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TED2003

Paul MacCready: A flight on solar wings

ポール・マクレディー:陽を浴びて舞う翼

February 2, 2003

航空機の設計者であり、環境問題の論客で、生涯にわたって飛行機を愛したポール・マクレディーが自らの経歴を語ります。

Paul MacCready - Engineer
Paul MacCready, an aircraft designer and environmentalist, is a pioneer of human-powered flight, alternative energy for transportation, and environmentally responsible design. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I am known best for human-powered flight,
私は人力飛行によって一番知られていますが
00:27
but that was just one thing that got me going
それは私を駆り立てたものの中の
00:32
in the sort of things that I'm working in now.
一例にすぎません
00:37
As a youngster, I was very interested in model airplanes,
子供の頃には 模型飛行機 -- 羽ばたき飛行機やオートジャイロ
00:41
ornithopters, autogyros, helicopters, gliders, power planes,
ヘリコプターやグライダーやモーターグライダー
00:47
indoor models, outdoor models, everything,
室内モデルや屋外モデルなどあらゆる種類に夢中で
00:53
which I just thought was a lot of fun,
それが本当に面白かったのです
00:56
and wondered why most other people didn't share my same enthusiasm with them.
どうして他の皆はこれに夢中にならないのかと不思議でした
00:59
And then, navy pilot training, and, after college,
海軍でパイロットの訓練を受け 大学を出てから
01:07
I got into sailplane flying, power plane flying,
グライダーやモーターグライダーに出会い
01:13
and considered the sailplanes as a sort of hobby and fun,
グライダーを趣味として楽しむようになりました
01:17
but got tangled up with some great professor types,
また 大先生達は 私や仲間たちに
01:25
who convinced me and everybody else in the field
グライダーは科学の深淵を探究するにもふさわしい
01:29
that this was a good way to get into really deep science.
と確信させたのでした
01:34
While this was all going on, I was in the field of weather modification,
この間 私は気象の制御を研究していましたが
01:39
although getting a Ph.D. in aeronautics.
博士号は航空工学で取得しました
01:45
The weather modification subject was getting started,
気象の制御というテーマは始まったばかりで
01:49
and as a graduate student,
学生の私も
01:53
I could go around to the various talks that were being given,
あちこちで催される講演を聞くために東海岸まで
01:55
on a hitchhiker ride to the East Coast,
ヒッチハイクで旅に出たりしました
01:59
and so on. And everybody would talk to me,
その分野の研究者同士は仲が悪くて
02:01
but all the professionals in the field hated each other,
互いに話もしないような有様でしたが
02:04
and they wouldn't communicate. And as a result,
誰もが私には話をしてくれました こうして
02:07
I got the absolutely unique background in that field,
この分野において全く独特のバックグランドを得た私は
02:10
and started a company, which did more research
会社を設立して 気象制御について
02:15
in weather modification than anybody,
どこよりも多くの研究を行いました
02:19
and there are a lot of things that I just can't go into.
時間の関係で全てをお話することはできません
02:23
But then, 1971 started AeroVironment, with no employees --
それから1971年にエアロバイロメント社を作って
02:29
then one or two, three,
ひとりずつメンバーを増やしながら
02:35
and sort of fumbled along on trying to get interesting projects.
面白いプロジェクトを探して手探りから進めました
02:37
We had AirDynamisis,
空気力学の専門家もいました
02:41
who, like I, did not want to work for aerospace companies
彼らも私も 航空機産業の何年もかかる
02:43
on some big, many year project,
一大プロジェクトに取り組むよりは
02:48
and so we did our small projects, and the company slowly grew.
独自の小さなプロジェクトを好み 会社は徐々に成長しました
02:52
The thing that is exciting was, in 1976,
劇的だったのは1976年のこと
03:01
I suddenly got interested in the human-powered airplane
人力飛行機に興味を持ちました
03:06
because I'd made a made a loan to a friend of 100,000 dollars,
というのも友人の10万ドルの借金について
03:11
or I guaranteed the money at the bank.
保証人になって --
03:15
He needed them -- he needed the money for starting a company.
-- 彼はその資金で会社を始めましたが
03:17
The company did not succeed, and he couldn't pay the money back,
会社が失敗して 彼は返済が出来ず
03:21
and I was the guarantor of the note. So, I had a $100,000 debt,
私は10万ドルの負債を抱えました
03:24
and I noticed that the Kramer prize for human-powered flight,
人力飛行におけるクレイマー賞が
03:29
which had then been around for -- (Laughter) --
17年目に入っており 賞金は5万ポンド つまり
03:35
17 years at the time, was 50,000 pounds,
当時の為替レートを考慮すると
03:39
which, at the exchange rate, was just about 100,000 dollars.
丁度10万ドルとなっていました
03:42
So suddenly, I was interested in human-powered flight --
俄然 人力飛行に興味が湧いたのです
03:46
(Laughter) --
(笑)
03:49
and did not -- the way I approached it, first,
最初は 英国のグループの取り組みと
03:52
thinking about ways to make the planes,
同じような方法で飛行機を作ることを考えましたが
03:58
was just like they'd been doing in England, and not succeeding,
うまく行かないとわかったのでそれは諦めました
04:01
and I gave it up. I figured, nah, there isn't any simple, easy way.
といって シンプルで簡単な方法は見つからず
04:06
But then, got off on a vacation trip, and was studying bird flight,
それから休暇旅行に出て
04:10
just for the fun of it,
お楽しみとして鳥の飛び方を研究していました
04:16
and you can watch a bird soaring around in circles,
円を描いて滑空する鳥を見て
04:18
and measure the time, and estimate the bank angle,
回転時間を計測しバンク角を見積もると
04:21
and immediately, figure out its speed,
そこから直ちに速度や回転半径などを
04:25
and the turning radius, and so on,
推定できます
04:28
which I could do in the car, as we're driving along on a vacation trip --
それはドライブ中の車窓からでもできる事で
04:31
(Laughter) --
(笑)
04:36
with my three sons, young sons, helping me,
仕事を手伝っていた三人の若い息子たちも
04:38
but ridiculing the whole thing very much.
この事については まったく呆れていました
04:42
But that began thinking about how birds went around,
鳥がどう飛ぶかということから考え始め
04:46
and then how airplanes would, how hang gliders would fly,
飛行機はどう飛ぶ ハンググライダーはどう飛ぶと
04:51
and then other planes,
考えを巡らせていました
04:58
and the idea of the Gossamer-Condor-type airplane quickly emerged,
そこから急に ゴッサマーコンドル型の飛行機のアイデアが生まれました
05:00
was so logical, one should have thought of it in the first place,
論理的で 最初から気づいてもよさそうなのに
05:06
but one didn't. And it was just, keep the weight down --
だれも考えていませんでした 軽量化が可能になり
05:09
70 pounds was all it weighed -- but let the size swell up, like a hang glider,
32キロほどの重さに抑えて ハンググライダーのように大きくしました
05:13
but three times the span, three times the cord.
翼幅を3倍すると翼弦長も3倍になり
05:20
You're down to a third of the speed, a third of the power,
速度は1/3に低下しパワーが1/3となります
05:22
and a good bicyclist can put out that power, and that worked,
優れた自転車乗りが出せる程度のパワーです
05:25
and we won the prize a year later.
これが成功して 一年後に賞を獲得しました
05:32
We didn't -- a lot of flying, a lot of experiments, a lot of things that didn't work,
多くの試験飛行や実験 失敗や成功を繰り返しながら
05:37
and ones that did work, and the plane kept getting a little better, a little better.
飛行機は少しずつ改善し続けました
05:43
Got a good pilot, Brian Allen, to operate it,
ブライアン=アレンという良いパイロットにも恵まれて
05:48
and finally, succeeded. But unfortunately,
プロジェクトは成功しました
05:51
about 65,000 dollars was spent on the project.
残念ながら6万5千ドルも費やしていたので
05:55
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:59
And there was only about 30 to help retire the debt.
借金の返済に充てられる残りは 3万ドルほどにすぎませんでした
06:01
But fortunately, Henry Kramer, who put up the prize for --
この1.6kmの飛行に懸賞をかけていたのはヘンリー=クレイマーでしたが
06:05
that was a one-mile flight -- put up a new prize
新たな懸賞金をドーバー海峡の33.6km横断にかけました
06:09
for flying the English Channel, 21 miles.
これが達成されるまでには
06:11
And he thought it would take another 18 years for somebody to win that.
もう18年はかかると彼は考えたのです
06:14
We realized that if you just cleaned up our Gossamer Condor a little bit,
我々は ゴッサマーコンドル型を手直しすれば
06:18
the power to fly would be decreased a little bit,
飛行に必要なパワーを少し削減でき
06:24
and if you decrease the power required a little,
必要なパワーを削減できれば
06:28
the pilot can fly a much longer period of time.
パイロットがずっと長く飛べると気づきました
06:31
And Brian Allen was able, in a miraculous flight,
ブライアン=アレンは奇跡的な飛行を成功させ
06:34
to get the Gossamer Albatross across the English Channel,
ゴッサマーアルバトロスでドーバー海峡を横断して
06:38
and we won the 100,000-pound, 200,000-dollar prize for that.
10万ポンド つまり20万ドルの賞金を獲得しました
06:42
And when all expenses were paid, the debt was handled, and everything was fine.
全ての支払いと借金を片付け すべてが収まりました
06:49
It turned out that giving the planes to the museum
飛行機は博物館に寄贈しました
06:57
was worth much more than the debt,
これには借金返済以上の効果があって
07:00
so for five years, six years, I only had to pay one third income tax.
その後5-6年間所得税が3分の1に減りました
07:04
So, there were good economic reasons for the project, but --
つまりプロジェクトは経済的にも意義あるものでした
07:11
(Laughter) --
(笑)
07:16
that's not, well, the project was done entirely for economic reasons,
その -- プロジェクトは全面的に経済的な動機で行ったもので
07:19
and we have not been involved in any human-powered flight since then --
それ以来人力飛行には関わっていません
07:26
(Laughter) --
(笑)
07:30
because the prizes are all over.
懸賞金が出なくなってしまったからです
07:32
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:36
But that sure started me thinking about various things,
それからまた 様々なことを考えました
07:37
and immediately, we began making a solar-powered plane
そしてある日 太陽電池の飛行機を作り始めました
07:41
because we felt solar power was going to be so important
太陽電池はアメリカと世界の国々にとって
07:46
for the country and the world,
実に重要と考えたからです
07:49
we didn't want the small funding in the government to be decreased,
政府からのわずかな研究ファンドすら打ち切られようとしていて
07:51
which is what the government was trying to do with it.
それは望ましくないことと考えたので
07:56
And we thought a solar-powered plane wouldn't really make sense,
有用性は低いと思いましたが
07:58
but you could do it and it would get a lot of publicity for solar power
太陽電池の飛行機を実現して
08:03
and maybe help that field.
太陽電池の分野をアピールしようとしました
08:07
And that project continued, did succeed,
このプロジェクトは継続の末に成功し
08:09
and we then got into other projects in aviation
さらに航空関連の別のプロジェクトや
08:13
and mechanical things and ground devices.
機器プロジェクトや陸上の装備などにも取り組みました
08:19
But while this was going on,
そんな間にも
08:27
in 1982, I got a prize from the Lindbergh Foundation --
1982年にはリンドバーグ財団からの賞を
08:30
their annual prize --
授与され
08:35
and I had to prepare a paper on it,
それに応えて論文を提出することになりました
08:37
which collected all my varied thoughts
私は数年来のいくつものアイデアと興味とをまとめた
08:41
and varied interests over the years.
論文をしたためて
08:44
This was the one chance that I had to focus on what I, really, was after,
それをきっかけに本当にやりたくて重要と思う事に
08:46
and what was important. And to my surprise,
注力することとしました 自分でも意外なことに
08:51
I realized the importance of environmental issues,
環境問題の重要性に気づいたのでした
08:55
which Charles Lindbergh devoted the last third of his life to,
リンドバーグも人生の最後の3分の1は環境問題に懸けていました
09:00
and preparing that paper did me a lot of good.
この論文を執筆した事は 大変意義あるものでした
09:05
I thought back about if I was a space traveler,
私が宇宙の旅行者で
09:11
and came and visited Earth every 5,000 years.
5千年ごとに地球を訪れているとしたら
09:14
And for a few thousand visits, I would see the same thing every time,
これまで何千回かの訪問では 地球にはほとんど変化がなく
09:17
the little differences in the Earth.
いつも同じようなものを目にしていたでしょう
09:24
But this last time, just coming round, right now,
しかし 直近の訪問では
09:26
suddenly, there'd be huge changes in the environment,
突然 環境と人の密度に大きな変化が生じて
09:30
in the concentration of people,
その変化の度合いは
09:35
and it was just unbelievable, the amount of -- all the change in it.
信じがたいほどの変りぶりでした
09:38
I wanted to -- well, one of the biggest changes is, 200 years ago,
200年前の大規模な変化は
09:50
we began using coal from underground, which has a lot of pollution,
地下から採掘した石炭を使い始めたこと そしてそれによる大量の汚染
09:55
and 100 years ago, began getting gasoline from underground,
100年前には地下からガソリンを取り出し始め
10:01
with a lot of pollution. And gasoline consumption, or production,
多くの汚染の問題も生じました ガソリンの消費や製造は
10:05
will reach its limit in about ten years, and then go down,
この10年ほどでピークに到達し その後は下り坂になるでしょう
10:11
and we wonder what's going to happen with transportation.
すると交通手段はどうなるのか
10:16
I wanted to show the slide --
スライドをお見せします
10:22
this slide, I think, is the most important one any of you will see, ever, because --
これはみなさんが目にする中で最重要の一枚です
10:25
(Laughter)
絶対に (笑)
10:34
(Applause) --
(拍手)
10:36
it shows nature versus humans, and goes from 1850 to 2050.
自然と人間を比べて1850年から2050年までをプロットしています
10:39
And so, the year 2000, you see there.
2000年のところを見て下さい
10:46
And this is the weight of all air and land vertebrates.
このカーブが全ての地上と空の脊椎動物の重量
10:49
Humans and muskrats and giraffes and birds and so on, are --
ヒトとジャコウネズミ キリンや鳥
10:54
the red line goes up. That's the humans and livestock and pets portion.
赤いラインが立ち上がっています これがヒトと家畜とペットの寄与です
10:59
The green line goes down. That's the wild nature portion.
緑のラインは落ち込んでいます これは野生動物です
11:06
Humans, livestock and pets are, now, 98 percent of the total world's mass
世界の脊椎動物の重量の98%は
11:10
of vertebrates on land and air.
ヒトと家畜とペットになっています
11:16
And you don't know what the future will hold,
将来がどうなるかは定かではありませんが
11:19
but it's not going to get a lower percentage.
その割合が下がることはないでしょう
11:22
Ten thousand years ago, the humans and livestock and pets
1万年前にはヒトと家畜とペットは
11:26
were not even one tenth of one percent
0.1%にも満たない存在でした
11:30
and wouldn't even have been visible on such a curve.
このようなグラフ上では見えないほどでしたが
11:32
Now they are 98 percent, and it, I think, shows human domination of the Earth.
今や98% これがヒトが地球を支配している事を示しています
11:36
I give a talk to some remarkable high school students each summer,
私は 毎年夏に優秀な高校生に講演しており
11:47
and ask them, after they've asked me questions,
質問を受けた後 最後に私から質問します
11:54
and I give them a talk and so on. Then I ask them questions.
私が出す質問は
11:57
What's the population of the Earth?
世界の人口はどれほどかというものです
12:01
What's the population of the Earth going to be
君たちが両親の年齢に達するときの
12:03
when you're the age of your parents?
世界の人口はどれほどか
12:05
Which I'd never, really -- they had never, really, thought about
そんなことを考えた事が無かったとしても
12:07
but, now, they think about it.
考えてもらいます
12:09
And then, what population of the Earth would be an equilibrium
そしてまた地球の人口の持続可能な平衡点がどこにあるのか
12:11
that could continue on, and be for 2050, 2100, 2150?
2050年や2100年や2150年の人口はどれぐらいか
12:18
And they form little groups, all fighting with each other,
少人数のグループを作らせて 議論させます
12:24
and when I leave, two hours later,
2時間後 散会するときにはたいてい
12:27
most of them are saying about 2 billion people,
20億人ほどという意見が多いです
12:29
and they don't have any clue about how to get down to 2 billion,
そこまで減らす方法についてのアイデアはありませんが
12:33
nor do I, but I think they're right and this is a serious problem.
これは重要な問題で おそらく彼らの考えは正しいでしょう
12:38
Rachel Carson was thinking of these, and came out with "Silent Spring," way back.
レイチェル=カーソンはずっと以前にこのような事を考え “沈黙の春” を記しました
12:46
"Solar Manifesto" by Hermann Scheer, in Germany,
ドイツのヘルマン=シェーアの “ソーラー宣言”では
12:53
claims all energy on Earth can be derived, for every country,
地球の全ての国で使うエネルギーは
12:57
from solar energy and water, and so on.
太陽エネルギーと水から賄うことが可能であり
13:02
You don't need to dig down for these chemicals,
石油化学のために地下を掘る必要はないこと
13:10
and we can do things much more efficiently.
もっと効率的に暮らして行けることが謳われています
13:13
Let's have the next slide.
次のスライドを見てみましょう
13:17
So this just summarizes it. "Over billions of years,
偶然のいたずらによって かけがえ無い惑星の表層を
13:19
on a unique sphere, chance has painted a thin covering of life --
数十億年に渡って 飾ることになった生命は
13:22
complex and probable, wonderful and fragile.
複雑で ありえないほどに素晴らしく そして脆い存在でした
13:25
Suddenly, we humans, a recently arrived species,
突然我々人類が登場すると
13:28
no longer subject to the checks and balances inherent in nature,
自然のチェックアンドバランスの仕組みに従わずに
13:31
have grown in population, technology and intelligence
人口や技術や知性を成長させて脅威的な
13:35
to a position of terrible power. We, now, wield the paintbrush."
パワーを獲得し 地表の彩りも定めんばかりです
13:38
We're in charge. It's frightening.
我々が責任を負うのです 恐ろしいことです
13:42
And I do a painting every 20 or 25 years. This is the last one.
私は20年か25年ごとに絵を描いていますが これが最新の絵です
13:46
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:51
And [it] shows the Earth in a time flag: on the right,
地球を示しています 右側に時間を表す目印があります
13:53
in trilobites and dinosaurs and so on;
三葉虫や恐竜などです
13:57
and over the triangle, we now get to civilization and TV
三角の地点で我々は文明に到達しテレビや
14:00
and traffic jams and so on.
交通渋滞などもあります
14:05
I have no idea of what comes next,
これから何が来るか分かりません
14:07
so I just used robotic and natural cockroaches as the future,
そこで未来の目印としてはロボットと自然のゴキブリを用いました
14:10
as a little warning.
ささやかな警告というわけです
14:15
And two weeks after this drawing was done,
この絵を描いた 2週間後に
14:17
we actually had our first project contract, at AeroVironment,
エアロバイロメントではゴキブリのロボットについて
14:20
on robotic cockroaches, which was very frightening to me.
最初のプロジェクトの契約を締結しました 恐ろしいことです
14:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:29
(Paper rustling)
14:31
Well, that'll be all the slides.
これで用意したスライドは全部
14:34
As time went on, we stopped our environmental programs.
時間の経過とともに 環境に関するプログラムは休止し
14:41
We focused more on the really serious energy problems
本当に深刻な未来のエネルギー問題に注力しました
14:44
of the future, and we produced products for the company.
製品も開発しました
14:49
And we developed the impact car that General Motors made,
ゼネラルモーター製の “インパクト” や
14:56
the EV1, out of --
“EV1”という車です
15:01
and got the Air Resources Board to have the regulations
大気資源委員会に働きかけて電気自動車を推進するような
15:04
that stimulated the electric cars, but they've since come apart.
法案を求めましたが それはばらばらになってしまいました
15:11
And we've done a lot of things, small drone airplanes and so on.
無線操縦の小型飛行機など他にもたくさんのことをしています
15:15
I have a Helios. We have the first video.
ヘリオスもあります これが最初のビデオ
15:22
(Video) Narrator: With a wingspan of 247 feet, this makes her larger than a Boeing 747.
ナレーター: 翼幅75m これはボーイング747よりも大きいのです
15:29
(Music)
(音楽)
15:34
Her designers' attention to detail and her construction
注意深い設計に従って製造された
15:43
gives Helios' structure the flexibility and strength
ヘリオスの構造は飛行中の気流の乱れに
15:46
to deal with the turbulence encountered in the atmosphere.
柔軟性と十分な強度で対応します
15:49
This enables her to easily ride through the air currents
こうして海で波のりをするように
15:52
as if she's sliding along on the ocean waves.
気流を捉えて飛行することができます
15:55
Paul MacCready: The wings could touch together on top and not break. We think.
マクレディー: 翼の先端同士が触れるほど変形させても壊れることはない...はずです
15:58
(Laughter)
(笑)
16:03
Narrator: And Helios now begins the process of turning her back to the sun,
ナレーター: ヘリオスがこのように背面を太陽に向けると
16:06
to maximize the power from her solar array.
太陽電池パネルの出力は最大となり
16:09
(Music)
(音楽)
16:12
As the sky gets darker, and the outside air temperatures drop
ヘリオスの旅の中でもっとも厳しい環境下では
16:20
below minus 100 degrees Fahrenheit,
空は暗く 外気温は -70℃まで下がりました
16:24
the most environmentally hostile segment of Helios's journey
しかし特別仕様のデータ収集システムと
16:27
has gone by without notice,
センサーの記録以外には
16:30
except for being recorded by specially designed data acquisition systems
何の異変も無いままに
16:32
and their associated sensors.
そこを通り抜けました
16:36
Approaching a peak radar altitude of 96,863 feet,
午後4時12分に高度2万9500 m の最高地点に到達しました
16:39
at 4:12 p.m., Helios is standing on top of 98 percent of the Earth's atmosphere.
地球大気の98%よりも上まで到達したのです
16:44
This is more than 10,000 feet higher
SR-71 ブラックバード機による飛行高度の世界記録を
16:49
than the previous world's altitude record held by the SR-71 Blackbird.
3000メートルも更新しました
16:52
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:57
PM: That plane has many purposes, but it's aimed for communications,
マクレディー: この飛行機にはいろいろな目的がありましたが 狙いは通信で
17:06
and it can fly so slowly that it'll just stay up at 65,000 feet.
非常にゆっくり飛行するので高度わずか2万メートルまで上がれば
17:11
Eventually, it will be able to have to stay up day, night, day, night,
6ヶ月にわたる1フライトの期間中は
17:18
for six months at a time, acting like the synchronous satellite,
昼夜を問わずそこに留まって 静止衛星の役目を果たしますが
17:21
but only ten miles above the Earth.
高度はわずか1万6千メートルです
17:25
Let's have the next video. This shows the other end of the spectrum.
次のビデオをご覧ください これは対極の姿です
17:27
(Video) Narrator: A tiny airplane, the AV Pointer serves for surveillance.
ナレーター: AVポインターと呼ばれる小型機は偵察用の
17:30
In effect a pair of roving eyeglasses,
空飛ぶ双眼鏡とも呼ぶべき物
17:33
a cutting-edge example of where miniaturization can lead
操縦者が搭乗しない遠隔操作技術によって
17:35
if the operator is remote from the vehicle.
ここまで小型化できるという最新技術の例です
17:38
It is convenient to carry, assemble, and launch by hand.
人力での輸送や組み立てや離陸の利便性に優れます
17:41
Battery-powered, it is silent and rarely noticed.
動力は電池で 静音なので気付かれにくく
17:44
It sends high-resolution video pictures back to the operator.
高解像度のビデオをオペレータに送ります
17:48
With on-board GPS, it can navigate autonomously,
GPS 搭載で自動制御飛行し
17:51
and it is rugged enough to self-land without damage.
自動着陸させても損傷しないほどの強度があります
17:55
PM: Okay, and let's have the next.
マクレディー: では次 --
17:59
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:01
That plane is widely used by the military, now, in all their operations.
この飛行機は軍のあらゆる作戦で広く使われています
18:05
Let's have the next video.
次のビデオに進みましょう
18:10
(Video) (Music)
(音楽)
18:14
Alan Alda: He's got it, he's got it, he's got it on his head.
やった やった ほら頭の上のところ
18:28
(Music)
(音楽)
18:30
We're going to end our visit with Paul MacCready's flying circus
ポール=マクレディーの飛行機サーカス訪問の最後は
18:32
by meeting his son, Tyler, who, with his two brothers,
25年前にゴッサマーコンドルの制作を兄弟で手伝った
18:35
helped build the Gossamer Condor, 25 years ago.
ご子息のタイラーさんです
18:38
Tyler MacCready: You can chase it, like this, for hours.
こうやって追って行くと何時間でも飛んでいます
18:42
AA: When they got bored with their father's project,
父親のプロジェクトに飽きたときに 彼ら自身も
18:44
they invented an extraordinary little plane of their own.
突拍子もない飛行機を発明しました
18:47
TM: And I can control it by putting the lift on one side of the wing, or on the other.
翼の片方を押し上げて飛び方を制御できます
18:49
AA: They called it their Walkalong Glider.
これはウォーク=アロング=グライダーといいます
18:54
(Music)
(音楽)
18:56
I've never seen anything like that.
こんなものは 初めて見ました
18:58
How old were you when you invented that?
これを発明したとき いくつでしたか?
18:59
TM: Oh, 10, 11. (AA: Oh my God.)
10歳か11歳か
19:01
TM: 12, something like that. (AA: That's amazing.)
12歳ぐらいでしたか ― たいしたものだ ―
19:04
PM: And Tyler's here to show you the Walkalong.
ではタイラーが ウォーク=アロング=グライダーを実演します
19:06
(Applause)
(拍手)
19:09
TM: All right. You all got a couple of these in your gift bags,
みなさんのギフトバッグに
19:14
and one of the first things,
2機ずつ入っています
19:18
the production version seemed to dive a little bit,
製品版は下向きのクセがあるので
19:21
and so I would just suggest you bend the wing tips up a little bit
飛ばす前には
19:23
before you try flying it.
翼端を少しねじり上げておくといいでしょう
19:26
I'll give you a demonstration of how it works.
どう飛ばすのか実演しましょう
19:28
The idea is that it soars on the lift over your body, like a seagull soaring on a cliff.
崖に生じる上昇気流に舞うカモメのように
19:30
As the wind comes up, it has to go over the cliff, so
皆さんの周りの上昇気流に乗せるというアイデアです
19:36
as you walk through the air, it goes around your body, some has to go over you.
皆さんが空気中を歩くと 空気の流れの一部は上昇気流となります
19:39
And so you just keep the glider positioned in that up current.
そこでグライダーをその上昇気流の中に捉えるようにします
19:44
The launch is the difficult part: you've got to hold it high up, over your head,
飛び始めは難しくて 頭上高くに掲げたら
19:47
and you start walking forward, and just let go of it, and you can control it like that.
前に歩き出すとともに 機体を離すと こうやって操縦できます
19:50
(Laughter)
(笑)
19:56
And then also, like it said in the video,
それから ビデオのように
19:58
you can turn it left or right
どちらかの翼を押し上げるようにして
20:01
just by putting the lift under one wing or another.
左右に旋回させることができます
20:03
So I can do it -- oops, that was going to be a right turn.
こんなふうに -- 右に曲げるつもりでしたが --
20:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
20:10
Okay, this one will be a left turn.
こんどは左旋回をしてみましょう
20:11
Here, but --
ほら
20:15
(Applause) --
(拍手)
20:17
anyway.
ほら
20:18
(Applause)
(拍手)
20:20
And that's it, so you can just control it, wherever you want,
以上です こうして思うように操縦して
20:23
and it's just hours of fun. And these are no longer in production,
何時間でも飛ばせます もう製造されていないので
20:26
so you have real collector's items.
希少なコレクターアイテムと言えます
20:30
(Laughter)
(笑)
20:32
And this, we just wanted to show you --
ここでお見せしたかったのは
20:34
if we can get the video running on this, yeah --
ビデオの例です
20:39
just an example of a little video surveillance.
小さなビデオ監視機です
20:41
(Laughter)
(笑)
20:47
This was flying around in the party last night, and --
これは夕べのパーティーの最中に飛ばしました
20:49
(Laughter) --
(笑)
20:53
you can see how it just can fly around,
こんなふうに飛び回って
20:55
and you can spy on anybody you want.
だれでも気になる人のことを探れるのです
20:58
(Laughter)
(笑)
21:00
And that's it. I was going to bring an airplane,
以上です 飛行機を持ち込もうかとも思いましたが
21:06
but I was worried about hitting people in here,
ご覧の皆さんにぶつかるといけないので
21:08
so I thought this would be a little bit more gentle.
この機体のほうが無難と考えました
21:10
And that's it, yeah, just a few inventions.
以上発明の幾つかをご紹介しました
21:14
(Applause)
(拍手)
21:17
All right.
結構です
21:25
Translator:Natsuhiko Mizutani
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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Paul MacCready - Engineer
Paul MacCready, an aircraft designer and environmentalist, is a pioneer of human-powered flight, alternative energy for transportation, and environmentally responsible design.

Why you should listen

Through his life, Paul MacCready turned his mind, energy and heart toward his two passions: flight and the Earth. His early training as a fighter and glider pilot (glider pilots still use the "MacCready speed ring" he developed after World War II) led him to explore nontraditional flight and nontraditional energy sources.

In the 1970s, he and his company, AeroVironment, designed and built two record-breaking human-powered planes: the Gossamer Condor, the first human-powered aircraft to complete a one-mile course set by the Kremer Prize, and the Gossamer Albatross, the first to cross the English Channel. The planes' avian names reveal the deep insight that MacCready brought to the challenge -- that large birds, in their wing shape and flying style, possess an elegant secret of flight.

He then turned his wide-ranging mind toward environmentally responsible design, informed by his belief that human expansion poses a grave threat to the natural world. His team at AeroVironment prototyped an electric car that became General Motors' pioneering EV-1. They explored alternative energy sources, including building-top wind turbines. And they developed a fleet of fascinating aircraft -- including his Helios solar-powered glider, built to fly in the very top 2 percent of Earth's atmosphere, and the 2005 Global Observer, the first unmanned plane powered by hydrogen cells.

 

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