06:44
TEDGlobal 2009

Marc Koska: 1.3m reasons to re-invent the syringe

マーク・コスカ: 注射器を再発明する130万の理由

Filmed:

毎年130万人が、運営資金の少ないクリニックでよく見かける注射器の再使用で犠牲になっています。マーク・コスカは、事実、写真、隠しカメラで捉えた映像と共に、この世界的な問題を伝え、再使用出来ない低コストの注射器を紹介します。

- Inventor
Marc Koska wants to improve health care in the developing world by re-designing dangerous medical tools -- and offering education to practitioners in under-funded clinics. Full bio

Twenty-five-and-a-quarter years ago I read
25年3か月前 私は
00:18
a newspaper article which said
注射器がエイズ感染の
00:20
that one day syringes would be
主な要因の一つに
00:22
one of the major causes of the spread of AIDS,
なるだろうという
00:25
the transmission of AIDS.
新聞記事を読みました
00:27
I thought this was unacceptable. So I decided to do something about it.
私には容認できず それについて何かしようと決めました
00:29
Sadly, it's come true. Malaria, as we all know,
悲しくもそれは現実となり マラリアで
00:33
kills approximately one million people a year.
1年に約100万人が死んでいますが
00:36
The reuse of syringes now exceeds that
今では注射器の再使用が
00:39
and kills 1.3 million people a year.
それを越えて 1年に130万人が死んでいます
00:41
This young girl and her friend
この少女と友達には
00:46
that I met in an orphanage in Delhi
デリーの孤児院で会いました
00:48
were HIV positive from a syringe.
彼らは注射器からHIV陽性になりました
00:50
And what was so sad about this particular story
この話でやるせないのは
00:55
was that once their parents had found out --
彼らの親が医者に連れていったのに
00:58
and don't forget, their parents took them to the doctor --
HIV陽性だとわかったら
01:01
the parents threw them out on the street.
親に捨てられてしまい
01:05
And hence they ended up in an orphanage.
孤児院に引き取られたのです
01:07
And it comes from situations like this where
経験ある医者も そうでない医者も
01:10
you have either skilled or unskilled practitioners,
むやみに注射するこのような状況から
01:12
blindly giving an injection to someone.
問題は生まれています
01:15
And the injection is so valuable,
注射は非常に貴重で 人々は
01:18
that the people basically trust
神の次に医者が正しい事をすると
01:21
the doctor, being second to God, which I've heard many times,
信頼していると 何度も聞きました
01:23
to do the right thing. But in fact they're not.
しかし 実際にはそうではありません
01:26
And you can understand, obviously, the transmission problem
明らかに ウィルスだらけの場所の
01:29
between people in high-virus areas.
人から人へ感染する問題を理解できますね
01:31
This video we took undercover,
我々が隠し撮りしたビデオでは
01:35
which shows you, over a half an hour period,
30分以上にわたって
01:37
a tray of medicines of 42 vials,
注射薬42瓶を乗せたトレーを映していて
01:39
which are being delivered with only 2 syringes in a public hospital in India.
インドの某公立病院では それが注射器2つだけで投与されています
01:43
And over the course of half an hour, not one syringe
30分以上において 新しく開けられた
01:48
was filmed being unwrapped.
注射器は一つもありませんでした
01:50
They started with two and they ended with two.
初めから終わりまで使われたのは注射器2つでした
01:52
And you'll see, just now, a nurse coming back to the tray,
看護師がカートのように使っている
01:55
which is their sort of modular station,
トレーに戻ってきて 使ったばかりの
01:58
and dropping the syringe she's just used
注射器をトレーに戻しているのが見えます
02:01
back in the tray for it to be picked up and used again.
注射器はそこから また使われます
02:04
So you can imagine the scale of this problem.
この問題の規模を想像できるでしょう
02:07
And in fact in India alone, 62 percent
インドだけを見ても
02:10
of all injections given
全体の注射の62%は
02:12
are unsafe.
安全ではありません
02:14
These kids in Pakistan don't go to school.
パキスタンのこの子ども達は学校に行きません
02:16
They are lucky. They already have a job.
幸運にも彼らは既に
02:18
And that job is that they go around and pick up syringes
仕事があり 病院の裏から
02:20
from the back of hospitals,
注射器を拾って洗い
02:22
wash them, and in the course of this,
その作業の中で 明らかに
02:24
obviously picking them up they injure themselves.
怪我をしてしまいます
02:26
And then they repackage them and sell them out on markets
彼らは注射器を再包装して 市場で売ります
02:29
for literally more money
信じられませんが 殺菌済みの
02:32
than a sterile syringe in the first place, which is quite bizarre.
注射器よりも高く売られています
02:34
In an interesting photo, their father, while we were talking to him,
彼らの父は取材中に
02:37
picked up a syringe and pricked his finger --
注射器を拾い 指を刺してしまいました
02:40
I don't know whether you can see the drop of blood on the end --
指先の血が見えるかわかりませんが
02:42
and immediately whipped out a box of matches,
彼はさっとマッチ箱を取り出して
02:45
lit one, and burned the blood off the end of his finger,
火をつけて HIV感染を止める方法だと
02:48
giving me full assurance
私に保証しながら
02:51
that that was the way that you stopped the transmission of HIV.
指先の血を焼き切りました
02:53
In China, recycling is a major issue.
中国ではリサイクルは大きな問題です
02:57
And they are collected en mass -- you can see the scale of it here --
ここで規模がわかりますが 彼らはひとまとめに集めて
03:01
and sorted out, by hand, back into the right sizes,
サイズごとに手で整理して
03:04
and then put back out on the street.
再び売りに出します
03:08
So recycling and reuse
リサイクルと再使用は
03:10
are the major issues here.
ここでは大きな問題なのです
03:13
But there was one interesting anecdote that I found in Indonesia.
でも インドネシアで聞いた面白い話がありました
03:15
In all schools in Indonesia,
インドネシアの全ての学校では
03:18
there is usually a toy seller in the playground.
たいてい 遊び場におもちゃ売りがいます
03:20
The toy seller, in this case,
このおもちゃ売りは
03:22
had syringes, which they usually do,
普段から注射器も売っていて
03:24
next door to the diggers, which is obviously
隣には予想どおり
03:26
what you would expect.
ショベルカーがあります
03:28
And they use them, in the breaks, for water pistols.
子ども達は遊び時間に
03:30
They squirt them at each other, which is lovely and innocent.
水鉄砲として使い 無邪気に
03:32
And they are having great fun.
水をかけあって 楽しんでいます
03:34
But they also drink from them
しかし 暑いので彼らは
03:36
while they're in their breaks, because it's hot.
休憩時間中 そこから口に
03:38
And they squirt the water into their mouths.
水を吹きかけて飲むのです
03:40
And these are used with traces of blood visible.
血がついている使用済みの注射器です
03:43
So we need a better product. And we need better information.
我々はより良い製品や情報が必要です
03:48
And I think, if I can just borrow this camera,
このカメラで映してもらえれば
03:50
I was going to show you my invention,
私が考えた発明品を
03:55
which I came up with.
お見せしましょう
03:57
So, it's a normal-looking syringe.
見た目は普通の注射器です
04:00
You load it up in the normal way. This is made
使い方も通常通りです
04:02
on existing equipment in 14 factories that we license.
これは認可している工場14か所で 既存の設備で作りました
04:04
You give the injection and then put it down.
注射をして下に置きます
04:08
If someone then tries to reuse it,
再び使おうとしても
04:11
it locks and breaks afterwards.
ロックして壊れるようになっています
04:13
It's very, very simple. Thank you.
非常に単純です ありがとう
04:15
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:17
And it costs the same as a normal syringe.
普通の注射器と値段も同じです
04:20
And in comparison, a Coca-Cola
比較するとコーラは
04:22
is 10 times the price.
その値段の10倍もします
04:24
And that will stop reusing a syringe 20 or 30 times.
これで注射器が20回も30回も使われるのを止められます
04:26
And I have an information charity
私は多大な量の
04:29
which has done huge scale amount of work in India.
情報チャリティをインドで行いました
04:31
And we're very proud of giving information to people,
小さな子ども達が愚かなことをしないように
04:35
so that little kids like this don't do stupid things.
情報を提供できることに誇りを持っています
04:38
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
04:40
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:42
Translated by Takako Sato
Reviewed by Masahiro Kyushima

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About the Speaker:

Marc Koska - Inventor
Marc Koska wants to improve health care in the developing world by re-designing dangerous medical tools -- and offering education to practitioners in under-funded clinics.

Why you should listen

In 1984, Marc Koska read an article that predicted HIV would spread widely through unsafe injections. He writes, "Appalled at the prospect of such an avoidable catastrophe, I decided there and then to try and do something about it." The prediction, sadly, turned out to be true: syringe reuse now accounts for 1.3 million deaths -- more than malaria. In the next years, Koska undertook the study of public health to find out what could be done. He determined that the design of syringes was the critical issue.

Today, Koska's solution to the problem, the K1 syringe -- it locks down after a single injection, preventing reuse -- is in use by millions. But he hasn't stopped there: In 2005, he founded a nonprofit, SafePoint, which aims to educate people in the developing world about the dangers of reusing any instruments that come into contact with blood.

More profile about the speaker
Marc Koska | Speaker | TED.com