The density of matter is finite, and we have a chance
物质的密度是有限的,而且我们也有可能
08:14
of a consistent set of equations that can describe the whole process.
获得一组一致的等式来描述整个过程。
08:17
So, to cut a long story short, we've explored this alternative.
所以总而言之,我们探索了这一种可能性。
08:22
We've shown that it can fit
我们已经表明它可以符合
08:25
all of the data that we have about the formation of galaxies,
所有关于银河系的形成的已知数据
08:27
the fluctuations in the microwave background.
以及在(宇宙)微波背景下的起伏现象。
08:31
Furthermore, there's an experimental way
另外,还有一种实验性的方法
08:34
to tell this theory, apart from the inflationary explanation that I told you before.
来解释这种理论,除了我刚才讲过的膨胀解释方法。
08:36
It involves gravitational waves.
这会涉及到引力波。
08:43
And in this scenario, not only was the Big Bang not the beginning,
从这一点来看,不仅仅大爆炸不是开始。
08:46
as you can see from the picture,
(而且)如我们从屏幕上看到的,
08:49
it can happen over and over again.
它会不断重复的发生。
08:52
It may be that we live in an endless universe,
有可能我们生活在一个无止境的宇宙中,
08:54
both in space and in time.
在空间和时间上都是。
08:57
And there've been bangs in the past, and there will be bangs in the future.
过去发生过爆炸,将来也会有爆炸。
09:01
And maybe we live in an endless universe.
也许我们就是生活在一个无止境的宇宙中。
09:04
Well, making and testing models of the universe
那么,建立和测试宇宙模型,
09:08
is, for me, the best way I have of enjoying and appreciating the universe.
对我来说,是我欣赏和赞叹宇宙的最好方式。
09:13
We need to make the best mathematical models we can,
我们要尽全力去建立最好的数学模型,
09:20
the most consistent ones.
最一致的。
09:22
And then we scrutinize them, logically and with data.
然后我们再用逻辑方法和数据仔细检测
09:24
And we try to convince ourselves --
然后再试图说服我们自己——
09:28
we really try to convince ourselves they're wrong.
我们确实是试图说服自己是错误的。
09:31
That's progress: when we prove things wrong.
这就是我们推翻设想的过程。
09:33
And gradually, we hopefully move closer and closer to understanding the world.
然后我们逐渐的,有希望的加深对世界的认识。
09:36
As I pursued my career, something was always gnawing away inside me.
在我进行着自己的研究时,一直有一些事萦绕在我的心头。
09:42
What about Africa?
非洲怎么办?
09:47
What about those kids I'd left behind?
我离开的那些孩子们怎么办?
09:50
Instead of developing, as we'd all hoped in the '60s,
在60年代,非洲不仅没有像我们所希望的那样发展。
09:55
things had gotten worse.
反而陷入了更艰难的处境。
09:58
Africa was gripped by poverty, disease and war.
非洲被贫穷,疾病和战争所笼罩。
10:00
This is very graphically shown by the Worldmapper website and project.
Worldmapper这个网站和项目可以很生动的说明这个问题。
10:04
And so the idea is to represent each country
它的方法是在地图上表示每个国家,
10:10
on a map, but scale the area according to some quantity.
不过地区的比例则是根据一些标准来确定。
10:13
So here's just the standard area map of the world.
现在这幅就是标准的世界地图。
10:19
By the way, Africa is very large.
顺便说一句,非洲占很大的一部分
10:21
And the next map now shows Africa's GDP in 1960,
下面这幅地图显示了20世纪60年代非洲的GDP
10:23
around the time of independence for many African states.
那是正是非洲民族独立解放运动的高峰期。
10:28
Now, this is 1990, and then 2002. And here's a projection for 2015.
现在这个是1990年,然后是2002年。然后这是2015年的(预计)情况。
10:33
Big changes are happening in the world,
世界正发生着巨变。
10:44
but they're not helping Africa.
但是却与非洲无关。
10:45
What about Africa's population? The population isn't out of proportion to its area,
那么非洲的人口呢?人口和面积并非不成比例,
10:48
but Africa leads the world in deaths from often preventable causes:
但是非洲却因为一些经常可以阻止的原因而居于世界死亡率前列。
10:52
malnutrition, simple infections and birth complications.
营养不良,简单的传染病和出生并发症。
10:57
Then there's HIV/AIDS. And then there are deaths from war.
这是艾滋病患者的比例,这是战争死亡数的比例。
11:04
OK, currently there are 45,000 people a month dying in the Congo,
目前刚果平均每月有45,000人死亡,
11:09
as a consequence of the war
由于战争的原因
11:14
there over coltan and diamonds and other things.
为了争夺钴,钻石以及其他的资源。
11:16
It's still going on.
而且现在还在继续
11:20
What about Africa's capacity to do something about these problems?
那么非洲应对这些问题的能力如何?
11:24
Well, here's the number of physicians in Africa.
我们来看一下非洲的医生的数量
11:27
Here's the number of people in higher education.
这是接受高等教育的人数。
11:32
And here -- most shocking to me --
然后这里——最令我震惊的——
11:37
the number of scientific research papers coming out of Africa.
非洲产生的科研论文的数量。
11:39
It just doesn't exist scientifically.
根本就不存在,科研方面的。
11:43
And this was very eloquently argued at TED Africa:
这些都在非洲的TED大会上被激烈的讨论过:
11:48
that all of the aid that's been given
所有给予的援助,
11:51
has completely failed to put Africa onto its own two feet.
都对非洲的发展和振兴毫无帮助。
11:53
Well, the transition to democracy in South Africa in 1994
1994年,南非实现的民主转变
12:01
was literally a dream come true for many of us.
对于我们中的许多人来说简直就像是美梦成真一样。
12:04
My parents were both elected to the first parliament,
我们的父母都被选举为首届国会的成员,
12:08
alongside Nelson and Winnie Mandela. They were the only other couple.
与曼德拉夫妇。他们是唯一的另一对夫妇。
12:11
And in 2001, I took a research leave to visit them.
在2001年,我为做研究请假去拜访了他们。
12:16
And while I was busy working -- I was working on these colliding worlds, in the day.
在我忙于工作的同时——我在研究这个碰撞的模型,整天时间。
12:20
But I learned that there was a desperate shortage of skills,
我意识到那里急缺有技能的人员。
12:27
especially mathematical skills, in industry, in government, in education.
尤其在数学方面,在工业界,政府,教育。
12:30
The ability to make and test models has become essential,
建立和测试模型的能力已经变得不可或缺,
12:38
not only to every single area of science today,
不仅仅对当今科学的每一个领域,
12:42
but also to modern society itself.
对现代社会亦是如此。
12:45
And if you don't have math, you're not going to enter the modern age.
不掌握数学技能,就谈不上进入现代社会。
12:49
So I had an idea. And the idea was very simple.
于是我就有了一个想法,其实非常简单。
12:55
The idea was to set up an African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, or AIMS.
就是在非洲建立一个数学及相关科学的机构,或者简称为AIMS(首字母组合)
12:58
And let's recruit students from the whole of Africa,
然后我们在全非洲范围内进行招生,
13:04
bring them together with lecturers from all over the world,
将他们和世界各地的学者们聚在一起
13:08
and we'll try to give them a fantastic education.
然后试图为他们提供极好的教育
13:12
Well, as a Cambridge professor, I had many contacts.
作为一名剑桥教授,我有良好的人脉。
13:17
And to my astonishment, they backed me 100 percent.
而且令我惊讶的是,他们对我的这一想法百分百支持。
13:20
They said, "Go and do it,
他们说:“去做吧,
13:23
and we'll come and lecture."
我们会去那里讲课的。”
13:25
And I knew it would be amazing fun to bring brilliant students
我知道这将是一件令人激动不已的事情,把来自
13:29
from these countries -- where they don't have any opportunities -- together
这些(教育)机会极度匮乏的国家的聪颖学生,
13:33
with the best lecturers in the world --
和世界上最棒的学者们汇聚在一起。
13:37
who I knew would come, because of the interest in Africa --
而且我也知道他们一定会来,出于对非洲的兴趣。
13:39
and put them together and just let the sparks fly.
就让他们相处在一起,碰撞出华丽的火花。
13:42
So we bought a derelict hotel near Cape Town.
于是我们就在开普敦附近买下了一个废弃的旅馆。
13:49
It's an 80-room Art Deco hotel from the 1920s.
它始建于20世纪20年代,是一个有80房间的装饰艺术旅馆。
13:53
The area was kind of seedy, so we got an 80-room hotel for 100,000 dollars.
由于那个地方有点简陋,所以我们用10万美元就买下了这个80个房间的旅馆。
13:56
It's a beautiful building. We decided we would refurbish it
这个旅馆十分漂亮,我们决定再重新整修一番。
14:02
and then put out the word:
然后公开宣布:
14:06
we're going to start the best math institute in Africa
我们要建立非洲最好的数学机构,
14:08
in this hotel.
从这个旅馆开始。
14:12
Well, the new South Africa is a very exciting country.
现在的南非是一个焕然一新的国家。
14:13
And those of you who haven't been there, you should go.
如果大家之中还有人没有去过,你应该去看一看。
14:16
It's very, very interesting what's happening.
现在正在发生的事情非常非常有趣。
14:19
And we recruited wonderful staff,
而且我们招募到了很棒的机构成员,
14:22
highly motivated staff.
他们的积极性都很高。
14:25
The other thing that's happened, which was good for us, is the Internet.
另一个正在发生的事情对我们也是一个好消息,那就是因特网。
14:27
Even though the Internet is very expensive all over Africa,
尽管因特网在非洲还是一个奢侈的事物,
14:31
there are Internet cafes everywhere.
不过网吧随处可见。
14:34
And bright young Africans are desperate to join the global community,
非洲的青年才俊们极其渴望成为全球化的一份子,
14:36
to be successful -- and they're very ambitious.
使自己走向成功——而且他们的志向宏大。
14:41
They want to be the next Einstein.
他们想成为下一个爱因斯坦。
14:44
And so when word came out that AIMS was opening,
于是当AIMS招生的消息传播出来以后,
14:50
it spread very quickly via e-mail and our website.
它迅速的通过e-mail和网站被广泛宣传。
14:53
And we got lots of applicants.
申请者也不计其数。
14:57
Well, we designed AIMS as a 24-hour learning environment,
我们将AIMS设计成一个全天候的学习环境,
14:59
and it was fantastic to start a university from the beginning.
新办一所大学是一件美妙的事情。
15:02
You have to rethink, what is the university for?
你不得不重新思索:大学是为了什么?
15:06
And that's really exciting.
这确实令人十分激动。
15:10
So we designed it to have interactive teaching.
因此我们将它设计成交互式教学的模式。
15:12
No droning on at the chalkboard.
没有死板的灌输式教学。
15:15
We emphasize problem-solving, working in groups,
我们强调问题解决导向,分组工作,
15:19
every student discovering and maximizing their own potential
让每一个学生发现和最大程度的发掘自身潜能,
15:23
and not chasing grades.
而不是追求分数。
15:27
Everyone lives together in this hotel -- lecturers and students --
在这个旅馆中所有的人都住在一起,不论是老师还是学生,
15:30
and it's not surprising at all to find an impromptu tutorial at 1 a.m.
而且如果在凌晨一点钟发现了即兴辅导,一点都不让人惊讶。
15:32
The students don't usually leave the computer lab till 2 or 3 a.m.
很多时候,学生们直到凌晨两点或三点才离开电脑室。
15:38
And then they're up again at eight in the morning.
而且8点钟又起床,开始新一天的学习。
15:42
Lectures, problem-solving and so on. It's an extraordinary place.
听课,解决问题等等。这是个很棒的地方。
15:44
We especially emphasize areas of great relevance to Africa's development,
我们特别强调那些和非洲的发展密切相关的领域,
15:51
because, in those areas, scientists working in Africa will have a competitive advantage.
因为在这些领域,工作在非洲的科学家将会获得竞争优势。
15:56
They'll publish, be invited to conferences.
他们会发表论文,会被邀请参加学术会议。
16:02
They'll do well. They'll have successful careers.
他们将做的很棒,他们将取得成功。
16:04
And AIMS has done extremely well.
同时AIMS也取得了极大的成功。
16:10
Here is a list of last year's graduates, graduated in June,
这是去年的毕业名单,6月份毕业,
16:12
and what they're currently doing -- 48 of them.
以及他们目前的状况,这里有48个人的信息。
16:16
And where they are is indicated over here.
这里是目前他们的所在地点。
16:19
And where they've gone. So these are all postgraduate students.
以及他们去过的地方。这些都是本科生。
16:23
And they've all gone on to master's and Ph.D. degrees in excellent places.
他们都选择了在优秀的学府继续深造硕士或博士。
16:27
Five students can be educated at AIMS
在欧美培养一个学生的费用,
16:34
for the cost of educating one in the U.S. or Europe.
在AIMS可以培养五个学生。
16:36
But more important, the pan-African student body
更重要的是,泛非主义的学生,
16:40
is a continual source of strength, pride and commitment to Africa.
是非洲强大,自豪和振兴的不竭源泉。
16:43
We illustrate AIMS' progress by coloring in the countries of Africa.
我们用为国家标注不同颜色的方法展示AIMS的发展进度。
16:49
So here you can see behind this list.
因此在这个名单的后面你可以看到。
16:54
When a county is colored yellow, we've received an application;
当国家被黄色标注时,表示我们收到了申请;
16:56
orange, we've accepted an application; and green,
橙色,表示我们同意了申请;绿色,
17:00
a student has graduated.
表示学生毕业。
17:05
So here is where we were after the first graduation in 2004.
所以当2004年第一届学生毕业以后,大致的情况如图所示。
17:07
And we set ourselves a goal of turning the continent green.
于是我们为自己定下的目标是将这个非洲大陆变成绿色。
17:11
So there's 2005, -6, -7, -8.
因此,2005年,06年,07年,08年。
17:15
(Applause)
(掌声)
17:19
We're well on the way to achieving our initial goal.
我们在实现最初目标的道路上顺利的前进着。
17:29
We had some of the students filmed at home before they came to AIMS.
我们让一些学生在家乡拍摄了一些视频,在他们来AIMS之前。
17:33
And I'll just show you one.
我现在就展示一段。
17:37
Tendai Mugwagwa: My name is Tendai Mugwagwa.
Tendai Mugwagwa:我的名字叫Tendai Mugwagwa。
17:40
I have a Bachelor of Science with an education degree.
我拥有理学学士学位。
17:44
I will be attending AIMS.
我将要进入AIMS学习。
17:47
My understanding of the course is that it covers quite a lot.
我对这个课程的理解是它包罗万象。
17:49
You know, from physics to medicine,
从物理学到医学,
17:53
in particular, epidemiology and also mathematical modeling.
尤其是,传染病学和数学建模。
17:57
Neil Turok: So Tendai came to AIMS and did very well.
Neil Turok:Tendai进入了AIMS,表现的非常出色。
18:03
And I'll let her take it from there.
我让她在那里也拍摄了一段视频。
18:08
TM: My name is Tendai Mugwagwa
Tendai Mugwagwa: 我的名字叫Tendai Mugwagwa,
18:16
and I was a student at AIMS in 2003 and 2004.
我于2003年和2004年之间在AIMS学习。
18:18
After leaving AIMS, I went on to do a master's in applied mathematics
离开AIMS之后,我继续攻读应用数学的硕士学位,
18:22
at the University of Cape Town in South Africa.
在南非的开普敦大学。
18:27
After that, I came to the Netherlands
之后,我来到了荷兰,
18:30
where I'm now doing a Ph.D. in theoretical immunology.
现在我在这里攻读理论免疫学的博士学位。
18:32
Professor: Tendai is working very independently.
教授:Tendai具有很好的独立研究的能力,
18:35
She communicates well with the immunologists at the hospital.
她和医院的免疫学家沟通的也非常融洽,
18:38
So all in all I have a very good Ph.D. student from South Africa.
总而言之,我有一个非常优秀的南非博士生。
18:42
So I'm happy she's here.
很高兴她在这里。
18:46
NT: Another student in the first year of AIMS was Shehu.
NT:另外一个AIMS第一年的学生是Shehu
18:49
And he's shown here with his favorite high school teacher.
这张图里他和他最喜欢的高中老师在一起。
18:53
And then entering university in northern Nigeria.
然后他进入了尼日利亚北部的一所大学。
18:58
And after AIMS, Shehu wanted to do high-energy physics,
在完成了AIMS学习之后,Shehu希望从事高能物理学的研究,
19:04
and he came to Cambridge.
然后他来到了剑桥。
19:09
He's about to finish his Ph.D.,
他就要完成博士学位了。
19:11
and he was filmed recently with someone you all know.
他最近和一个大家都熟悉的人拍摄了一段视频。
19:14
Shehu: And from there we will be able to,
Shehu:在那里我们就可以,
19:18
hopefully, make better predictions and then we compare it
有希望的进行更好的预测,进而将它
19:20
to the graph and also make some predictions.
绘制成线图,同样的做出一些预测。
19:23
Stephen Hawking: That is nice.
Stephen Hawking:很好。
19:28
NT: Here are the current students at AIMS. There are 53 of them
NT:这些是目前在AIMS的学生,共53人,
19:31
from 20 different countries, including 20 women.
来自20个不同的国家,包括20名女性。
19:34
So now I'm going to get to my TED business.
现在我们说说我的关于TED的事情。
19:38
Well, we had a party. This is Africa --
我们有派对。这是在非洲——
19:41
we have good parties in Africa. And last month, they threw a surprise party for me.
我们有很棒的派对。上个月,他们为我举办了一个惊喜派对。
19:44
Here's somebody you've seen already.
这个人想必大家刚才都见过了。
19:48
(Applause)
(掌声)
19:50
I want to point out a few other exceptional people in this picture.
我想在这张照片中指出其他几位优秀的人。
20:14
So, we were having a party,
(这张照片中)我们在聚会,
20:18
as you can see they're completely eclipsing me at this point.
显而易见在这时候他们已经完全把我比下去了。
20:19
This is Ezra. She's from Darfur.
这是Ezra,她来自达尔富尔。
20:23
She's a physicist, and somehow stays smiling,
她是一位物理学家,不知为何她总是保持微笑,
20:26
in spite of everything going on back home.
尽管家乡动荡不安。
20:30
But she wants to continue in physics, and she's doing extremely well.
但是她想继续从事物理研究而且她做的非常出色。
20:32
This is Lydia. Lydia is the first ever woman
这是Lydia。Lydia是有史以来第一位
20:36
to graduate in mathematics in the Central African Republic.
从数学专业毕业的中非女性。
20:40
And she's now at AIMS. (Applause)
她现在在AIMS。(掌声)
20:43
So now let me get to our TED wish.
现在我要讲到我们的TED愿望。
20:49
Well, it's not my TED wish; it's our wish, as you've already gathered.
它不是我的TED愿望;是我们的,大家应该已经猜出来了。
20:53
And our wish has two parts:
我们的愿望分成两部分:
20:58
one is a dream and the other's a plan. OK.
一个梦想和一个计划。
21:01
Our TED dream is that the next Einstein will be African. (Applause)
我们的梦想就是下一个爱因斯坦将是非洲人。(掌声)
21:06
In striving for the heights of creative genius,
在不断追求顶级创造性天才的过程中,
21:25
we want to give thousands of people the motivation,
我们力求给数以千计的非洲人以动力,
21:26
the encouragement and the courage
鼓励和勇气
21:31
to obtain the high-level skills they need to help Africa.
来帮他们获得建设非洲所需的高等技能。
21:33
Among them will be not only brilliant scientists --
他们之中将不仅仅有顶尖的科学家——
21:38
I'm sure of that from what we've seen at AIMS --
从AIMS的情况看我可以肯定这一点——
21:41
they'll also be the African Gates, Brins and Pages of the future.
在未来也会出现非洲的盖茨,布林和佩奇。
21:44
Well, I said we also have a plan. And our plan is quite simple.
我谈到了我们也有一个计划。我们的计划十分简单。
21:50
AIMS is now a proven model.
AIMS现在已经树立了一个典范。
21:54
And what we need to do is to replicate it.
我们需要做的就是将其复制。
21:56
We want to roll out 15 AIMS centers in the next five years, all over Africa.
我们希望在未来的五年内发展15个AIMS中心,遍布非洲。
22:00
Each will have a pan-African student body,
每一个中心都有一个泛非洲学生主体,
22:04
but specialize in a different area of science.
只是依据科学的不同领域将其细分。
22:09
We want to use science to overcome the national and cultural barriers,
我们希望通过科学来克服国家和文化的障碍,
22:11
as it does at AIMS.
就像在AIMS中实现的那样。
22:16
And we want to add elements to the curriculum.
我们希望在课程体系中加进一些元素。
22:17
We want to add entrepreneurship and policy skills.
我们希望加入企业家精神和处事技巧。
22:19
The expanded AIMS will be a coherent pan-African institution,
扩展后的AIMS将是一个统一的泛非洲复制,
22:24
and its graduates will form a powerful network,
它的毕业生将会形成强大的人际网络,
22:27
working together for peace and progress across the continent.
共同为这片土地的和平和进步而努力。
22:31
Over the last year,
在去年期间,
22:37
we've been visiting sites in Africa,
我们拜访了非洲的许多地点,
22:39
looking at potential sites for new AIMS centers.
为心的AIMS中心寻找潜在的据点。
22:41
And here are the ones we've selected.
这里是我们已经选定的一些地点。
22:44
And each of these centers has a strong local team,
每一个地点在当地都有一支强大的队伍,
22:46
each is in a beautiful place, an interesting place,
环境都很漂亮,很有趣,
22:50
which international lecturers will be happy to visit.
各个国家的学者们将会十分乐意前往。
22:52
And our partners across Africa are extremely enthusiastic about this.
我们的非洲伙伴对这件事情都极度热情。
22:55
Everyone wants an AIMS center in their country.
每个人都想在他们的国家建立一个AIMS中心。
23:00
And last November,
去年十一月,
23:04
the conference of all the African ministers of science and technology,
非洲各国的科技部部长齐聚一堂,
23:06
held in Mombasa, called for a comprehensive plan to roll out AIMS.
在蒙巴萨,呼吁一个扩展AIMS的全面规划。
23:10
So we have political support right across the continent.
所以我们在整个非洲大陆都有强有力的政治支持。
23:15
It won't be easy.
这不是一件容易的事。
23:18
At every site there will be huge challenges.
每一个地点都将面临严峻的挑战。
23:21
Local scientists must play leading roles
当地的科学家必须起到带头作用,
23:23
and governments must be persuaded to buy in.
也必须说服政府进行财政投入。
23:26
Conditions are very difficult,
条件很艰苦,
23:30
but we cannot afford to compromise on those principles which made AIMS work.
但是我们不能在这些AIMS的核心观念上妥协。
23:32
And we summarize them this way:
我们可以这样总结:
23:39
the institutes have got to be relevant, innovative,
这些机构必须要有相关性,创新性,
23:41
cost-effective and high quality. Why?
成本高效以及高质量。为什么?
23:44
Because we want Africa to be rich.
因为我们希望非洲变的富有。
23:46
Easy to remember the basic rules we need.
很容易记忆,这是我们所需要的基本原则。
23:49
So, just in ending, let me say the only people who can fix Africa
在结尾处,我想说的是,唯一能重建非洲的人们,
23:56
are talented young Africans.
是年轻的非洲人才。
23:59
By unlocking and nurturing their creative potential,
通过解放和培养他们的创造潜力,
24:02
we can create a step change in Africa's future.
我们可以在未来实现非洲的跨越式发展。
24:05
Over time, they will contribute to African development
久而久之,他们对于非洲的发展
24:09
and to science in ways we can only imagine.
和科学将作出贡献将令我们叹为观止。
24:13
Thank you.
谢谢大家。
24:16
(Applause)
(掌声)
24:18
Translated by Bo Wang
Reviewed by Tony Yet

▲Back to top

About the Speaker:

Neil Turok - Physicist, education activist
Neil Turok is working on a model of the universe that explains the big bang -- while, closer to home, he's founded a network of math and science academies across Africa.

Why you should listen

Neil Turok works on understanding the universe's very beginnings. With Stephen Hawking, he developed the Hawking-Turok instanton solutions, describing the birth of an inflationary universe -- positing that, big bang or no, the universe came from something, not from utter nothingness.

Recently, with Paul Steinhardt at Princeton, Turok has been working on a cyclic model for the universe in which the big bang is explained as a collision between two “brane-worlds.” The two physicists cowrote the popular-science book Endless Universe.

In 2003, Turok, who was born in South Africa, founded the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) in Muizenberg, a postgraduate center supporting math and science. His TED Prize wish: Help him grow AIMS and promote the study and math and science in Africa, so that the world's next Einstein may be African.

Turok is the Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, in Ontario, Canada. In 2010, the Canadian government funded a $20million expansion of the AIMS schools, working with the Perimeter Institute to start five new AIMS schools in different African nations.

In 2016, he won the Tate Medal for International Leadership in Physics

More profile about the speaker
Neil Turok | Speaker | TED.com