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TEDGlobal 2010

Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from

スティーブン ジョンソン「良いアイデアはどこで生まれる?」

July 15, 2010

「ひらめいた!」と感じる瞬間にアイデアが生まれると思われがちですが、スティーブ ジョンソンは歴史はまた別の事実を示していると紹介しています。ロンドンのコーヒー店に見られる「流動的ネットワーク」の話から、チャールズ ダーウィンにまつわる長期にわたるゆっくりとした予感の話、さらには人や物が相互に連携してアイデアが素早く広まるようになった今の世の中についても語っています。

Steven Johnson - Writer
Steven Berlin Johnson examines the intersection of science, technology and personal experience. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Just a few minutes ago, I took this picture
ほんの数分前 ここから10ブロックの所で
00:15
about 10 blocks from here.
こんな写真を撮りました
00:18
This is the Grand Cafe here in Oxford.
オックスフォードにあるグランドカフェです
00:20
I took this picture because this turns out to be
なぜ撮ったかといえば
00:23
the first coffeehouse to open
1650年にイングランドで
00:26
in England in 1650.
はじめて開業したコーヒー店だからです
00:28
That's its great claim to fame,
すばらしく由緒ある店です
00:30
and I wanted to show it to you,
これをお見せしたいと思ったのは
00:32
not because I want to give you the kind of Starbucks tour
歴史あるイングランドで
00:34
of historic England,
スターバックスみたいなものを
00:36
but rather because
紹介したいからではなく
00:38
the English coffeehouse was crucial
イングランドのコーヒー店が
00:40
to the development and spread
これまで500年にわたって
00:42
of one of the great intellectual flowerings of the last 500 years,
知的創造の発展と普及 つまり啓蒙運動の
00:45
what we now call the Enlightenment.
中心的役割を担ってきたからです
00:48
And the coffeehouse played such a big role
啓蒙運動の発生にあたって
00:51
in the birth of the Enlightenment,
コーヒー店が大きな役割を果たした背景に
00:53
in part, because of what people were drinking there.
出される飲みものが絡んでいました
00:55
Because, before the spread
なぜなら コーヒーや紅茶が
00:57
of coffee and tea through British culture,
英国文化に浸透するまで
01:00
what people drank -- both elite and mass folks drank --
上流階級も 一般大衆も
01:03
day-in and day-out, from dawn until dusk
朝から晩まで毎日
01:06
was alcohol.
酒を飲んでいたからです
01:08
Alcohol was the daytime beverage of choice.
昼間から好んで酒を飲んでいました
01:10
You would drink a little beer with breakfast and have a little wine at lunch,
朝食でビールを少し 昼食でワインを少し
01:12
a little gin -- particularly around 1650 --
特に1650年ごろにはジンを飲み
01:15
and top it off with a little beer and wine at the end of the day.
夜はビールとワインで仕上げました
01:18
That was the healthy choice -- right --
水が安全ではなかったので
01:20
because the water wasn't safe to drink.
衛生的な正しい選択でした
01:22
And so, effectively until the rise of the coffeehouse,
つまり コーヒー店ができるまでは
01:24
you had an entire population
市民全員が一日中
01:27
that was effectively drunk all day.
酔っぱらっていたといえます
01:29
And you can imagine what that would be like, right, in your own life --
一日中 酒を飲んでいたら
01:32
and I know this is true of some of you --
そういう方もいらっしゃるでしょうが
01:34
if you were drinking all day,
どうなるか想像がつくでしょう
01:36
and then you switched from a depressant to a stimulant in your life,
ところが たるんだ生活をカフェインで覚醒すれば
01:39
you would have better ideas.
いいアイデアが浮かぶようになります
01:42
You would be sharper and more alert.
頭が冴えて注意深くなります
01:44
And so it's not an accident that a great flowering of innovation happened
ですから イングランドで紅茶やコーヒーを飲み始めて
01:46
as England switched to tea and coffee.
素晴らしい革新が起きたのは当然なのです
01:49
But the other thing that makes the coffeehouse important
コーヒー店が重要な理由は他にもあります
01:52
is the architecture of the space.
それは空間構造です
01:55
It was a space where people would get together
さまざまな経歴の人たち
01:57
from different backgrounds,
さまざまな分野の専門家が
01:59
different fields of expertise, and share.
この空間を共有します
02:01
It was a space, as Matt Ridley talked about, where ideas could have sex.
マット リドリーが言う アイデアがセックスする空間です
02:03
This was their conjugal bed, in a sense --
夫婦が寝るベッドのようであり
02:06
ideas would get together there.
ここでアイデアが交じり合います
02:08
And an astonishing number of innovations from this period
この時代に生まれた膨大な数の革新を紐解くと
02:10
have a coffeehouse somewhere in their story.
その歴史のどこかにコーヒー店が関わっています
02:13
I've been spending a lot of time thinking about coffeehouses
この5年間 多くの時間を費やして
02:16
for the last five years,
コーヒー店について考えてきたのは
02:19
because I've been kind of on this quest
こんな疑問の答えを
02:21
to investigate this question
探し求めているからです
02:23
of where good ideas come from.
「良いアイデアはどこで生まれるのか?」
02:25
What are the environments
どのような環境から
02:27
that lead to unusual levels of innovation,
たぐいまれな革新や
02:29
unusual levels of creativity?
たぐいまれな創造が生み出されるのか?
02:32
What's the kind of environmental --
創造性をはぐくむ環境とか
02:35
what is the space of creativity?
空間とはどのようなものか?
02:37
And what I've done is
そこで私は
02:39
I've looked at both environments like the coffeehouse;
コーヒー店のような環境を調べたり
02:41
I've looked at media environments, like the world wide web,
インターネットのように革新が相次ぐ
02:43
that have been extraordinarily innovative;
メディア環境を調べたりしてきました
02:45
I've gone back to the history of the first cities;
その歴史が始まった地を訪れたり
02:47
I've even gone to biological environments,
生物学的な革新が次から次に生じる
02:50
like coral reefs and rainforests,
サンゴ礁や熱帯雨林といった
02:52
that involve unusual levels of biological innovation;
生物環境も訪れ
02:54
and what I've been looking for is shared patterns,
こういったあらゆる環境で
02:57
kind of signature behavior that shows up
共通して見られる徴候を
03:00
again and again in all of these environments.
探し求めてきました
03:02
Are there recurring patterns that we can learn from,
私たちの生活、組織、環境などに応用したときに
03:05
that we can take and kind of apply to our own lives,
もっと創造的で革新的にできるような
03:08
or our own organizations,
共通のパターンは
03:10
or our own environments to make them more creative and innovative?
あるのでしょうか?
03:12
And I think I've found a few.
いくつかありましたが
03:14
But what you have to do to make sense of this
これを理解し これらの本質を真に理解するためには
03:16
and to really understand these principles
従来の比喩や表現に見られる
03:19
is you have to do away
アイデアの創造を
03:21
with a lot of the way in which our conventional metaphors and language
特定の概念に結びつけるような
03:23
steers us towards
多くの思い込みを
03:26
certain concepts of idea-creation.
捨てる必要があります
03:28
We have this very rich vocabulary
アイデアが生まれる瞬間を
03:30
to describe moments of inspiration.
表現する言葉は豊富にあります
03:32
We have the kind of the flash of insight,
「閃光が走る」
03:34
the stroke of insight,
「脳天を打つ」
03:37
we have epiphanies, we have "eureka!" moments,
「神が舞い降りる」、「ひらめいた!」
03:39
we have the lightbulb moments, right?
「光が灯る」 などがありますね。
03:42
All of these concepts,
見て分かるように
03:44
as kind of rhetorically florid as they are,
全ての概念が大げさに誇張されていますし
03:46
share this basic assumption,
いずれの概念も
03:49
which is that an idea is a single thing,
アイデアは単独で存在し
03:51
it's something that happens often
素晴らしい光を受けた瞬間に
03:54
in a wonderful illuminating moment.
浮かび上がることを前提にしています
03:56
But in fact, what I would argue and what you really need to kind of begin with
でも実際は 個別要素のネットワークだと
03:59
is this idea that an idea is a network
申し上げたいのです
04:02
on the most elemental level.
そう考えてもらったほうがよいのです
04:05
I mean, this is what is happening inside your brain.
頭の中ではそうなっているからです
04:07
An idea -- a new idea -- is a new network of neurons
脳内で協調を取りながら伝達し合うニューロンの
04:09
firing in sync with each other inside your brain.
新しいネットワークが 新しいアイデアなのです
04:12
It's a new configuration that has never formed before.
今まで構築されていなかった新しい組み合わせです
04:15
And the question is: how do you get your brain into environments
では どんな環境に置かれた脳が
04:18
where these new networks are going to be more likely to form?
新しいネットワークを構築しやすいのでしょう?
04:21
And it turns out that, in fact, the kind of network patterns of the outside world
実は 外界に見られるネットワーク構造は
04:24
mimic a lot of the network patterns
脳内のネットワーク構造と
04:27
of the internal world of the human brain.
似通っていることが分かっています
04:29
So the metaphor I'd like the use
好きな逸話があります
04:32
I can take
1650年代から時代は下り
04:34
from a story of a great idea that's quite recent --
最近の素晴らしいアイデアにまつわる
04:36
a lot more recent than the 1650s.
お話です
04:39
A wonderful guy named Timothy Prestero,
ティモシー プレステロという素晴らしい人物が
04:43
who has a company called ... an organization called Design That Matters.
デザイン ザット マターズという組織を運営しています
04:45
They decided to tackle this really pressing problem
途上国での幼児死亡率といった悲惨で
04:48
of, you know, the terrible problems we have with infant mortality rates
猶予のない問題に取り組むため
04:53
in the developing world.
設立された組織です
04:55
One of the things that's very frustrating about this is that we know,
こんなことで困っていました
04:57
by getting modern neonatal incubators
どこであっても
05:00
into any context,
近代的な新生児用の保育器を使い
05:03
if we can keep premature babies warm, basically -- it's very simple --
未熟児を暖めてやることで
05:05
we can halve infant mortality rates in those environments.
その環境の幼児死亡率を半減できます
05:08
So, the technology is there.
その技術はすでに存在します
05:11
These are standard in all the industrialized worlds.
どの先進国でも一般的なものです
05:13
The problem is, if you buy a $40,000 incubator,
問題なのは それを4万ドルで購入して
05:16
and you send it off
アフリカにある中規模の村に
05:19
to a mid-sized village in Africa,
送ったとしても
05:21
it will work great for a year or two years,
1年や2年はとても役に立ちますが
05:23
and then something will go wrong and it will break,
その後は どこか調子が悪くなって壊れてしまい
05:25
and it will remain broken forever,
壊れたまま放置されます
05:28
because you don't have a whole system of spare parts,
予備の部品の流通システムもなく
05:30
and you don't have the on-the-ground expertise
4万ドルの装置を修理するような
05:33
to fix this $40,000 piece of equipment.
現地の技術者もいないからです
05:35
And so you end up having this problem where you spend all this money
お金をつぎ込んで
05:37
getting aid and all these advanced electronics to these countries,
援助や最新機器を送っても無駄になる
05:39
and then it ends up being useless.
そんな問題に行き当たるのです
05:42
So what Prestero and his team decided to do
プレステロたちは良く考えて
05:44
is to look around and see: what are the abundant resources
途上国で十分に行き渡っているものは何か?
05:46
in these developing world contexts?
という点に注目し
05:49
And what they noticed was they don't have a lot of DVRs,
ビデオも電子レンジも あまりないけれど
05:51
they don't have a lot of microwaves,
車を走らせるための
05:54
but they seem to do a pretty good job of keeping their cars on the road.
メンテナンスはうまく行われていると気づきました
05:56
There's a Toyota Forerunner
どこでもトヨタのハイラックスが
05:59
on the street in all these places.
道を走っていますから
06:01
They seem to have the expertise to keep cars working.
車をメンテナンスする技術者ならいるようなので
06:03
So they started to think,
こう考えました
06:06
"Could we build a neonatal incubator
「車の部品だけで
06:08
that's built entirely out of automobile parts?"
新生児用の保育器を作れないだろうか?」
06:10
And this is what they ended up coming with.
出来上がったものがこちら
06:13
It's called a "neonurture device."
改良型保育器です
06:15
From the outside, it looks like a normal little thing
西洋諸国の近代的な病院にあるような
06:17
you'd find in a modern, Western hospital.
普通の保育器と一見同じですが
06:19
In the inside, it's all car parts.
中身はすべて車の部品です
06:21
It's got a fan, it's got headlights for warmth,
ファンを使い ヘッドライトを熱源にして
06:23
it's got door chimes for alarm --
ドアベルを警報装置にしています
06:25
it runs off a car battery.
カーバッテリーで動作します
06:27
And so all you need is the spare parts from your Toyota
トヨタ店舗から予備部品を入手できて
06:29
and the ability to fix a headlight,
ヘッドライトを修理できるなら
06:31
and you can repair this thing.
この保育器を修理できます
06:33
Now, that's a great idea, but what I'd like to say is that, in fact,
素晴らしいアイデアですが 私が言いたいのは この話が
06:35
this is a great metaphor for the way that ideas happen.
アイデア創出の示唆にあふれていることです
06:38
We like to think our breakthrough ideas, you know,
4万ドルの最新保育器のような
06:40
are like that $40,000, brand new incubator,
先端技術の結晶を
06:42
state-of-the-art technology,
飛躍的アイデアだと思いがちですが
06:44
but more often than not, they're cobbled together
身近に落ちている何らかの部品でも
06:46
from whatever parts that happen to be around nearby.
組み立てられることが多いのです
06:48
We take ideas from other people,
私たちは人からアイデアをもらいます
06:50
from people we've learned from, from people we run into in the coffee shop,
コーヒー店で偶然会った人からアイデアをもらって
06:52
and we stitch them together into new forms and we create something new.
新しい形態に縫合して 新しいアイデアを生み出します
06:55
That's really where innovation happens.
そうやって革新が起きるのです
06:58
And that means that we have to change some of our models
つまり革新や熟考とは何かについての
07:01
of what innovation and deep thinking really looks like, right.
概念を一部変える必要があります
07:03
I mean, this is one vision of it.
熟考といえばこんな姿でした
07:06
Another is Newton and the apple, when Newton was at Cambridge.
こちらはケンブリッジ時代のニュートンとリンゴです
07:08
This is a statue from Oxford.
像はオックスフォードにあります
07:11
You know, you're sitting there thinking a deep thought,
座って熟考したり
07:13
and the apple falls from the tree, and you have the theory of gravity.
リンゴの落下を見て 万有引力の法則に気づいたりします
07:15
In fact, the spaces that have historically led to innovation
でも 歴史的にみると革新を生み出す空間とは
07:18
tend to look like this, right.
実はこのような姿をしています
07:21
This is Hogarth's famous painting of a kind of political dinner at a tavern,
酒場での政治的な集まりをホガースが描いたものです
07:23
but this is what the coffee shops looked like back then.
当時のコーヒー店もこのような様子でした
07:26
This is the kind of chaotic environment
混沌とした状況で
07:29
where ideas were likely to come together,
アイデアが飛び交い
07:31
where people were likely to have
さまざまな立場の人が集まって
07:33
new, interesting, unpredictable collisions -- people from different backgrounds.
新しく 面白く 予測不能な衝突が生まれていそうです
07:35
So, if we're trying to build organizations that are more innovative,
より革新的な組織を作りたいなら
07:38
we have to build spaces that -- strangely enough -- look a little bit more like this.
変に思えてもこれに少し似た空間を作ったほうがいい
07:40
This is what your office should look like,
皆さんのオフィスをこうしたほうがいい
07:43
is part of my message here.
それが私のメッセージです
07:45
And one of the problems with this is that
この分野の調査では
07:47
people are actually -- when you research this field --
自己申告があてにならないという
07:49
people are notoriously unreliable,
問題があります
07:52
when they actually kind of self-report
どこで良いアイデアを思いついたか
07:54
on where they have their own good ideas,
最高のアイデアはどう生まれたかを
07:56
or their history of their best ideas.
聞くときの話です
07:58
And a few years ago, a wonderful researcher named Kevin Dunbar
数年前にケビン ダンバーという偉大な研究者は
08:00
decided to go around
やり方を変えて
08:03
and basically do the Big Brother approach
監視に基づく手法で
08:05
to figuring out where good ideas come from.
良いアイデアが生まれる場所を調べました
08:07
He went to a bunch of science labs around the world
世界中の研究所をたくさん訪れて
08:09
and videotaped everyone
研究者全員の挙動を
08:12
as they were doing every little bit of their job.
全てビデオ撮影しました
08:14
So when they were sitting in front of the microscope,
顕微鏡の前に座っているところや
08:16
when they were talking to their colleague at the water cooler, and all these things.
冷水器の脇での同僚との立ち話も
08:18
And he recorded all of these conversations
会話を全て記録し
08:20
and tried to figure out where the most important ideas,
どこで一番重要なアイデアが生まれたか
08:22
where they happened.
見つけ出そうとしました
08:24
And when we think about the classic image of the scientist in the lab,
研究室の科学者のイメージといえば
08:26
we have this image -- you know, they're pouring over the microscope,
顕微鏡ごしに何かを垂らして
08:29
and they see something in the tissue sample.
サンプル細胞の状態を見ながら
08:32
And "oh, eureka," they've got the idea.
「ひらめいた!」と叫ぶというものですが
08:34
What happened actually when Dunbar kind of looked at the tape
ダンバーが実際にテープを見てみると
08:37
is that, in fact, almost all of the important breakthrough ideas
実は 重要な飛躍的アイデアのほとんどは
08:40
did not happen alone in the lab, in front of the microscope.
研究室の顕微鏡を前に一人で思いつくのではなく
08:43
They happened at the conference table
毎週開かれる研究室の会議で
08:46
at the weekly lab meeting,
生まれていました
08:48
when everybody got together and shared their kind of latest data and findings,
会議では 全員で最新データや成果を持ち寄り
08:50
oftentimes when people shared the mistakes they were having,
たびたび 失敗、エラー、
08:53
the error, the noise in the signal they were discovering.
観測信号に含まれるノイズなども持ち寄っていました
08:55
And something about that environment --
私は こういった環境を
08:58
and I've started calling it the "liquid network,"
「流動的ネットワーク」と呼んでいます
09:01
where you have lots of different ideas that are together,
ここに さまざまなアイデアが集結し
09:03
different backgrounds, different interests,
立場や興味を異にする人たちが集まり
09:06
jostling with each other, bouncing off each other --
互いに意見を交えるのです
09:08
that environment is, in fact,
この環境こそ
09:10
the environment that leads to innovation.
革新につながる環境です
09:12
The other problem that people have
まだ別の問題もあります
09:14
is they like to condense their stories of innovation down
誰もが短期間で
09:16
to kind of shorter time frames.
革新を遂げたことにして
09:18
So they want to tell the story of the "eureka!" moment.
「ひらめいた!」瞬間の物語として伝えたがります
09:20
They want to say, "There I was, I was standing there
「立っていたら突然浮かんだ」
09:23
and I had it all suddenly clear in my head."
と言いたいのです
09:25
But in fact, if you go back and look at the historical record,
でも実際に 過去の記録を調べてみると
09:27
it turns out that a lot of important ideas
重要なアイデアの多くに
09:30
have very long incubation periods --
とても長い熟成期間があったことが判明しました
09:33
I call this the "slow hunch."
「ゆっくりとした予感」と呼べるものです
09:36
We've heard a lot recently
最近よく
09:38
about hunch and instinct
予感や直感や
09:40
and blink-like sudden moments of clarity,
一瞬のひらめきについて耳にしますが
09:42
but in fact, a lot of great ideas
実際には 素晴らしいアイデアは
09:45
linger on, sometimes for decades,
ときに何十年も
09:47
in the back of people's minds.
心の奥でくすぶっています
09:49
They have a feeling that there's an interesting problem,
興味を引く問題に気づいていても
09:51
but they don't quite have the tools yet to discover them.
それを解き明かす術が全くないのです
09:53
They spend all this time working on certain problems,
ずっと何かの問題に取り組んでいても
09:56
but there's another thing lingering there
別の興味を引くものが気になるのに
09:59
that they're interested in, but they can't quite solve.
決して解決できないのです
10:01
Darwin is a great example of this.
ダーウィンはうってつけの例です
10:03
Darwin himself, in his autobiography,
彼は自伝の中で
10:05
tells the story of coming up with the idea
自然淘汰のアイデアを
10:07
for natural selection
思いついた いわゆる
10:09
as a classic "eureka!" moment.
「ひらめいた!」瞬間を記しています
10:11
He's in his study,
ダーウィンは
10:13
it's October of 1838,
1838年10月の研究中に
10:15
and he's reading Malthus, actually, on population.
人口に関するマルサスの著書を読みながら
10:17
And all of a sudden,
まさに突然 頭の中に
10:19
the basic algorithm of natural selection kind of pops into his head
自然淘汰の基本アルゴリズムが浮かび
10:21
and he says, "Ah, at last, I had a theory with which to work."
「ついに 取り組むべき理論を見つけた」と言ったと
10:24
That's in his autobiography.
自伝に書いています
10:27
About a decade or two ago,
10年か20年ほど前に
10:29
a wonderful scholar named Howard Gruber went back
ハワード グルーバーという偉大な学者が
10:31
and looked at Darwin's notebooks from this period.
その時代のダーウィンのノートを調べ返しました
10:33
And Darwin kept these copious notebooks
ダーウィンが残した膨大なノートには
10:36
where he wrote down every little idea he had, every little hunch.
どんな小さなアイデアや予感も記されていました
10:38
And what Gruber found was
グルーバーの調査によれば
10:41
that Darwin had the full theory of natural selection
マルサスの著書を読んでいた1838年10月の
10:43
for months and months and months
「ひらめいた!」瞬間よりも
10:46
before he had his alleged epiphany,
ずっと何か月も前から
10:48
reading Malthus in October of 1838.
自然淘汰の理論ができ上がっていたようです
10:50
There are passages where you can read it,
それが分かる記載があるのです
10:53
and you think you're reading from a Darwin textbook,
ダーウィンの言う「ひらめいた!」瞬間より前の記述から
10:55
from the period before he has this epiphany.
彼の著書の内容をすでに読み取れるのです
10:58
And so what you realize is that Darwin, in a sense,
つまり ダーウィンは
11:01
had the idea, he had the concept,
アイデアや概念を手にしながら
11:03
but was unable of fully thinking it yet.
まだ完全には考え抜けていなかったことが分かります
11:05
And that is actually how great ideas often happen;
優れたアイデアはこのように生まれるものであって
11:08
they fade into view over long periods of time.
少しずつ長期に及んでいるのです
11:11
Now the challenge for all of us is:
ここで厄介な問題があります
11:13
how do you create environments
どうすれば アイデア創出までの
11:15
that allow these ideas to have this kind of long half-life, right?
長い熟成期間を辛抱できる環境を作れるか?
11:17
It's hard to go to your boss and say,
上司にこう言うのは大変です
11:19
"I have an excellent idea for our organization.
「有用で素晴らしいアイデアがあります
11:21
It will be useful in 2020.
2020年ごろに使えるようにします
11:23
Could you just give me some time to do that?"
取り組む時間をいただけませんか?」
11:26
Now a couple of companies -- like Google --
グーグルのようないくつかの企業では
11:28
they have innovation time off, 20 percent time,
革新を生むために20%の時間を割いています
11:30
where, in a sense, those are hunch-cultivating mechanisms in an organization.
予感を育むための組織的なシステムだといえます
11:32
But that's a key thing.
これはとても重要なことです
11:35
And the other thing is to allow those hunches
また 自分の予感を
11:38
to connect with other people's hunches; that's what often happens.
他者の予感に結合させることも重要で よくあることです
11:40
You have half of an idea, somebody else has the other half,
半分ずつアイデアをもつ二人が
11:43
and if you're in the right environment,
適切な環境で出会うと
11:45
they turn into something larger than the sum of their parts.
足し算以上の結果が生まれます
11:47
So, in a sense,
考えてみると
11:49
we often talk about the value
私たちは普段から
11:51
of protecting intellectual property,
知的財産権保護の価値を話題にしています
11:53
you know, building barricades,
つまり防衛手段を築いたり
11:55
having secretive R&D labs, patenting everything that we have,
研究開発を秘密にしたり 何でも特許にしたりします
11:57
so that those ideas will remain valuable,
アイデアを価値あるものとして残し
12:00
and people will be incentivized to come up with more ideas,
アイデア創出を奨励し
12:03
and the culture will be more innovative.
文化をもっと革新的なものにするためです
12:05
But I think there's a case to be made
ただ 言っておきたいのですが
12:08
that we should spend at least as much time, if not more,
アイデアの結合をもたらす要因についても
12:10
valuing the premise of connecting ideas
せめて同じぐらい重要視するべきです
12:13
and not just protecting them.
保護の話だけではだめです
12:15
And I'll leave you with this story,
そこで こんな話があります
12:17
which I think captures a lot of these values,
示唆に富んだ 革新に関する素敵な話で
12:19
and it's just wonderful kind of tale of innovation
思いもよらない成り行きから
12:22
and how it happens in unlikely ways.
どのように革新が生まれるか教えてくれます
12:24
It's October of 1957,
時は 1957年10月の
12:27
and Sputnik has just launched,
スプートニクがまさに打ち上げられた直後
12:30
and we're in Laurel Maryland,
米国メリーランド州のローレルにある
12:32
at the applied physics lab
ジョンズホプキンズ大学付属の
12:34
associated with Johns Hopkins University.
応用物理研究所でのことです
12:36
And it's Monday morning,
月曜の朝
12:38
and the news has just broken about this satellite
スプートニクが軌道を回っている
12:40
that's now orbiting the planet.
というニュースが飛び込んできました
12:42
And of course, this is nerd heaven, right?
ここは専門バカの巣窟で
12:45
There are all these physics geeks who are there thinking,
物理屋は 誰もが
12:47
"Oh my gosh! This is incredible. I can't believe this has happened."
「え〜!嘘だろ 信じられないよ」という気持ちでした
12:49
And two of them,
研究所にいた
12:52
two 20-something researchers at the APL
20代の研究者が二人
12:54
are there at the cafeteria table
食堂のテーブルで
12:56
having an informal conversation with a bunch of their colleagues.
他の多くの研究者に混じって雑談していました
12:58
And these two guys are named Guier and Weiffenbach.
ガイアーとウェイフンバックの二人です
13:01
And they start talking, and one of them says,
どちらかがこう言いました
13:04
"Hey, has anybody tried to listen for this thing?
「だれかこいつの音を聞いてみた?
13:06
There's this, you know, man-made satellite up there in outer space
今 宇宙で人工衛星が飛んでいるんだ
13:08
that's obviously broadcasting some kind of signal.
当然何か信号を送っているから
13:11
We could probably hear it, if we tune in."
チューニングしたら聞こえるかも」
13:13
And so they ask around to a couple of their colleagues,
何人かに尋ねて回ると
13:16
and everybody's like, "No, I hadn't thought of doing that.
「思いつかなかった おもしろいね」
13:18
That's an interesting idea."
と誰もが言います
13:20
And it turns out Weiffenbach is kind of an expert
実は ウェイフンバックはマイクロ波受信技術の
13:22
in microwave reception,
専門家でしたから
13:25
and he's got a little antennae set up
研究室には増幅器が付いた
13:27
with an amplifier in his office.
小さなアンテナもありました
13:29
And so Guier and Weiffenbach go back to Weiffenbach's office,
二人はウェイフンバックの研究室に戻り
13:31
and they start kind of noodling around -- hacking, as we might call it now.
装置をいじり始めました 今でいうハッキングでしょうか
13:33
And after a couple of hours, they actually start picking up the signal,
2時間ほど経つと 受信可能になりました
13:36
because the Soviets made Sputnik
実はソ連は 追跡しやすいように
13:39
very easy to track.
スプートニクを設計していたのです
13:41
It was right at 20 MHz, so you could pick it up really easily,
ちょうど20メガヘルツですから 簡単に合わせられます
13:43
because they were afraid that people would think it was a hoax, basically.
ソ連は嘘だといわれたくなかったので
13:46
So they made it really easy to find it.
見つけやすくしていたのです
13:48
So these two guys are sitting there listening to this signal,
二人が座り込んで耳を傾けていると
13:50
and people start kind of coming into the office and saying,
研究室に人が集まりだして
13:53
"Wow, that's pretty cool. Can I hear? Wow, that's great."
「いいね!聞かせて?すごいよ」なんて言われました
13:55
And before long, they think, "Well jeez, this is kind of historic.
そしてすぐ「歴史的瞬間だ
13:58
We may be the first people in the United States to be listening to this.
聞いたのは米国で初めてだろうから
14:01
We should record it."
記録しておこう」と考えて
14:03
And so they bring in this big, clunky analog tape recorder
大きくかさばるアナログのテープレコーダーで
14:05
and they start recording these little bleep, bleeps.
ピー、ピーという小さなビープ音を録音し始めました
14:07
And they start writing the kind of date stamp, time stamps
さらに 録音した小さなビープ音ごとに
14:10
for each little bleep that they record.
日時を記載しておきました
14:13
And they they start thinking, "Well gosh, you know, we're noticing
そして 「あれ?
14:16
small little frequency variations here.
周波数がわずかに変動しているな
14:18
We could probably calculate the speed
ドップラー効果を利用して計算すれば
14:21
that the satellite is traveling,
衛星の移動速度が
14:24
if we do a little basic math here
わかるかもしれない」
14:26
using the Doppler effect."
と思いました
14:28
And then they played around with it a little bit more,
しばらく考えを暖めると
14:30
and they talked to a couple of their colleagues
専門分野の違う
14:32
who had other kind of specialties.
何人かの研究者に尋ねました
14:34
And they said, "Jeez, you know,
こう返ってきました 「すごいね
14:36
we think we could actually take a look at the slope of the Doppler effect
ドップラー効果の変化率が分かれば
14:38
to figure out the points at which
衛星がアンテナに
14:40
the satellite is closest to our antennae
一番近い位置と
14:42
and the points at which it's farthest away.
一番遠い位置が分かるよ
14:44
That's pretty cool."
これはすごいよ」
14:46
And eventually, they get permission --
その後 許可が下りました
14:48
this is all a little side project that hadn't been officially part of their job description.
職務外のプロジェクトという位置づけを改め
14:50
They get permission to use the new, you know, UNIVAC computer
導入直後で最新の 部屋いっぱいの大きさの
14:53
that takes up an entire room that they'd just gotten at the APL.
UNIVACコンピュータの使用許可を得ました
14:56
They run some more of the numbers, and at the end of about three or four weeks,
計算を重ねながら 3、4週間かけて
14:59
turns out they have mapped the exact trajectory
地球をまわる衛星の正確な軌道を
15:02
of this satellite around the Earth,
描き出すことができました
15:05
just from listening to this one little signal,
ある日の食事中の思いつきからスタートして
15:07
going off on this little side hunch that they'd been inspired to do
片手間の作業で かすかな信号音を聞いて
15:09
over lunch one morning.
それだけの所から たどり着いたのです
15:12
A couple weeks later their boss, Frank McClure,
2週間後 上司のフランク マクルアが
15:15
pulls them into the room and says,
二人を呼んで尋ねました
15:18
"Hey, you guys, I have to ask you something
「君たちがやっているプロジェクトのことで
15:20
about that project you were working on.
ちょっと聞きたいことがあるんだ
15:22
You've figured out an unknown location
位置が分かっている地上から
15:24
of a satellite orbiting the planet
地球を回っている衛星のいる位置を
15:26
from a known location on the ground.
計算できたんだから
15:29
Could you go the other way?
逆はどうだろうか?
15:31
Could you figure out an unknown location on the ground,
衛星の位置が分かっているときに
15:33
if you knew the location of the satellite?"
地球上での位置を知ることができないだろうか?」
15:35
And they thought about it and they said,
考えてから答えました
15:38
"Well, I guess maybe you could. Let's run the numbers here."
「できると思いますよ ちょっと計算してみましょう」
15:40
So they went back, and they thought about it.
検討してから 上司のところに戻り
15:43
And they came back and said, "Actually, it'll be easier."
「こちらのほうが簡単です」と伝えると
15:45
And he said, "Oh, that's great.
上司は言います 「それはいいね
15:47
Because see, I have these new nuclear submarines
新しい原子力潜水艦を
15:49
that I'm building.
作っているのだけど
15:52
And it's really hard to figure out how to get your missile
太平洋の真ん中で潜水艦の位置を把握できないと
15:54
so that it will land right on top of Moscow,
モスクワ上空に向けて
15:57
if you don't know where the submarine is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
正確にミサイルを発射するのはとても難しいんだ
15:59
So we're thinking, we could throw up a bunch of satellites
衛星をたくさん打ち上げて潜水艦を追跡すれば
16:02
and use it to track our submarines
太平洋の真ん中で位置を把握できるのではないかと
16:05
and figure out their location in the middle of the ocean.
思っていたんだよ
16:08
Could you work on that problem?"
この問題に取り組んでほしい」
16:10
And that's how GPS was born.
こうしてGPSが誕生しました
16:12
30 years later,
30年後 ロナルド レーガンは
16:15
Ronald Reagan actually opened it up and made it an open platform
GPSを開放してオープンプラットフォームとしました
16:17
that anybody could kind of build upon
誰もがこれを足掛かりとすることができ
16:20
and anybody could come along and build new technology
誰もが参加して このプラットフォームの上に
16:22
that would create and innovate
創造と革新につながる
16:25
on top of this open platform,
新しい技術を構築していけます
16:27
left it open for anyone to do
まさに誰でも何でもできるように
16:29
pretty much anything they wanted with it.
開放されているのです
16:31
And now, I guarantee you
間違いないことがあります
16:33
certainly half of this room, if not more,
この会場の少なくとも半分は
16:35
has a device sitting in their pocket right now
ポケットに入った携帯から
16:37
that is talking to one of these satellites in outer space.
宇宙に浮かぶ衛星と通信しています
16:39
And I bet you one of you, if not more,
そして 間違いなく 誰か一人は
16:42
has used said device and said satellite system
その携帯と衛星を使って
16:45
to locate a nearby coffeehouse somewhere in the last --
近くのコーヒー店の場所を探したはずです
16:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
16:51
in the last day or last week, right?
少なくとも 昨日か先週か
16:53
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:56
And that, I think,
これは
16:59
is a great case study, a great lesson
オープンイノベーションという体系の持つ
17:01
in the power, the marvelous, kind of unplanned
素晴らしく 思いがけない
17:04
emergent, unpredictable power
創発的で 予測不可能な力について学べる
17:06
of open innovative systems.
良い事例なのです
17:09
When you build them right, they will be led to completely new directions
正しく構築すれば 構築者すら予期しなかった
17:11
that the creators never even dreamed of.
全く新しい方向に導いてくれるのです
17:13
I mean, here you have these guys
先ほどの二人の男たちは
17:15
who basically thought they were just following this hunch,
予感や湧きあがる情熱のままに
17:17
this little passion that had developed,
ただ突き進んでいるだけでしたが
17:19
then they thought they were fighting the Cold War,
やがて冷戦に立ち向かうこととなり
17:21
and then it turns out they're just helping somebody
時を経て ソイラテを飲みたい誰かの
17:23
find a soy latte.
手助けをすることになったのです
17:25
(Laughter)
(笑)
17:27
That is how innovation happens.
このようにして革新は起きるのです
17:29
Chance favors the connected mind.
心がつながればチャンスは訪れます
17:31
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
17:33
(Applause)
(拍手)
17:35
Translator:Satoshi Tatsuhara
Reviewer:Natsuhiko Mizutani

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Steven Johnson - Writer
Steven Berlin Johnson examines the intersection of science, technology and personal experience.

Why you should listen

A dynamic writer and speaker, Johnson crafts captivating theories that draw on a dizzying array of disciplines, without ever leaving his audience behind. Author Kurt Anderson described Johnson's book Emergence as "thoughtful and lucid and charming and staggeringly smart." The same could be said for Johnson himself. His big-brained, multi-disciplinary theories make him one of his generation's more intriguing thinkers. His books take the reader on a journey -- following the twists and turns his own mind makes as he connects seemingly disparate ideas: ants and cities, interface design and Victorian novels.

Johnson's breakout 2005 title, Everything Bad Is Good for You , took the provocative stance that our fear and loathing of popular culture is misplaced; video games and TV shows, he argues, are actually making us smarter. His appearances on The Daily Show and Charlie Rose cemented his reputation as a cogent thinker who could also pull more than his share of laughs. His most recent work, The Ghost Map, goes in another direction entirely: It tells the story of a cholera outbreak in 1854 London, from the perspective of the city residents, the doctors chasing the disease, and the pathogen itself. The book shows how the epidemic brought about profound changes in science, cities and modern society. His upcoming work, Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation, tells the fascinating stories of great ideas and great thinkers across disciplines. 

No mere chronicler of technology, Johnson is himself a longtime innovator in the web world: He was founder and Editor in Chief of FEED, one of the earliest and most interesting online magazines. He cofounded Patch, an intriguing website that maps online conversations to real-world neighborhoods, and outside.in -- and is an advisor to many other startups, including Medium and Jelly. He is the host and co-creator of the new PBS and BBC television series How We Got to Now, airing in the fall of 2014.

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