TEDWomen 2016

Kimberlé Crenshaw: The urgency of intersectionality

キンバレー・クレンショー: インターセクショナリティの緊急性

Filmed:

かつてないほどに、人種と性別の偏見の現実をはっきりと理解することは重要になっています。さらに、この2つが組み合わさるとよりどれ程ひどいことになるのかを理解することも重要です。キンバレー・クレンショーはこの現象を説明するのに「インターセクショナリティ」という言葉を使います。もしあなたが立っている場所が複数の差別の通る道の交差点なら、おそらく両方に轢かれるだろうと言うのです。この心を動かすトークの中で彼女は、私たちにこの現実の目撃証人となり、差別の被害者の側に立って声を上げるよう呼びかけています。

- Civil rights advocate
As a pioneer in critical race theory, Kimberlé Crenshaw helped open the discussion of the double bind faced by victims of simultaneous racial and gender prejudice. Full bio

- Artist
Passionate about using music as a tool for empathy cultivation, Abby Dobson creates music to inspire audiences to reflect on the world we live in and engage in action to promote transformative social change. Full bio

新しいことを試したいと思います
00:12
I'd like to try something new.
参加していただける方は
00:15
Those of you who are able,
立ちあがってください
00:16
please stand up.
私は今からいくつか名前をあげます
00:20
OK, so I'm going to name some names.
聞いたことのない名前だったり
00:23
When you hear a name
that you don't recognize,
その人たちについて何も語れなければ
00:26
you can't tell me anything about them,
そのまま席に着いてください
00:28
I'd like you to take a seat
00:29
and stay seated.
最後まで残った人に知っていることを伺います
いいですか?
00:32
The last person standing,
we're going to see what they know. OK?
(笑)
00:35
(Laughter)
いくわ
00:37
All right.
エリック・ガーナー
00:38
Eric Garner.
マイク・ブラウン
00:42
Mike Brown.
タミア・ライス
00:46
Tamir Rice.
フレディ・グレイ
00:51
Freddie Gray.
まだ立っている皆さんは
00:56
So those of you who are still standing,
周りを見てください
00:57
I'd like you to turn around
and take a look.
まだ立っている人が半分よりも多いようです
01:00
I'd say half to most of the people
are still standing.
続けましょう
01:04
So let's continue.
ミシェル・カソー
01:07
Michelle Cusseaux.
タニーシャ・アンダーソン
01:15
Tanisha Anderson.
オーラ・ロッサー
01:22
Aura Rosser.
メーガン・ホッケデー
01:27
Meagan Hockaday.
もう一度見てみると
01:30
So if we look around again,
4人がまだ立っていますが
01:32
there are about four people
still standing,
実際には当てません
01:35
and actually I'm not going
to put you on the spot.
本当に知っている人だけを残すための
お願いでした 座って結構です
01:37
I just say that to encourage transparency,
so you can be seated.
(笑)
01:41
(Laughter)
名前が知られていた最初のグループは
01:44
So those of you who recognized
the first group of names know
ここ2年半の間に警察に殺された
01:47
that these were African-Americans
who have been killed by the police
アフリカ系アメリカ人たちです
01:51
over the last two and a half years.
知られていなかった
01:54
What you may not know
もう一つのリストもここ2年の間に殺された
01:56
is that the other list
is also African-Americans
アフリカ系アメリカ人たちです
02:01
who have been killed
within the last two years.
名前を知っているか知らないかの違いは
02:07
Only one thing distinguishes
the names that you know
たった一つ
02:11
from the names that you don't know:
性別です
02:14
gender.
まず初めにお伝えしますが
02:16
So let me first let you know
that there's nothing at all distinct
皆さんのこの認識パターンは
02:22
about this audience
何も特別なことではありません
02:24
that explains the pattern of recognition
that we've just seen.
私は米国中で何十回も
この実験を行ってきました
02:28
I've done this exercise
dozens of times around the country.
女性の人権保護団体で行いました
02:32
I've done it to women's
rights organizations.
市民権利団体で行いました
02:35
I've done it with civil rights groups.
教授たちに行いました
学生たちに行いました
02:37
I've done it with professors.
I've done it with students.
心理学者に行いました
社会学者に行いました
02:40
I've done it with psychologists.
I've done it with sociologists.
アメリカ連邦議会の
進歩派の議員にさえも行いました
02:44
I've done it even with
progressive members of Congress.
どこでも 警察による
02:48
And everywhere, the awareness
of the level of police violence
黒人女性に対しての暴力の認知度は
02:52
that black women experience
非常に低いです
02:54
is exceedingly low.
この事実は驚きですよね
02:57
Now, it is surprising, isn't it,
that this would be the case.
つまり
ここに2つの問題が関わっています
03:01
I mean, there are two issues
involved here.
アフリカ系アメリカ人に対する警察の暴力と
03:03
There's police violence
against African-Americans,
女性に対する警察の暴力です
03:06
and there's violence against women,
これら2つの問題は
近年盛んに議論されています
03:08
two issues that have been
talked about a lot lately.
しかしこれらの問題に
誰が巻き込まれているのか
03:11
But when we think about
who is implicated by these problems,
誰がこれらの問題の犠牲者に
なっているのかを考えるときには
03:17
when we think about
who is victimized by these problems,
これらの黒人女性の名前は
絶対に浮かんできません
03:21
the names of these black women
never come to mind.
さて コミュニケーションの専門家によれば
03:25
Now, communications experts tell us
ある事実が既存の枠組みに合わなければ
03:28
that when facts do not fit
with the available frames,
ある問題についての考え方の中に
その新しい事実を
03:32
people have a difficult time
incorporating new facts
取り入れるのは難しいのです
03:36
into their way of thinking
about a problem.
この女性たちの名前は
私たちの意識から滑り落ちていました
03:40
These women's names
have slipped through our consciousness
それは私たちに
彼女たちを目にする枠組みがなく
03:44
because there are no frames
for us to see them,
彼女たちを覚える枠組みがなく
03:47
no frames for us to remember them,
彼女たちを心に留める枠組みがないからです
03:49
no frames for us to hold them.
結果として
03:53
As a consequence,
リポーターはトップニュースにせず
03:55
reporters don't lead with them,
政策立案者は彼女たちについて考えず
03:58
policymakers don't think about them,
政治家は彼女たちと話すことを促されたり
要求されたりしません
04:01
and politicians aren't encouraged
or demanded that they speak to them.
なぜ枠組みが重要であるのか
04:07
Now, you might ask,
尋ねるかもしれません
04:09
why does a frame matter?
つまり 結局
04:10
I mean, after all,
黒人に影響する問題や
女性に影響する問題は
04:12
an issue that affects black people
and an issue that affects women,
必然的に 女性である黒人や
黒人である女性を
04:18
wouldn't that necessarily include
black people who are women
含むのではないのかという問いです
04:22
and women who are black people?
単純な答えとしては 社会的平等に対して
浸透を待つようなそんなアプローチでは
04:25
Well, the simple answer is that this is
a trickle-down approach to social justice,
ほとんどの場合うまくいかないからです
04:30
and many times it just doesn't work.
目標に掲げたグループの
あらゆるメンバーが
04:34
Without frames that allow us to see
社会問題からどんな影響を受けるかが
見える枠組みがなければ
04:36
how social problems impact
all the members of a targeted group,
たくさんの人が私たちの
運動の隙間から落ちていき
04:41
many will fall through the cracks
of our movements,
事実上の孤独に苦しみ続けます
04:44
left to suffer in virtual isolation.
しかし 枠組みがないままである
必要はありません
04:49
But it doesn't have to be this way.
何年も前 私は「インターセクショナリティ」
という言葉を使い始めました
04:53
Many years ago, I began to use
the term "intersectionality"
人種差別や性差別など
社会的平等の問題の多くが
04:59
to deal with the fact
that many of our social justice problems
05:03
like racism and sexism
しばしば重なり合い
05:05
are often overlapping,
社会的不平等が多層構造になっているという
現実を扱うためです
05:07
creating multiple levels
of social injustice.
インターセクショナリティが
生まれるきっかけとなったのは
05:13
Now, the experience
that gave rise to intersectionality
エマ・デグラフェンリードという
女性との偶然の出会いです
05:18
was my chance encounter
with a woman named Emma DeGraffenreid.
エマ・デグラフェンリードは
アフリカ系アメリカ人で
05:24
Emma DeGraffenreid
was an African-American woman,
働く妻であり 母親でした
05:27
a working wife and a mother.
エマの話を読んだのは
ある法的な見解を論じたページで
05:30
I actually read about Emma's story
from the pages of a legal opinion
実は 記事を書いた裁判官は
05:36
written by a judge
who had dismissed Emma's claim
地域の自動車工場による
人種と性別の差別について
05:40
of race and gender discrimination
05:42
against a local car manufacturing plant.
エマの訴えを却下したのでした
エマは他のたくさんの
アフリカ系アメリカ人女性のように
05:47
Emma, like so many African-American women,
家族や身の回りの人のために
もっと良い仕事を探していました
05:51
sought better employment
for her family and for others.
彼女は子供たちや家族のために
もっといい人生を願ったのです
05:54
She wanted to create a better life
for her children and for her family.
しかし仕事に申し込むと
05:59
But she applied for a job,
彼女は採用されませんでした
06:01
and she was not hired,
彼女は 黒人女性だから
採用されなかったのだと考えました
06:03
and she believed that she was not hired
because she was a black woman.
問題の裁判官はエマの訴えを却下しました
06:07
Now, the judge in question
dismissed Emma's suit,
棄却した根拠は
06:12
and the argument
for dismissing the suit was
雇用主がアフリカ系アメリカ人も
06:14
that the employer
did hire African-Americans
女性も採用していたことです
06:19
and the employer hired women.
しかし裁判官が認定しようとしなかった
本当の問題は
06:23
The real problem, though, that the judge
was not willing to acknowledge
エマが実際に訴えたかったことで
こうです
06:27
was what Emma was actually trying to say,
アフリカ系アメリカ人が採用されるとしても
06:30
that the African-Americans
that were hired,
たいてい工場業務や 保守管理業務で
すべて男性です
06:33
usually for industrial jobs,
maintenance jobs, were all men.
女性が採用されるとしても
06:39
And the women that were hired,
ほとんど秘書や窓口業務としてであり
06:41
usually for secretarial
or front-office work,
すべて白人です
06:44
were all white.
これらの採用方針が合わさると
どうなるかを 裁判官が理解できれば
06:46
Only if the court was able to see
how these policies came together
エマ・デグラフェンリードが直面している
06:51
would he be able to see
the double discrimination
二重の差別を見抜けたことでしょう
06:54
that Emma DeGraffenreid was facing.
しかし裁判所は2つの訴因が合わさって
彼女の訴えに至ったとは
06:58
But the court refused to allow Emma
to put two causes of action together
認めませんでした
07:04
to tell her story
それを認めてしまったら
07:05
because he believed that,
by allowing her to do that,
優遇措置を受けることが
可能になるからです
07:09
she would be able
to have preferential treatment.
アフリカ系アメリカ人男性と白人の女性に
一度の機会が与えられるときに
07:13
She would have an advantage
by having two swings at the bat,
彼女は二度の機会を得ることになるのです
07:18
when African-American men and white women
only had one swing at the bat.
しかしもちろんアフリカ系アメリカ人男性も
白人女性も
07:24
But of course, neither
African-American men or white women
自分たちが経験した差別について語るのに
07:29
needed to combine a race
and gender discrimination claim
人種や性別の差別を組み合わせた
訴えを起こす必要はないのです
07:33
to tell the story of the discrimination
they were experiencing.
単に白人女性やアフリカ系アメリカ人男性と
07:39
Why wasn't the real unfairness
全く同じ経験をしていないからといって
07:42
law's refusal to protect
African-American women
法律がアフリカ系アメリカ人の女性を
守らないのは
07:46
simply because their experiences
weren't exactly the same
まさしく不公平ではありませんか
07:50
as white women and African-American men?
裁判所は 枠組みを広げてアフリカ系
アメリカ人女性を含むようにはせず
07:55
Rather than broadening the frame
to include African-American women,
彼女たちの問題は取り上げないと
あっさり放棄したのです
08:00
the court simply tossed their case
completely out of court.
差別禁止法の研究者として
08:05
Now, as a student
of antidiscrimination law,
男女同権主義者として
08:09
as a feminist,
人種差別反対主義者として
08:11
as an antiracist,
この判例が突き刺さりました
08:13
I was struck by this case.
私は不平等で四方を囲まれていると感じました
08:17
It felt to me like injustice squared.
まず
08:21
So first of all,
黒人女性は工場で働くことを
許可されませんでした
08:23
black women weren't allowed
to work at the plant.
2つ目に 裁判所が
訴えは法的に合理性はないとしたので
08:27
Second of all, the court
doubled down on this exclusion
この排除がさらに強固なものになりました
08:31
by making it legally inconsequential.
それらに加え この問題に対して
名称がありませんでした
08:35
And to boot, there was
no name for this problem.
言うまでもなく 問題に名称がなければ
08:39
And we all know that,
where there's no name for a problem,
理解できませんし
08:42
you can't see a problem,
理解することができなければ
解決はおぼつきません
08:44
and when you can't see a problem,
you pretty much can't solve it.
何年も後に エマが直面していた問題は
08:49
Many years later, I had come to recognize
枠組みの問題だと私は気付きました
08:52
that the problem that Emma was facing
was a framing problem.
裁判所が使っていた枠組みは
08:58
The frame that the court was using
性差別を識別するための
また人種差別を識別するための枠組みであり
09:00
to see gender discrimination
or to see race discrimination
部分的で歪んでいました
09:05
was partial, and it was distorting.
私が直面していた課題は
09:09
For me, the challenge that I faced was
もっと違う説明の仕方を
考え出すことです
09:12
trying to figure out whether
there was an alternative narrative,
エマのジレンマを分かりやすくする
プリズムであり
09:17
a prism that would allow us
to see Emma's dilemma,
彼女を法律の隙間から救出するプリズムであり
09:22
a prism that would allow us
to rescue her from the cracks in the law,
裁判官が彼女の話を理解しやすくなる
説明を考え出したかったのです
09:28
that would allow judges to see her story.
私が思いついたのは
09:32
So it occurred to me,
簡単に交差点でたとえることで
09:34
maybe a simple analogy to an intersection
エマのジレンマを裁判官が
理解できるかもしれないということでした
09:39
might allow judges
to better see Emma's dilemma.
こんな交差点を考えてみました
09:44
So if we think about this intersection,
the roads to the intersection would be
道路は それぞれ人種と性別で構成した
全従業員の構造です
09:49
the way that the workforce
was structured by race and by gender.
その道を通る車輛は 採用方針や
09:56
And then the traffic in those roads
would be the hiring policies
この道に沿ったいろいろな運用です
10:00
and the other practices
that ran through those roads.
エマは黒人であり女性でもあるので
10:05
Now, because Emma
was both black and female,
彼女はまさにこれらの道が
交わる地点に立ち
10:10
she was positioned precisely
where those roads overlapped,
その会社の性別と人種に関しての方針からの
10:15
experiencing the simultaneous impact
2種の影響を同時に受けています
10:19
of the company's gender and race traffic.
法律は いわば救急車で
10:25
The law -- the law is
like that ambulance that shows up
エマが 人種差別の道路か
性差別の道路で
10:31
and is ready to treat Emma
only if it can be shown
けがをしたことが明らかになれば
彼女を手当てします
10:34
that she was harmed
on the race road or on the gender road
しかし交差点では手当しないのです
10:39
but not where those roads intersected.
複数の力に突き飛ばされた後で
10:43
So what do you call
being impacted by multiple forces
自分でなんとかするようにと
見捨てられることを何と呼びますか
10:49
and then abandoned to fend for yourself?
インターセクショナリティが
適切だと私は思いました
10:53
Intersectionality seemed to do it for me.
アフリカ系アメリカ人女性は
10:57
I would go on to learn
that African-American women,
他の有色人種の女性のように
11:02
like other women of color,
世界中の他の社会的に
排除されている人々のように
11:04
like other socially marginalized people
all over the world,
インターセクショナリティによって
11:08
were facing all kinds
of dilemmas and challenges
あらゆる困難に直面しています
11:12
as a consequence of intersectionality,
人種と性別の交差点
11:15
intersections of race and gender,
同性愛差別、性同一性障害差別、外国人嫌悪
障碍者差別の交差点
11:19
of heterosexism, transphobia,
xenophobia, ableism,
さまざまな社会的な動きが合わさって
11:24
all of these social dynamics come together
まったく固有の困難が
生じることがあります
11:29
and create challenges
that are sometimes quite unique.
しかし同じ方法で
11:34
But in the same way
インターセクショナリティは
11:36
that intersectionality
黒人女性の生き方への関心を高め
11:39
raised our awareness to the way
that black women live their lives,
またアフリカ系アメリカ人女性が亡くなる
11:45
it also exposes the tragic circumstances
悲惨な状況を白日の下にさらします
11:49
under which African-American women die.
黒人女性に対する警官の暴力は
11:54
Police violence against black women
まさしく現実です
11:57
is very real.
黒人女性が直面している暴力は
11:59
The level of violence
that black women face
警官と遭遇した女性の中に
12:02
is such that it's not surprising
生き永らえなかった人がいたと聞いても
驚かないほどの酷さです
12:05
that some of them do not survive
their encounters with police.
わずか7歳の女の子から
12:11
Black girls as young as seven,
95歳のおばあちゃんまでの黒人女性が
12:14
great grandmothers as old as 95
警察に殺されています
12:19
have been killed by the police.
リビングで殺され
12:21
They've been killed in their living rooms,
寝室で殺されました
12:24
in their bedrooms.
車の中で殺されました
12:26
They've been killed in their cars.
路上で殺されました
12:29
They've been killed on the street.
親の目の前で殺されました
12:31
They've been killed
in front of their parents
子供の目の前でさえ殺されました
12:34
and they've been killed
in front of their children.
撃たれて殺されました
12:37
They have been shot to death.
踏みつけられて殺されました
12:40
They have been stomped to death.
窒息死させられました
12:43
They have been suffocated to death.
虐待によって殺されました
12:46
They have been manhandled to death.
テーザー銃で撃たれて殺されました
(電気銃)
12:49
They have been tasered to death.
助けを呼んでいる間に殺されました
12:52
They've been killed
when they've called for help.
一人でいるときに殺されました
12:57
They've been killed when they were alone,
他の人といるときに殺されました
13:00
and they've been killed
when they were with others.
黒人なのに買い物しているから殺され
13:04
They've been killed shopping while black,
黒人なのに運転しているから殺され
13:08
driving while black,
黒人なのに精神障害があるから殺され
13:11
having a mental disability while black,
黒人なのに家庭内でもめているから
殺されました
13:14
having a domestic disturbance while black.
黒人なのにホームレスだからという
理由でさえ殺されました
13:19
They've even been killed
being homeless while black.
携帯電話で通話中に
13:24
They've been killed
talking on the cell phone,
友達と笑っているときに
13:26
laughing with friends,
盗難車に座っているときに
13:29
sitting in a car reported as stolen
ホワイトハウスの前でUターンしたときに―
13:32
and making a U-turn
in front of the White House
後部座席には
シートベルトをした幼児も乗っていたのに
13:35
with an infant strapped
in the backseat of the car.
なぜ私たちは知らないのでしょうか
13:39
Why don't we know these stories?
彼女たちの命が失われたときには
13:44
Why is it that their lost lives
メディアの注目や
社会的な抗議活動の勢いは
13:48
don't generate the same amount
of media attention and communal outcry
彼女たちの兄弟が命を失ったときほどには
ならないのはなぜでしょう
13:53
as the lost lives
of their fallen brothers?
今が変わるときです
13:57
It's time for a change.
私たちに何ができるでしょうか
14:02
So what can we do?
2014年
アフリカ系アメリカ人の政策フォーラムは
14:06
In 2014, the African-American
Policy Forum began to demand
「彼女の名前を言う」運動を呼びかけました
14:12
that we "say her name"
集会で デモ活動で
14:16
at rallies, at protests,
討論会で 会議で
14:19
at conferences, at meetings,
黒人に対する国家暴力が議論されている
14:22
anywhere and everywhere
どんな場所でも すべての場所においてです
14:25
that state violence against black bodies
is being discussed.
しかし彼女の名前を言うだけでは
十分ではありません
14:30
But saying her name is not enough.
もっとたくさんのことを
進んでしなければなりません
14:33
We have to be willing to do more.
私たちは進んで証言しなければなりません
14:35
We have to be willing to bear witness,
しばしば痛ましいことの起こる現実に
立ち向かうだけではなく
14:39
to bear witness
to the often painful realities
証言しなければなりません
14:42
that we would just rather not confront,
日常的な暴力や屈辱に
黒人の女性は直面していること
14:45
the everyday violence and humiliation
that many black women have had to face,
肌の色
14:52
black women across color,
年齢、性別表現
14:54
age, gender expression,
性的指向や障碍などに
かかわらずです
14:56
sexuality and ability.
私逹にはまさに今チャンスがあります
15:00
So we have the opportunity right now --
今から流す映像が 誰かのきっかけに
なるかもしれないことを
15:05
bearing in mind that some of the images
that I'm about to share with you
心に留めてください
15:09
may be triggering for some --
この暴力について
皆で証言するきっかけにしたいのです
15:11
to collectively bear witness
to some of this violence.
アビー・ドブソンの素晴らしい
歌声を聴いてください
15:17
We're going to hear the voice
of the phenomenal Abby Dobson.
彼女たちを受け入れてください
15:22
And as we sit with these women,
中には暴行された女性も
亡くなった女性も出てきます
15:26
some who have experienced violence
and some who have not survived them,
私たちにはチャンスがあります
15:33
we have an opportunity
このトークの最初の実験結果を覆す
チャンスです
15:34
to reverse what happened
at the beginning of this talk,
彼女たちの名前を知らなかったので
15:38
when we could not stand for these women
この女性たちのために
立っていられませんでしたね
15:41
because we did not know their names.
映像の最後に名前が列挙されます
15:45
So at the end of this clip,
there's going to be a roll call.
黒人女性の名前が次々と出てきます
15:50
Several black women's names will come up.
みなさん ぜひ彼女たちの名前を
呼んでください
15:54
I'd like those of you who are able
to join us in saying these names
できるだけ大きな声で
15:59
as loud as you can,
ランダムに 無秩序に叫んでください
16:01
randomly, disorderly.
不協和音を作りましょう
16:04
Let's create a cacophony of sound
私たちの意思を示すために
16:08
to represent our intention
彼女たちを高く掲げるために
16:11
to hold these women up,
彼女たちを受け入れるために
16:14
to sit with them,
彼女たちのことを証言するために
16:15
to bear witness to them,
彼女たちに光をあてるために
16:18
to bring them into the light.
(アビー・ドブソンの歌)言って
16:27
(Singing) Abby Dobson: Say,
♪彼女の名前を言って
16:35
say her name.
♪言って
[黒人女性への暴力についての沈黙を破るため]
16:42
Say,
♪彼女の名前を言って
16:49
say her name.
(聴衆)シェリー
16:54
(Audience) Shelly!
(聴衆)カイラ
16:56
(Audience) Kayla!
(歌)♪オー
16:57
AD: Oh,
♪彼女の名前を言って
17:05
say her name.
(聴衆が名前を叫ぶ)
17:11
(Audience shouting names)
♪言って 言って
17:14
Say, say,
♪彼女の名前を言って
17:21
say her name.
♪彼女の名前を言って
17:28
Say her name.
♪私が知るはずのない
17:34
For all the names
♪すべての名前を
[国家の暴力で犠牲となった全ての女性のため]
17:37
I'll never know,
♪彼女の名前を言って
17:44
say her name.
(クレンショー)
ジャニシャ・フォンヴィル
17:47
KC: Aiyanna Stanley Jones,
Janisha Fonville,
キャスリン・ジョンストン
カイラ・ムーア
17:50
Kathryn Johnston, Kayla Moore,
ミシェル・カソー
レキア・ボイ
17:52
Michelle Cusseaux, Rekia Boyd,
シェリー・フレイ
タリカ、イベット・スミス
17:55
Shelly Frey, Tarika, Yvette Smith.
(歌)♪彼女の名前を言って
18:00
AD: Say her name.
初めに話したように
18:10
KC: So I said at the beginning,
もし問題を見ることができなければ
18:13
if we can't see a problem,
問題を解決することもできません
18:17
we can't fix a problem.
私たちは一致団結して
命を失った女性達の
18:20
Together, we've come together
to bear witness
証人になることができます
18:23
to these women's lost lives.
しかし今は哀悼や嘆きから
18:26
But the time now is to move
18:29
from mourning and grief
行動と変革へと動く時です
18:31
to action and transformation.
これは私たちができることです
18:35
This is something that we can do.
私たちにかかっています
18:39
It's up to us.
参加してくださりありがとうございました
18:42
Thank you for joining us.
ありがとうございました
18:44
Thank you.
(拍手)
18:45
(Applause)
Translated by Shiori Watanabe
Reviewed by Natsuhiko Mizutani

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About the Speakers:

Kimberlé Crenshaw - Civil rights advocate
As a pioneer in critical race theory, Kimberlé Crenshaw helped open the discussion of the double bind faced by victims of simultaneous racial and gender prejudice.

Why you should listen

Kimberlé Crenshaw, professor of law at UCLA and Columbia Law School, is a leading authority in the area of cvil rights, Black feminist legal theory, and race, racism and the law. Her work has been foundational in two fields of study that have come to be known by terms that she coined: critical race theory and intersectionality.

Crenshaw’s articles have appeared in the Harvard Law Review, National Black Law Journal, Stanford Law Review and Southern California Law Review. She is the founding coordinator of the Critical Race Theory Workshop, and the co-editor of the volume, Critical Race Theory: Key Documents That Shaped the Movement. She has lectured widely on race matters, addressing audiences across the country as well as in Europe, India, Africa and South America. A specialist on race and gender equality, she has facilitated workshops for human rights activists in Brazil and in India, and for constitutional court judges in South Africa. Her groundbreaking work on intersectionality has traveled globally and was influential in the drafting of the equality clause in the South African Constitution.

Crenshaw authored the background paper on race and gender discrimination for the United Nation's World Conference on Racism, served as the rapporteur for the conference's expert group on gender and race discrimination, and coordinated NGO efforts to ensure the inclusion of gender in the WCAR Conference Declaration. She is a leading voice in calling for a gender-inclusive approach to racial justice interventions, having spearheaded the "Why We Can't Wait" campaign and co-authored Black Girls Matter: Pushed Out, Overpoliced and Underprotected, and Say Her Name: Resisting Police Brutality Against Black Women.

Crenshaw has worked extensively on a variety of issues pertaining to gender and race in the domestic arena including violence against women, structural racial inequality and affirmative action. She has served as a member of the National Science Foundation's committee to research violence against women and has consulted with leading foundations, social justice organizations and corporations to advance their race and gender equity initiatives.

In 1996, she co-founded the African American Policy Forum to house a variety of projects designed to deliver research-based strategies to better advance social inclusion. Among the Forum's projects are the Affirmative Action Research and Policy Consortium and the Multiracial Literacy and Leadership Initiative. In partnership with the Aspen Roundtable for Community Change, Crenshaw facilitated workshops on racial equity for hundreds of community leaders and organizations throughout the country. With the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, Crenshaw facilitates the Bellagio Project, an international network of scholars working in the field of social inclusion from five continents. She formerly served as Committee Chair for the U.S.-Brazil Joint Action Plan to Promote Racial and Ethnic Equality, an initiative of the U.S. State Department.

Crenshaw has received the Fulbright Distinguished Chair for Latin America, the Alphonse Fletcher Fellowship and was a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University in 2009 and a Visiting Fellow at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy in 2010. Currently, Crenshaw is director of the Center for Intersectionality and Social Policy Studies  at Columbia Law School, which she founded in 2011, as well as the Centennial Professor at the LSE Gender Institute 2015-2018. Crenshaw received her J.D. from Harvard, L.L.M. from University of Wisconsin and B.A. from Cornell University.

More profile about the speaker
Kimberlé Crenshaw | Speaker | TED.com
Abby Dobson - Artist
Passionate about using music as a tool for empathy cultivation, Abby Dobson creates music to inspire audiences to reflect on the world we live in and engage in action to promote transformative social change.

Why you should listen

Abby Dobson is the 2016 artist-in-residence with the African American Policy Forum (AAPF). A sonic conceptualist artist, Dobson's sound is the alchemy of R&B/Soul, jazz, classic pop, gospel and folk, forging a gem that erases musical boundaries. Dobson has performed at venues such as S.O.B's, Kennedy Center Millennium Stage, Apollo Theater, Blue Note Jazz Club, Queens Museum and "The Tonight Show." Her debut album, Sleeping Beauty: You Are the One You Have Been Waiting On, was released in 2010 to glowing reviews. Featured on Talib Kweli’s album Gravitas on State of Grace, Dobson was also nominated for a 2014 BET Hip Hop Award for Best Impact Song.

Dobson received a Juris Doctorate degree from Georgetown University Law Center and a Bachelor's degree from Williams College in Political Science and History. Her interests have been deeply impacted by intersectionality discourse and critical race theory. An artist and independent scholar, Dobson's interests focus on the intersection of race and gender in the imagination, creation and consumption of music. A sampling of recent presentations include: International James Baldwin Conference at American University of Paris (2016), Association for the Study of African American History and Life Conference (2013-2015); Anna Julia Cooper Project at Tulane University (2013); and National Women's Studies Association (NWSA) Conference (2013).

Passionate about using music as a tool for empathy cultivation, Dobson creates music to inspire audiences to reflect on the world we live in and engage in action to promote transformative social change. She creates music to privilege black female voices and highlight the human condition. Inspired by AAPF’s social justice work, Dobson composed and performs "Say Her Name" in tribute to the black women lost to state and non-state violence.

Dobson also volunteers with the National Organization for Women, NYC Chapter's Activist Alliance serving as a member of its Intersectionality Committee. She is currently wrapping up recording for Sister Outsider, the follow-up to her debut album, slated for release in 2017.

More profile about the speaker
Abby Dobson | Speaker | TED.com