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TEDxBoston 2009

George Whitesides: A lab the size of a postage stamp

ジョージ・ホワイトサイド:切手サイズの検査室

Filmed
Views 498,388

昔ながらの臨床検査は、必要を要する地域では高価で、扱いにくいものでした。TEDxBostonでのジョージ・ホワイトサイドの解決策は、独創的で、コストゼロで生産でき、誰でも簡単に扱える物でした。

- Chemist
In his legendary career in chemistry, George Whitesides has been a pioneer in microfabrication and nanoscale self-assembly. Now, he's fabbing a diagnostic lab on a chip. Full bio

The problem that I want to talk with you about
皆さんにお話したいのは
00:15
is really the problem of:
コストが最優先の世界で
00:18
How does one supply healthcare
いかにヘルスケアを
00:20
in a world in which cost is everything?
提供するかという問題です
00:24
How do you do that?
どうしたらいいでしょう?
00:28
And the basic paradigm we want to suggest to you,
私が提案したいと思っている
00:30
I want to suggest to you, is
基本的な考え方は
00:32
one in which you say that in order to
病気を治療するためには
00:34
treat disease you have to first know what you're treating --
まず何を治療しているのか知らなくてはならない、つまり
00:36
that's diagnostics -- and then you have to do something.
診断してから対策を行う、ということです
00:40
So, the program that we're involved in is something which we call
私達はこの活動を「臨床検査を全ての人に」または
00:42
Diagnostics for All, or zero-cost diagnostics.
「ゼロコストの臨床検査」と呼んでいます
00:45
How do you provide medically relevant information
医学的関連のある情報を、どうやったら
00:49
at as close as possible to zero cost? How do you do it?
限りなくゼロに近いコストで提供できるでしょうか? どうします?
00:52
Let me just give you two examples.
例を二つ挙げましょう
00:56
The rigors of military medicine
従軍医療の過酷さは、第三世界のそれと
00:58
are not so dissimilar from the third world --
さほど違いがありません
01:02
poor resources, a rigorous environment,
資源の少なさ、過酷な環境、
01:04
a series of problems in lightweight, and things of this kind --
軽量化の問題などなどです
01:07
and also not so different from the home healthcare
それは在宅での看護や診断と
01:11
and diagnostic system world.
さほど変わりません
01:14
So, the technology that I want to talk about
だから私がお話したいことは
01:17
is for the third world, for the developing world,
第三世界、開発途上国のためのものですが
01:20
but it has, I think, much broader application,
幅広く応用が利くと思います なぜなら
01:23
because information is so important in the healthcare system.
ヘルスケアシステムでは、情報は非常に重要だからです
01:25
So, you see two examples here.
ここに例が二つあります
01:30
One is a lab that is actually a fairly high-end laboratory in Africa.
一つは、アフリカでは「かなりの」高機能の検査施設です(右下)
01:32
The second is basically an entrepreneur
もうひとつは要するに請負人で
01:37
who is set up and doing who-knows-what in a table in a market.
市場のテーブルでセットアップして、よくわからないことをしています
01:39
I don't know what kind of healthcare is delivered there.
どんなヘルスケアかわかりませんが
01:43
But it's not really what is probably most efficient.
しかしこれはあまり効率的ではないでしょう
01:46
What is our approach?
我々のアプローチはどんなものか?
01:51
And the way in which one typically approaches
コストを下げると言う問題に対する
01:54
a problem of lowering cost,
典型的な手法は
01:57
starting from the perspective of the United States,
アメリカ合衆国の視点から出発し
02:00
is to take our solution,
まずアメリカ的手法を取り
02:03
and then to try to cut cost out of it.
それからコストを下げようとするのです
02:05
No matter how you do that,
どうやっても
02:07
you're not going to start with a 100,000-dollar instrument
100,000ドルする機器から始めて
02:09
and bring it down to no-cost. It isn't going to work.
ゼロコストにはできません 上手くいかない
02:11
So, the approach that we took was the other way around.
だから我々は全く逆の方法を取りました
02:14
To ask, "What is the cheapest possible stuff
診断に有益な情報を取り出せて
02:17
that you could make a diagnostic system out of,
うまく機能する診断システムを
02:19
and get useful information,
作り出せる 最も安価な素材は
02:22
add function?" And what we've chosen is paper.
なにか? 答えは紙でした
02:24
What you see here is a prototypic device.
これは試作品です
02:27
It's about a centimeter on the side.
一辺が1cmくらいです
02:30
It's about the size of a fingernail.
爪くらいの大きさです
02:32
The lines around the edges are
ふちの線は
02:34
a polymer.
ポリマー(重合体)です
02:36
It's made of paper and paper, of course, wicks fluid,
紙で出来ていますから、液体を吸い上げます
02:38
as you know, paper, cloth -- drop wine on the tablecloth,
紙や布に、テーブルクロスなどにワインをたらすと
02:42
and the wine wicks all over everything.
ワインが染み広がって行きますよね
02:46
Put it on your shirt, it ruins the shirt.
シャツに付けば、だいなしになってしまう
02:49
That's what a hydrophilic surface does.
親水性の表面ではそうなります
02:51
So, in this device the idea is that you drip
つまりこの器具の場合は
02:54
the bottom end of it in a drop of,
一番下のところに、一滴
02:56
in this case, urine.
尿をたらします
02:58
The fluid wicks its way into those chambers at the top.
液体は、上の方にある小部屋まで染みて行きます
03:00
The brown color indicates the amount of glucose in the urine,
尿の中のグルコースの量を茶色で示し
03:04
the blue color indicates the amount of protein in the urine.
タンパク質の量を青色で示します。
03:08
And the combination of those two
これらの組み合わせが
03:11
is a first order shot at a number of
貴重な手がかりの
03:13
useful things that you want.
第一歩となります
03:15
So, this is an example of a device made from a simple piece of paper.
これが、ただの紙でできた器具の例です
03:18
Now, how simple can you make the production?
どれくらい簡単にこれを作れるでしょうか?
03:21
Why do we choose paper?
なぜ紙を選んだのか?
03:24
There's an example of the same thing on a finger,
実際に指先に乗せてみた例があるので
03:26
showing you basically what it looks like.
どんな感じのものかわかりますね
03:29
One reason for using paper is that it's everywhere.
紙を使う理由の一つは、それがどこにでもあるからです
03:31
We have made these kinds of devices using
これらの器具を、ナプキンやトイレットペーパーや
03:34
napkins and toilet paper
包み紙や、そういったもので
03:36
and wraps, and all kinds of stuff.
作ったことがあります
03:39
So, the production capability is there.
つまり生産能力はある
03:41
The second is, you can put lots and lots
二つ目は、非常にたくさんの検査用具を
03:44
of tests in a very small place.
小さくまとめられる点です
03:46
I'll show you in a moment that the stack of paper there
のちほど皆さんに、一束の紙から
03:48
would probably hold something like
10万個かそれくらいの検査用具を
03:50
100,000 tests, something of that kind.
作れることをお見せします
03:52
And then finally, a point that you don't think of so much
三つ目は、先進国の医学ではあまり
03:55
in developed world medicine:
考慮しないことですが
03:58
it eliminates sharps.
鋭い部分がないのです
04:01
And what sharps means is needles, things that stick.
鋭い部分とは、針とかそういうものです
04:03
If you've taken a sample of someone's blood
採取した誰かの血液が
04:06
and the someone might have hepatitis C,
C型肝炎ウィルスを持っているかも知れない場合
04:08
you don't want to make a mistake and stick it in you.
間違ってその針を自分に
04:11
It just -- you don't want to do that.
刺したくはないですよね
04:13
So, how do you dispose of that? It's a problem everywhere.
それに廃棄の問題もあります
04:15
And here you simply burn it.
紙なら単に燃やせばいい
04:17
So, it's a sort of a practical approach
取りかかりとしては
04:19
to starting on things.
実践的なアプローチです
04:21
Now, you say, "If paper is a good idea,
でも、紙が丁度いいなら、
04:24
other people have surely thought of it."
みんなそう考えますよね
04:27
And the answer is, of course, yes.
答えは「もちろん、その通り」です
04:29
Those half of you, roughly,
ここにいる大体半分は
04:32
who are women,
女性ですが
04:34
at some point may have had a pregnancy test.
妊娠テストを受けた人もいるでしょう
04:36
And the most common of these
その場合、たいていの器具は
04:38
is in a device that looks like the thing on the left.
左側に示してあるようなものです
04:41
It's something called a lateral flow immunoassay.
「側方流動免疫測定法』」と呼ばれるものです
04:44
In that particular test,
このテストの場合は
04:46
urine either, containing
「ヒト絨毛性ゴナドトロピン」
04:48
a hormone called HCG, does or does not
というホルモンが尿中にあるかどうかを
04:50
flow across a piece of paper.
この紙に流して調べます
04:53
And there are two bars. One bar indicates that the test is working,
線が二本あり、一つ目はテストがちゃんと機能しているかを示し
04:55
and if the second bar shows up, you're pregnant.
二つ目の線が現れれば、妊娠しているわけです
04:59
This is a terrific kind of test in a binary world,
二者択一の場合は、これは素晴らしい検査です
05:02
and the nice thing about pregnancy
妊娠の場合ありがたい事に
05:05
is either you are pregnant or you're not pregnant.
「イエス」か「ノー」しかありません
05:07
You're not partially pregnant or thinking about being pregnant
「一部妊娠」とか「妊娠を考え中」とか
05:09
or something of that sort.
そういうことはありません
05:11
So, it works very well there,
この場合は非常にうまく行きます
05:13
but it doesn't work very well when you need more quantitative information.
しかしもっと定量的な結果が必要な場合はうまく行きません
05:15
There are also dipsticks,
ディップスティックもあります
05:18
but if you look at the dipsticks, they're for
このディップスティックは
05:20
another kind of urine analysis.
別の尿検査のためのものです
05:22
There are an awful lot of colors and things like that.
いろんな色がたくさんありますね
05:24
What do you actually do about that in a difficult circumstance?
コストをかけずにどうやって作れるでしょうか?
05:27
So, the approach that we started with is to ask:
私達はこう自らに問いかけました:
05:30
Is it really practical to make things of this sort?
「こういうモノを作るのは、本当に実用的なのか?」
05:35
And that problem is now, in a purely engineering way, solved.
この問題は完全に技術的な方法で解決されました
05:39
And the procedure that we have is simply to start with paper.
その手順は、単に紙から始めるだけです
05:43
You run it through a new kind of printer called a wax printer.
新しタイプの「ワックスプリンター」でやるのです
05:47
The wax printer does what looks like printing.
ワックスプリンターは、まあプリンターのようなことをします
05:50
It is printing. You put that on, you warm it a little bit,
プリントするんです 電源を入れると、少し暖機します
05:53
the wax prints through so it absorbs into the paper,
ワックスがプリントされ、紙に染み込みます
05:56
and you end up with the device that you want.
そして思い通りの器具が出来上がります
05:59
The printers cost 800 bucks now.
プリンターは800ドルくらい
06:01
They'll make, we estimate that if you were to run them 24 hours a day
予想では、24時間稼働すれば
06:05
they'd make about 10 million tests a year.
年間1000万個の検査器具を生産するでしょう
06:08
So, it's a solved problem, that particular problem is solved.
つまりこの問題はこれで解決です
06:11
And there is an example of the kind of thing that you see.
だいたいご覧になっているようなものができます
06:14
That's on a piece of 8 by 12 paper.
8x12インチの紙にプリントされます
06:16
That takes about two seconds to make.
1枚が約2秒くらいでできます
06:19
And so I regard that as done.
完成と言って良いでしょう
06:21
There is a very important issue here,
ここに大事なポイントがあります
06:23
which is that because it's a printer,
これはプリンターなので
06:25
a color printer, it prints colors. That's what color printers do.
カラープリンターなので、色が印刷できます
06:28
I'll show you in a moment, that's actually quite useful.
それがとても役に立つのです
06:31
Now, the next question that you would like to ask
次に知りたいのは
06:35
is: What would you like to measure? What would you like to analyze?
何を測るのか? ですよね 何を分析するのか?
06:38
And the thing which you'd most like to analyze,
一番測定したいのは
06:41
we're a fair distance from.
我々にはあまり縁がないですが
06:44
It's what's called "fever of undiagnosed origin."
「原因不明の熱」です
06:46
Someone comes into the clinic,
誰かが診療所にやってきて
06:50
they have a fever, they feel bad. What do they have?
熱があるし、調子が悪い 診断は?
06:52
Do they have T.B.? Do they have AIDS?
結核か? エイズなのか?
06:54
Do they have a common cold?
ただの風邪か?
06:56
The triage problem. That's a hard problem
トリアージ(分別)の問題です 難しい問題です
06:58
for reasons that I won't go through.
そこまで詳しくは言いませんが
07:00
There are an awful lot of things that you'd like to distinguish among.
鑑別したいものが非常にたくさんあります
07:02
But then there are a series of things:
エイズ、肝炎、マラリアや
07:05
AIDS, hepatitis, malaria,
結核などに固有の
07:07
TB, others
診断方法もありますが
07:09
and simpler ones, such as guidance of treatment.
もっと単純な『治療方針』のようなものもあります
07:11
Now even that's more complicated than you think.
しかしそれでも想像するよりずっと複雑です
07:15
A friend of mine works in transcultural psychiatry,
私の友人が、比較文化精神医学の仕事をしています
07:18
and he is interested in the question of
彼は、人々が、なぜ
07:22
why people do and don't take their meds.
薬を飲まないのかという問題に関心があります
07:24
So, Dapsone, or something like that,
しばらく服用しなくてはならない
07:27
you have to take it for a while.
「ダプソン」とかいう薬について
07:29
He has a wonderful story of talking to a villager in India
インドの村人との素晴らしい会話の物語があります:
07:31
and saying, "Have you taken your Dapsone?" "Yes."
「ダプソンは飲みましたか?」「はい」
07:34
"Have you taken it every day?" "Yes."
「毎日飲んでいますか?」「はい」
07:36
"Have you taken if for a month?" "Yes."
「1ヶ月は飲みましたか?」「はい」
07:39
What the guy actually meant
村人が言っているのは、実は
07:41
was that he'd fed a 30-day dose of Dapsone
30日分のダプソンを、今朝まとめて
07:43
to his dog, that morning.
犬に飲ませたということです
07:45
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:47
He was telling the truth. Because
彼はまじめに話しています なぜなら
07:48
in a different culture,
ある文化においては
07:50
the dog is a surrogate for you,
犬はあなたの代理であり
07:52
you know, "today," "this month," "since the rainy season" --
「今日」「今月」「雨期からずっと」など
07:54
there are lots of opportunities for misunderstanding,
誤解の可能性はいくらでもあるからです
07:57
and so an issue here is to,
つまりここでの問題は
08:00
in some cases, to figure out
「医者の言うことを聞く」といったような
08:02
how to deal with matters that seem uninteresting,
なかなか興味を持ってもらえない事も
08:04
like compliance.
なんとかする必要があるということです
08:07
Now, take a look at what a typical test looks like.
典型的な検査がどうなるかを見てみましょう
08:10
Prick a finger, you get some blood,
指先を刺して、採血します
08:14
about 50 microliters.
大体50マイクロリッターくらい
08:16
That's about all you're going to get,
それくらいしか得られません
08:18
because you can't use the usual sort of systems.
普通の装置は使えません
08:20
You can't manipulate it very well,
難しい作業は行えませんから
08:24
although I'll show something about that in a moment.
あとからお見せしますが
08:26
So, you take the drop of blood, no further manipulations,
採血したら、それ以上いじりません
08:28
you put it on a little device,
そのまま、この器具に垂らします
08:31
the device filters out the blood cells, lets the serum go through,
器具が血球をフィルタし、血清を通過させ
08:33
and you get a series of colors
一番下に幾つかの色が
08:37
down in the bottom there.
現れます
08:39
And the colors indicate "disease" or "normal."
色が、病気か、正常かを示すのです
08:41
But even that's complicated,
でもそれでもまだ複雑です
08:45
because to you, to me, colors might indicate "normal,"
人によって「正常」の色の判断基準が異なりますから
08:47
but, after all, we're all suffering from
結局のところ、我々は
08:51
probably an excess of education.
教育されすぎで困っているのです
08:53
What you do about something which requires
定量分析を必要とする場合は
08:56
quantitative analysis?
どうしたらいいのか?
08:58
And so the solution that we and many other people
我々や他の人々が考えた
09:00
are thinking about there,
解決方法、
09:03
and at this point there is a dramatic flourish,
しかも現在急速に広がりつつあるもので
09:05
and out comes the universal solution to everything these days,
今日のあらゆることの解決になりつつあるのは
09:07
which is a cell phone. In this particular case, a camera phone.
携帯電話です この場合は特にカメラ付き携帯です
09:10
They're everywhere, six billion a month in India.
インドではどこでも手に入り、毎月600万台売れています
09:13
And the idea is that what one does,
どうするかというと
09:18
is to take the device,
まずは器具を使って
09:21
you dip it, you develop the color,
検査します 色が出ますね
09:23
you take a picture, the picture goes to a central laboratory.
その写真を撮ります それを検査センターに送ります
09:26
You don't have to send out a doctor,
医者を派遣する必要はありません
09:29
you send out somebody who can just take the sample,
写真が撮れる人を派遣すればいいわけです
09:31
and in the clinic either a doctor, or ideally a computer
診療所では医者か、この場合は理想的には
09:34
in this case, does the analysis.
コンピュータが分析するわけです
09:37
Turns out to work actually quite well, particularly when your
特に色見本が印刷してある場合は
09:39
color printer has printed the color bars
結果の評価方法がわかるので
09:41
that indicate how things work.
非常に上手く行くことが分かりました
09:43
So, my view of the health care worker of the future
だから私は、将来のヘルスケアワーカーは
09:45
is not a doctor,
医師ではなく
09:48
but is an 18-year-old, otherwise unemployed,
バックパック一杯の検査キットおよび
09:50
who has two things: He has a backpack full of these tests,
たまに採血するための採血針と、
09:53
and a lancet to occasionally take a blood sample,
機関銃をもった18歳くらいの少年か
09:55
and an AK-47.
無職の人です。
09:58
And these are the things that get him through his day.
それで仕事をこなして行くわけです
10:00
There's another very interesting connection here,
ここにはもうひとつとても面白いつながりがあります
10:05
and that is that what one wants to do
我々がやりたいのは
10:07
is to pass through useful information
有用な情報を、とても品質の悪い
10:09
over what is generally a pretty awful telephone system.
電話システムを使って送ることです
10:12
It turns out there's an enormous amount of information
この領域に関しては、すでに非常に多くの
10:16
already available on that subject, which is the Mars rover problem.
情報があります マーズローバーの問題に関してです
10:19
How do you get back an accurate view of the color on Mars
非常にわずかしか通信帯域がないのに
10:22
if you have a really terrible bandwidth to do it with?
どうやって火星から正確な色情報を送れたのか?
10:26
And the answer is not complicated
答えはさほど複雑ではありませんが
10:30
but it's one which I don't want to go through here,
今日はその点を追求することはしません
10:32
other than to say that the communication systems
ただ、こういうことに使う通信システムは
10:34
for doing this are really pretty well understood.
非常に良く解析されているのです
10:37
Also, a fact which you may not know
そして、ご存じないかも知れませんが
10:39
is that the compute capability of this thing
携帯電話のもつ計算能力は
10:42
is not so different from the compute capability
あなたのデスクトップにあるやつと、さほど
10:45
of your desktop computer.
変わりません
10:47
This is a fantastic device which is only beginning to be tapped.
携帯電話の可能性は探索され始めたばかりです
10:49
I don't know whether the idea of one computer, one child
OLPC(全ての子どもにPCを)計画が意味を持つかわかりませんが
10:52
makes any sense. Here's the computer of the future,
コンピュータの未来はこちらにあるでしょう
10:56
because this screen is already there and they're ubiquitous.
画面もついていますし、ユビキタスだからです
10:59
All right now let me show you just a little bit about advanced devices.
より進歩した器具をお見せします
11:04
And we'll start by posing a little problem.
ちょっとした問題提議から入りましょう
11:06
What you see here is another centimeter-sized device,
これはまた別の1センチサイズの器具です
11:09
and the different colors are different colors of dye.
色の部分はそれぞれ異なる染料です
11:12
And you notice something which might strike you as
そこでちょっと驚かれるかも知れませんが
11:16
a little bit interesting,
面白いのは
11:18
which is the yellow seems to disappear,
黄色い線が途中で消えて
11:20
get through the blue, and then get through the red.
青い線と、次に赤い線を突き抜けていることです
11:23
How does that happen? How do you make something flow through something?
一体どうやって別の色を通り抜けているのか?
11:26
And, of course the answer is, "You don't."
答えは「そんなことはしていない」です
11:29
You make it flow under and over.
上か下を通らせるんです
11:31
But now the question is: How do you make it flow
ではどうやって一枚の紙の上で
11:33
under and over in a piece of paper?
上か下を通れるのでしょう?
11:35
The answer is that what you do,
答えはこうです
11:38
and the details are not terribly important here,
細かいことは省きますが
11:41
is to make something more elaborate:
もう少し手の込んだものを作ります
11:44
You take several different layers of paper,
紙を何枚も重ねて
11:46
each one containing its own little fluid system,
それぞれの紙に固有の溝を作っておいて
11:48
and you separate them by pieces of,
それぞれを別々の、穴あきの
11:51
literally, double-sided carpet tape,
両面テープで貼り合わせます
11:53
the stuff you use to stick the carpets onto the floor.
あの絨毯を固定するテープと同じです
11:56
And the fluid will flow from one layer into the next.
それで液体はある層から次の層へと流れ
11:59
It distributes itself, flows through further holes,
穴を伝って、さらに
12:02
distributes itself.
広がっていきます
12:05
And what you see, at the lower right-hand side there,
それであの右下の図は
12:07
is a sample in which a single sample
上部に垂らされた血液が
12:10
of blood has been put on the top,
たどり着いた例です
12:12
and it has gone through and distributed itself
ずーっと広がっていって
12:15
into these 16 holes on the bottom,
底の方では16の穴に入っていきます
12:18
in a piece of paper -- basically it looks like a chip,
紙2枚分の厚さで
12:21
two pieces of paper thick.
コンピュータのチップのようにも見えます
12:23
And in this particular case we were just interested in
このケースでは単に複製可能性に
12:26
the replicability of that.
注目しています
12:28
But that is, in principle, the way you solve
しかし原理的には、それが
12:30
the "fever of unexplained origin" problem,
「不明熱」の問題を解決するのです
12:32
because each one of those spots then becomes
なぜなら、このそれぞれの点が
12:34
a test for a particular set of markers
特定の病気を発見できる
12:36
of disease,
マーカーとなるからです
12:39
and this will work in due course.
その時が来れば役に立ちます
12:41
Here is an example of a slightly more complicated device.
こちらはもう少し複雑な器具です
12:43
There's the chip.
チップがあります
12:46
You dip in a corner. The fluid goes into the center.
角を浸すと中央まで染みて
12:48
It distributes itself out into these various
それからこういうあちこちの
12:50
wells or holes, and turns color,
穴に届き、色が変わります
12:53
and all done with paper and carpet tape.
全部、紙と両面テープで出来るんです
12:55
So, I think it's as low-cost
これが、考え得る
12:58
as we're likely to be able to come up and make things.
最低コストの製作方法だと思います
13:00
Now, I have one last, two last little stories
さて、このプレゼンの最後に
13:04
to tell you, in finishing off this business.
一つ、二つお話しましょう
13:07
This is one: One of the things that one does occasionally
一つはこれです 血清から血球を
13:10
need to do is to separate blood cells from serum.
分離するときに使います
13:13
And the question was,
問題は
13:16
here we do it by taking a sample,
サンプルを取ってやるわけですが
13:19
we put it in a centrifuge,
遠心分離をすることになる
13:21
we spin it, and you get blood cells out. Terrific.
回転させ、血球を取り出す すばらしい
13:24
What happens if you don't have an electricity,
でももし電気や、遠心分離機が
13:28
and a centrifuge, and whatever?
なかったらどうしますか?
13:30
And we thought for a while of how you might do this
どうしたらいいかしばらく考えました
13:32
and the way, in fact, you do it is what's shown here.
そして、ご覧のものができたのです
13:35
You get an eggbeater,
泡だて器がありますね
13:37
which is everywhere, and you saw off a blade,
どこにでもあります そこから刃を取り去る
13:39
and then you take tubing,
そこでチューブを
13:42
and you stick it on that. You put the blood in, you spin it --
その上に接着します 血液を入れる 回転させる
13:44
somebody sits there and spins it.
座ってグルグルやるんです
13:46
It works really, really well.
非常にうまく行きます
13:48
And we sat down, we did the physics of eggbeaters
我々は泡立て器の物理学やら
13:50
and self-aligning tubes and all the rest of that kind of thing,
自動調心チューブやらいろいろ考えたぞと
13:52
sent it off to a journal.
機関誌に投稿しました
13:55
We were very proud of this, particularly the title,
非常に誇りに思っています 特に表題が
13:57
which was "Eggbeater as Centrifuge."
「泡だて器遠心分離機」なので
13:59
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:01
And we sent it off, and by return mail it came back.
それを送ったんですが、すぐに返送されてきました
14:02
I called up the editor and I said,
編集者に電話して言いました:
14:05
"What's going on? How is this possible?"
「いったいどういうことなんだ?」
14:07
The editor said, with enormous disdain,
編集者は、明らかに軽蔑しながら言いました
14:09
"I read this.
「読んだよ
14:12
And we're not going to publish it, because we only
でも出版はしないよ 我々は科学だけを
14:14
publish science."
取り扱うんだ」
14:16
And it's an important issue
これは重要なことで
14:18
because it means that we have to,
我々は、社会全体で
14:20
as a society,
ものの価値を
14:22
think about what we value.
考えなくてはいけない
14:24
And if it's just papers and phys. rev. letters,
単にPhysical Review Ltters誌だけの
14:26
we've got a problem.
問題ではないのかも?、と
14:28
Here is another example of something which is --
ここで例をもう一つ
14:31
this is a little spectrophotometer.
こっちは分光光度計です
14:34
It measures the absorption of light in a sample
サンプルの吸光度を測定します
14:36
The neat thing about this is, you have light source that flickers
1000ヘルツくらいで明滅する
14:39
on and off at about 1,000 hertz,
光源を準備し
14:42
another light source that detects that light at 1,000 hertz,
もう一つ1000ヘルツの光を検出する光源を用意します
14:44
and so you can run this system in broad daylight.
なので、日中の光の中でも使えます
14:48
It performs about equivalently
それで大体、1千万円クラスの
14:51
to a system that's in the order of
機械と同じ
14:53
100,000 dollars.
働きをします
14:56
It costs 50 dollars. We can probably make it for 50 cents,
たった50ドルですが、5セントまで
14:58
if we put our mind to it.
下げられるかもしれません。
15:01
Why doesn't somebody do it? And the answer is,
なぜ誰もやろうとしない なぜか?
15:03
"How do you make a profit in a capitalist system, doing that?"
「この資本主義社会では、それでは稼げないから」です
15:05
Interesting problem.
興味深い問題です
15:09
So, let me finish by saying
おわりの言葉です
15:12
that we've thought about this as a kind of engineering problem.
我々はこれを、工学的問題として考えました
15:14
And we've asked: What is the scientific unifying idea here?
そして問いました:「ここでの科学的解決法はなにか?」
15:18
And we've decided that we should think about this
そして、問題を
15:24
not so much in terms of cost,
コストでなく、単純さの観点で
15:25
but in terms of simplicity.
考えてみることにしました
15:27
Simplicity is a neat word. And you've got to think about
「単純さ」とは素敵な言葉ですが
15:29
what simplicity means.
意味するところは何でしょう
15:31
I know what it is but I don't actually know what it means.
その言葉を知っていますが、本当の意味は知らないのです
15:33
So, I actually was interested enough in this to put together
そこで、興味が生まれて
15:37
several groups of people.
何人かの人を集めました
15:39
And the most recent involved a couple of people at MIT,
最近来たのはMITの連中で
15:43
one of them being an exceptionally bright kid
そのうちの一人はものすごく頭が良くて
15:46
who is one of the very few people I would think of
私が「本物の天才」と認める
15:48
who's an authentic genius.
数少ない一人でした
15:50
We all struggled for an entire day to think about simplicity.
我々は一日かけて「単純さ」について考えました
15:52
And I want to give you the answer of this
我々がたどり着いた
15:56
deep scientific thought.
真に科学的な結論はこうです
15:58
(Laughter)
「単純なものは壊れようがない」(笑)
16:01
So, in a sense, you get what you pay for.
つまり、払っただけのものが手にはいるわけです
16:04
Thank you very much.
どうもありがとう
16:07
(Laughter)
(笑)
16:09
Translated by Keiichi Kudo
Reviewed by Takanori Sasaki

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About the speaker:

George Whitesides - Chemist
In his legendary career in chemistry, George Whitesides has been a pioneer in microfabrication and nanoscale self-assembly. Now, he's fabbing a diagnostic lab on a chip.

Why you should listen

Someday Harvard chemistry professor George Whitesides will take the time to look back on the 950 scientific articles he's coauthored, the dozen companies he's co-founded or the 50-plus patents on which he's named. (He works in four main areas: biochemistry, materials science, catalysis and physical organic chemistry.) In the meantime, he's trying to invent a future where medical diagnosis can be done by anyone for little or no cost. He's co-founded a nonprofit called Diagnostics for All that aims to provide dirt-cheap diagnostic devices, to provide healthcare in a world where cost is everything.

Among his solutions is a low-cost "lab-on-a-chip," made of paper and carpet tape. The paper wicks bodily fluids -- urine, for example -- and turns color to provide diagnostic information, such as how much glucose or protein is present. His goal is to distribute these simple paper diagnostic systems to developing countries, where people with basic training can administer tests and send results to distant doctors via cameraphone.

More profile about the speaker
George Whitesides | Speaker | TED.com