05:42
TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

Ian Ritchie: El día que dije "no" a Tim Berners-Lee

Filmed:

Imagina que estás en el final de los 90, y que acabas de conocer a un joven agradable que se llama Tim Berners-Lee, que comienza a contarte cosas sobre su propuesta de un sistema llamado la World Wide Web. Ian Ritchie ha pasado por esto... y no se lo creyó. Esta es una historia corta sobre información, conexiones y aprendizaje de los errores.

- Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

Well we all know the World Wide Web
Todos sabemos que la World Wide Web
00:15
has absolutely transformed publishing, broadcasting,
ha transformado por completo los medios escritos y audiovisuales,
00:17
commerce and social connectivity,
el comercio y las conexiones sociales,
00:21
but where did it all come from?
pero ¿cuál es su origen?
00:23
And I'll quote three people:
Hablaré de tres personas:
00:25
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart y Tim Berners-Lee.
00:27
So let's just run through these guys.
Así que hablemos de estos tipos.
00:30
This is Vannevar Bush.
Este es Vannevar Bush.
00:32
Vannevar Bush was the U.S. government's chief scientific adviser during the war.
Vannevar era el asesor científico en jefe del gobierno de EE.UU. durante la guerra.
00:34
And in 1945,
Y, en 1945,
00:37
he published an article in a magazine called Atlantic Monthly.
publicó un artículo en una revista llamada Atlantic Monthly.
00:39
And the article was called "As We May Think."
El artículo se titulaba "Como podríamos pensar".
00:42
And what Vannevar Bush was saying
Y Vannevar Bush decía
00:45
was the way we use information is broken.
que usamos la información de forma fragmentada.
00:47
We don't work in terms of libraries
No funcionamos con bibliotecas
00:50
and catalog systems and so forth.
y sistemas de catálogo o cosas similares.
00:53
The brain works by association.
El cerebro funciona por asociación.
00:55
With one item in its thought, it snaps instantly to the next item.
Está pensando en una cosa y salta instantáneamente a la siguiente.
00:57
And the way information is structured
Y que la forma en que se estaba estructurando la información
01:00
is totally incapable of keeping up with this process.
era totalmente incapaz de seguir este proceso.
01:02
And so he suggested a machine,
Entonces propuso una máquina,
01:05
and he called it the memex.
y la llamó Memex.
01:07
And the memex would link information,
Memex enlazaría la información,
01:09
one piece of information to a related piece of information and so forth.
una unidad de información enlazada a otra unidad de información relacionada.
01:11
Now this was in 1945.
Esto era 1945.
01:14
A computer in those days
En aquellos días una computadora
01:16
was something the secret services used to use for code breaking.
era algo que los servicios de inteligencia usaban para descifrar códigos.
01:18
And nobody knew anything about it.
Y nadie sabía nada de su existencia.
01:21
So this was before the computer was invented.
Luego fue "antes" de que se inventara la computadora.
01:23
And he proposed this machine called the memex.
Él propuso esta máquina llamada Memex.
01:25
And he had a platform where you linked information to other information,
Tenía una plataforma donde se enlazaba información con información.
01:27
and then you could call it up at will.
y entonces se podía recuperar a voluntad.
01:30
So spinning forward,
Avancemos un poco,
01:32
one of the guys who read this article was a guy called Doug Engelbart,
uno de los tipos que leyó este artículo fue Doug Engelbart,
01:34
and he was a U.S. Air Force officer.
un oficial de las Fuerzas Aéreas de EE.UU.
01:36
And he was reading it in their library in the Far East.
que estuvo leyéndolo en una biblioteca que tenían el lejano oriente.
01:38
And he was so inspired by this article,
Fue este artículo tal inspiración para él,
01:41
it kind of directed the rest of his life.
que fue como su guía para el resto de su vida.
01:43
And by the mid-60s, he was able to put this into action
A mediados de los 60, pudo hacerlo realidad
01:45
when he worked at the Stanford Research Lab in California.
cuando trabajaba en el Stanford Research Lab en California.
01:48
He built a system.
Construyó un sistema.
01:52
The system was designed to augment human intelligence, it was called.
El sistema estaba diseñado para aumentar la inteligencia humana.
01:54
And in a premonition of today's world
Y como premonición del mundo de hoy,
01:57
of cloud computing and softwares of service,
de computación en la nube y software como servicio,
02:00
his system was called NLS
su sistema se llamó NLS
02:02
for oN-Line System.
de "oN-Line System" (Sistema eN-Línea).
02:04
And this is Doug Engelbart.
Y este es Doug Engelbart
02:06
He was giving a presentation at the Fall Joint Computer Conference
realizando una presentación en la Fall Joint Computer Conference
02:08
in 1968.
en 1968.
02:11
What he showed --
Esto es lo que mostró...
02:14
he sat on a stage like this, and he demonstrated this system.
Se sentó en un escenario como éste y mostró este sistema.
02:16
He had his head mic like I've got.
Llevaba un micrófono, como yo.
02:19
And he works this system.
Comienza a trabajar con el sistema.
02:21
And you can see, he's working between documents
Como pueden ver, está trabajando con documentos
02:23
and graphics and so forth.
y gráficos...
02:25
And he's driving it all
Y todo lo dirige
02:27
with this platform here,
con esta plataforma
02:29
with a five-finger keyboard
con un teclado de cinco dedos
02:31
and the world's first computer mouse,
y el primer ratón de la historia,
02:33
which he specially designed in order to do this system.
que diseñó especialmente para construir este sistema.
02:35
So this is where the mouse came from as well.
Luego éste es el origen del ratón.
02:37
So this is Doug Engelbart.
Este era Doug Engelbart.
02:39
The trouble with Doug Engelbart's system
El problema con el sistema de Doug Engelbart
02:41
was that the computers in those days cost several million pounds.
era que las computadoras por aquél entonces costaban varios millones de libras.
02:43
So for a personal computer,
Y tratándose de una computadora personal,
02:46
a few million pounds was like having a personal jet plane;
unos pocos millones de libras era el precio de un "jet personal";
02:48
it wasn't really very practical.
verdaderamente no muy práctico.
02:50
But spin on to the 80s
Pero pasemos a los 80
02:52
when personal computers did arrive,
cuando llegó la computadora personal,
02:54
then there was room for this kind of system on personal computers.
en aquél entonces las computadoras personales podían ejecutar este tipo de sistema.
02:56
And my company, OWL
Y mi compañía, OWL,
02:58
built a system called Guide for the Apple Macintosh.
construyó un sistema llamado Guide para el Apple Macintosh.
03:00
And we delivered the world's first hypertext system.
y comercializamos el primer sistema de hipertexto del mundo.
03:03
And this began to get a head of steam.
Y esto empezó a ganar velocidad.
03:07
Apple introduced a thing called HyperCard,
Apple introdujo una cosa llamada HyperCard,
03:09
and they made a bit of a fuss about it.
e hicieron bastante ruido al respecto.
03:11
They had a 12-page supplement in the Wall Street Journal the day it launched.
Tuvieron un suplemento de 12 páginas en el Wall Street Journal en el lanzamiento.
03:13
The magazines started to cover it.
Las revistas empezaron a hablar de él.
03:16
Byte magazine and Communications at the ACM
Byte magazine y Communications at the ACM
03:18
had special issues covering hypertext.
lanzaron números especiales acerca del hipertexto.
03:20
We developed a PC version of this product
Nosotros desarrollamos una versión para PC de este producto,
03:22
as well as the Macintosh version.
también una versión para Macintosh.
03:24
And our PC version became quite mature.
La versión para PC llegó a madurar bastante.
03:26
These are some examples of this system in action in the late 80s.
Estos son ejemplos de este sistema en acción a final de los años 80.
03:29
You were able to deliver documents, were able to do it over networks.
Uno podía enviar documentos, dejar a la computadora trabajando por la noche.
03:33
We developed a system such
Desarrollamos un sistema tal
03:36
that it had a markup language based on html.
que tenía un lenguaje de marcado ("markup") basado en html.
03:38
We called it hml: hypertext markup language.
Nosotros lo llamábamos hml: hypertext markup language
03:40
And the system was capable of doing
Y este sistema era capaz de gestionar
03:43
very, very large documentation systems over computer networks.
conjuntos muy, muy grandes de documentos distribuidos en redes de computadoras.
03:45
So I took this system to a trade show in Versailles near Paris
Llevé mi sistema a una feria comercial en Versalles, cerca de París,
03:49
in late November 1990.
a finales de noviembre de 1990.
03:52
And I was approached by a nice young man called Tim Berners-Lee
Y se me acercó un agradable joven llamado Tim Berners-Lee
03:55
who said, "Are you Ian Ritchie?" and I said, "Yeah."
que me dijo, "¿Eres Ian Ritchie?" y dije "Sí".
03:57
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
Me dijo: "Necesito hablar contigo".
03:59
And he told me about his proposed system called the World Wide Web.
Y me contó su propuesta de un sistema llamado la Word Wide Web.
04:01
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious name,
Pensé, bien, un nombre pretencioso,
04:04
especially since the whole system ran on his computer in his office.
especialmente al estar solamente funcionando en la computadora de su oficina.
04:07
But he was completely convinced that his World Wide Web
Pero él estaba completamente convencido de que su World Wide Web
04:10
would take over the world one day.
conquistaría algún día el mundo entero.
04:13
And he tried to persuade me to write the browser for it,
Intentó persuadirme para que creara un navegador para ella,
04:15
because his system didn't have any graphics or fonts or layout or anything;
porque su sistema no tenía gráficos o fuentes o algo así;
04:17
it was just plain text.
sólo era texto plano.
04:20
I thought, well, you know, interesting,
Y pensé, bien, ya sabes, es interesante...
04:22
but a guy from CERN, he's not going to do this.
...pero es un tipo del CERN, no va a conseguirlo.
04:25
So we didn't do it.
Y no lo hicimos.
04:27
In the next couple of years,
Durante el siguiente par de años,
04:29
the hypertext community didn't recognize him either.
la comunidad del hipertexto tampoco le prestó atención.
04:31
In 1992, his paper was rejected for the Hypertext Conference.
En 1992, su artículo para la Hypertext Conference fue rechazado.
04:33
In 1993,
En 1993,
04:36
there was a table at the conference in Seattle,
había una mesa en la conferencia de Seattle,
04:39
and a guy called Marc Andreessen
con un tipo llamado Marc Andreessen
04:41
was demonstrating his little browser for the World Wide Web.
mostrando su pequeño navegador para la World Wide Web.
04:43
And I saw it, and I thought, yep, that's it.
Y lo ví, y pensé, sí, aquí está.
04:46
And the very next year, in 1994, we had the conference here in Edinburgh,
Y justo al año siguiente, en 1994, tuvimos una conferencia aquí en Edimburgo,
04:48
and I had no opposition in having Tim Berners-Lee as the keynote speaker.
y nadie se opuso a tener a Tim Berners-Lee como orador principal.
04:51
So that puts me in pretty illustrious company.
Esto me sitúa al nivel de unos compañeros muy ilustres.
04:55
There was a guy called Dick Rowe
Hubo un tipo llamado Dick Rowe
04:57
who was at Decca Records and turned down The Beatles.
que estando en Decca Records dijo no a los Beatles.
04:59
There was a guy called Gary Kildall
Hubo un tipo llamado Gary Kildall
05:01
who went flying his plane
que salió a volar con su avión
05:03
when IBM came looking for an operating system
cuando IBM le visitó buscando un sistema operativo
05:05
for the IBM PC,
para el IBM PC,
05:07
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill Gates.
y, como no estaba, regresaron y fueron a ver a Bill Gates.
05:09
And the 12 publishers
Y las 12 editoriales
05:11
who turned down J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter, I guess.
que dijeron que no al Harry Potter de J.K. Rowling.
05:13
On the other hand, there's Marc Andreessen
Por otro lado, está Marc Andreessen
05:16
who wrote the world's first browser for the World Wide Web.
quien programó el primer navegador para la WWW del mundo.
05:18
And according to Fortune magazine,
Y que, según la revista Fortune,
05:20
he's worth 700 million dollars.
tiene una fortuna de 700 millones de dólares.
05:22
But is he happy?
Pero...¿es feliz?
05:24
(Laughter)
(Risas)
05:26
(Applause)
(Aplausos)
05:28

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About the Speaker:

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

More profile about the speaker
Ian Ritchie | Speaker | TED.com