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TED2009

Kamal Meattle: How to grow fresh air

カマール・メトルによる、自分でできるおいしい空気の作り方

February 5, 2009

研究者、カマール・メトルは家庭やオフィスでよく見かける3つの観葉植物を用いることで、よりきれいな空気を取り入れることができると述べています。

Kamal Meattle - Business owner and activist
With its air-filtering plants and sustainable architecture, Kamal Meattle's office park in New Delhi is a model of green business. Meattle himself is a longtime activist for cleaning up India's air. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Some 17 years ago, I became allergic to Delhi's air.
およそ17年前、私はデリーの空気でアレルギーを起こし始めました
00:12
My doctors told me that my lung capacity
医者は私の肺活量が
00:17
had gone down to 70 percent,
70%まで落ち込んでおり、
00:20
and it was killing me.
命を縮めかねないと忠告しました
00:22
With the help of IIT,
イリノイ工科大学、インドエネルギー資源研究所、
00:23
TERI, and learnings from NASA,
そしてNASAで学んだことから
00:26
we discovered that there are three
一般的によく見る3種類の
00:28
basic green plants,
観葉植物を室内に置くことで
00:31
common green plants, with which
私たちの健康に必要な
00:33
we can grow all the fresh air
新鮮な外気を
00:35
we need indoors to keep us healthy.
得られることがわかりました
00:36
We've also found that you can
さらに屋内空気の産業基準を
00:39
reduce the fresh air requirements
維持しながら、きちんとした外気を
00:41
into the building, while maintaining
室内に取り入れることが
00:43
industry indoor air-quality standards.
可能なこともわかりました
00:45
The three plants are Areca palm,
その3つの植物はビンロウジュ
00:48
Mother-in-Law's Tongue and money plant.
サンセベリア、ゴウダソウです
00:50
The botanical names are in front of you.
学名はご覧の通りです
00:54
Areca palm is a plant which
ビンロウジュは二酸化炭素を取り除き
00:58
removes CO2 and converts it into oxygen.
酸素に置き換えます
01:00
We need four shoulder-high plants per person,
1人当たり、肩の高さほどの植木が4本必要です
01:04
and in terms of plant care,
手入れについてですが
01:08
we need to wipe the leaves
デリーでは毎日葉を
01:10
every day in Delhi, and perhaps
拭かないといけませんが
01:11
once a week in cleaner-air cities.
空気がきれいな地域であれば週1回で大丈夫です
01:13
We had to grow them in vermi manure,
ビンロウジュはベミというやせた肥料か
01:15
which is sterile, or hydroponics,
もしくは水栽培で育て
01:18
and take them outdoors every three to four months.
3, 4ヶ月ごとに外に出さないといけません
01:21
The second plant is Mother-in-law's Tongue,
2つ目の植物はサンセベリアです
01:25
which is again a very common plant,
これも観葉植物としてよく見かけます
01:28
and we call it a bedroom plant,
「寝室の植物」とも呼ばれますが
01:30
because it converts CO2 into oxygen at night.
夜、二酸化炭素を酸素に変えるからなんです
01:32
And we need six to eight waist-high plants per person.
一人当たり、腰の高さほどの植木が6〜8本必要になります
01:35
The third plant is money plant,
3つ目の植物はゴウダソウです
01:40
and this is again a very common plant;
これもまたどこにでもある植物で、
01:42
preferably grows in hydroponics.
できれば水栽培で育てていただきたい
01:45
And this particular plant removes formaldehydes
ゴウダソウはホルムアルデヒドなど揮発性の高い物質を
01:48
and other volatile chemicals.
取り除いてくれます
01:51
With these three plants,
この3つの植物は私たちに
01:52
you can grow all the fresh air you need.
必要な分の外気を生み出してくれます
01:54
In fact, you could be in a bottle
たとえあなたがフタの締まったボトルの中にいれられても
01:56
with a cap on top, and you would not die at all,
この3つの植物があれば死ぬことはないでしょう
01:58
and you would not need any fresh air.
外気を取り入れる必要が無いからです
02:02
We have tried these plants at our
私達は3つの植物をデリーにある
02:05
own building in Delhi, which is a
50,000平方フィート(4600平方メートル)
02:07
50,000-square-feet, 20-year-old building.
築20年の自分たちのビルで育ててみました
02:10
And it has close to 1,200 such plants for 300 occupants.
300人の居住者に対して1200本ほどの植木を用意しました
02:13
Our studies have found that there is
この研究で分かったことは、
02:17
a 42 percent probability of one's blood oxygen
このビルの中に人が10時間いた場合
02:19
going up by one percent if one stays indoors
42%の確率で血液中の酸素量が
02:23
in this building for 10 hours.
1%上昇するということです
02:25
The government of India has discovered
インド政府は
02:28
or published a study to show
このビルがニューデリーで
02:31
that this is the healthiest building in New Delhi.
最も健康的な建物だと発表しました
02:33
And the study showed that,
さらに他の建物と
02:36
compared to other buildings,
比較した場合
02:39
there is a reduced incidence of
目の炎症の事例が
02:40
eye irritation by 52 percent,
52%も減少し
02:42
respiratory systems by 34 percent,
呼吸器系障害に関しては34%の減少
02:44
headaches by 24 percent,
頭痛は24%の減少
02:48
lung impairment by 12 percent and asthma by nine percent.
肺機能障害が12%、喘息は9%減少したのです
02:49
And this study has been published on September 8, 2008,
この研究結果は2008年の9月8日に発表され
02:53
and it's available on the government of India website.
インド政府のウェブサイトで公開されています
02:57
Our experience points to an
私達の研究は、
03:00
amazing increase in human productivity
これらの植物を用いることで、人間の生産能力を
03:02
by over 20 percent by using these plants.
20%も高めることもわかりました
03:06
And also a reduction in energy requirements in buildings
さらに驚くべきことにビルを維持するのに必要な熱量を
03:09
by an outstanding 15 percent, because you need less fresh air.
15%も減らすことがわかりました。外気の供給が少なくて済むからです
03:13
We are now replicating this in a
現在、私たちはこの実験を
03:19
1.75-million-square-feet building,
175万平方フィート(約16万平方メートル)の建物で試しており
03:20
which will have 60,000 indoor plants.
室内に6万本の植木を置く予定です
03:23
Why is this important?
なぜこれが重要なのでしょうか?
03:25
It is also important for the environment,
それは環境にとっても重要だからです
03:27
because the world's energy
世界が必要とする
03:29
requirements are expected to grow
エネルギー量は今後10年間で
03:30
by 30 percent in the next decade.
30%増大するだろうと予測されています
03:32
40 percent of the world's energy is taken
現在、世界のエネルギーのうち
03:34
up by buildings currently,
40%が建物の維持で消費されています
03:35
and 60 percent of the world's population
また世界人口の60%が
03:37
will be living in buildings in cities
次の15年で、人口100万人以上の都市にある
03:39
with a population of over one million in the next 15 years.
ビルに暮らすだろうと言われています
03:42
And there is a growing preference for living
そしてより多くの人々がその生活基盤を
03:46
and working in air-conditioned places.
エアコンの付いた場所に求めるようになります
03:48
"Be the change you want to see in the world,"
世界を変えるには、まずあなた自身が変わりなさい
03:52
said Mahatma Gandhi.
マハトマ・ガンジーの言葉です
03:54
And thank you for listening.
ありがとうございました
03:55
(Applause)
(拍手)
03:56
Translator:Hiroaki Yamane
Reviewer:Miwa Nakamura

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Kamal Meattle - Business owner and activist
With its air-filtering plants and sustainable architecture, Kamal Meattle's office park in New Delhi is a model of green business. Meattle himself is a longtime activist for cleaning up India's air.

Why you should listen

Kamal Meattle has a vision to reshape commercial building in India using principles of green architecture and sustainable upkeep (including an air-cleaning system that involves massive banks of plants instead of massive banks of HVAC equipment). He started the Paharpur Business Centre and Software Technology Incubator Park (PBC-STIP), in New Delhi, in 1990 to provide "instant office" space to technology companies. PBC-STIP's website publishes its air quality index every day, and tracks its compliance to the 10 principles of the UN Global Compact, a corporate-citizenship initiative.

Meattle has long been a environmental activist in India. In the 1980s he helped India's apple industry develop less-wasteful packaging to help save acres of trees. He then began a campaign to help India's millions of scooter drivers use less oil. His next plan is to develop a larger version of PBC-STIP, making a green office accessible to more businesses in New Delhi and serving as an example of low-cost, low-energy office life.

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