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Serious Play 2008

Charles Elachi: The story behind the Mars Rovers

チャールズ・エラチ: 火星ローバー

May 7, 2008

"真剣な遊び 2008" 会場でチャールズ・エラチ博士がアメリカ航空宇宙局(NASA)の伝説的なジェット推進研究所(JPL) について火星ローバー計画の逸話やビデオを交えながら紹介します。

Charles Elachi - Planetary scientist
Charles Elachi is the director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he oversees space exploration programs such as the Mars Rovers. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I thought I'd start with telling you or showing you the people who started [Jet Propulsion Lab].
ジェット推進研究所(JPL)の
設立者の話から始めましょう
00:16
When they were a bunch of kids,
彼らは若い頃
00:20
they were kind of very imaginative, very adventurous,
とても想像力と冒険心がありました
00:22
as they were trying at Caltech to mix chemicals
カリフォルニア工科大学では
00:25
and see which one blows up more.
化学薬品を混ぜて爆破力を競いました
00:27
Well, I don't recommend that you try to do that now.
同じ事を試すのはお勧めしませんが
00:29
Naturally, they blew up a shack, and Caltech, well, then,
当然彼らは小屋を吹き飛ばし
00:32
hey, you go to the Arroyo and really do all your tests in there.
大学は実験を続ける彼らを僻地に追放しました
00:34
So, that's what we call our first five employees
これが「最初の5人の従業員」と呼ぶ
00:38
during the tea break, you know, in here.
メンバーの休憩中の様子です
00:41
As I said, they were adventurous people.
申し上げたように彼らは冒険的です
00:44
As a matter of fact, one of them, who was, kind of, part of a cult
そのうちの一人は まるでカルトのごとく
00:46
which was not too far from here on Orange Grove,
ここからそう遠くないオレンジグローブで
00:50
and unfortunately he blew up himself because he kept mixing chemicals
最高の化合物を調合している最中に
00:54
and trying to figure out which ones were the best chemicals.
痛ましい爆発事故を起こしました
00:58
So, that gives you a kind of flavor
どんな種類の人達か
01:00
of the kind of people we have there.
ご理解頂けるでしょう?
01:02
We try to avoid blowing ourselves up.
事故はもう起こさないよう注意しています
01:03
This one I thought I'd show you.
これをご覧ください
01:05
Guess which one is a JPL employee in the heart of this crowd.
この中でJPL従業員は誰だと思いますか?
01:07
I tried to come like him this morning,
今朝は彼を真似して来ようとしましたが
01:10
but as I walked out, then it was too cold,
外に出たらあまりに寒かったので
01:13
and I said, I'd better put my shirt back on.
シャツを着ることにしました
01:15
But more importantly, the reason I wanted to show this picture:
それよりも この写真をお見せしたかった理由は
01:17
look where the other people are looking,
他の人が見ている方向と
01:20
and look where he is looking.
彼が見ている方向に注目して欲しいからです
01:22
Wherever anybody else looks, look somewhere else,
他の誰がどこを見ていようと
01:25
and go do something different, you know, and doing that.
別方向を見て違う事を試し続ける
01:27
And that's kind of what has been the spirit of what we are doing.
それこそが私たちの心意気です
01:30
And I want to tell you a quote from Ralph Emerson
同僚のラルフ・エマーソンが
01:33
that one of my colleagues, you know, put on my wall in my office,
私のオフィスに張った言葉を引用します
01:36
and it says, "Do not go where the path may lead.
「行き先の決まった道を歩くのはやめよう
01:39
Go instead where there is no path, and leave a trail."
未踏の地に足跡を残していこう」
01:42
And that's my recommendation to all of you:
これは皆さんにぜひお勧めしたいです
01:44
look what everybody is doing, what they are doing;
皆が何をしているか観察して
01:46
go do something completely different.
全く違うことを試すのです
01:48
Don't try to improve a little bit on what somebody else is doing,
他人の仕事を見て少し改良を加えても
01:50
because that doesn't get you very far.
大したことはできません
01:53
In our early days we used to work a lot on rockets,
当初はロケット開発に専念しました
01:55
but we also used to have a lot of parties, you know.
一方でパーディもたくさんしました
01:58
As you can see, one of our parties, you know, a few years ago.
数年前のパーティの様子です
02:00
But then a big difference happened about 50 years ago,
しかし50年前にスプートニクが発射された後は
02:04
after Sputnik was launched. We launched the first American satellite,
大きな変化が訪れました
アメリカ初の衛星を発射したのです
02:07
and that's the one you see on the left in there.
左側にご覧頂いているものです
02:11
And here we made 180 degrees change:
そして180度の方針転換をした
02:13
we changed from a rocket house to be an exploration house.
ロケット開発から探査機関へ変換しました
02:15
And that was done over a period of a couple of years,
変換は数年間で成し遂げ
02:19
and now we are the leading organization, you know,
今や国を代表する有数の
02:22
exploring space on all of your behalf.
宇宙探査機関になりました
02:24
But even when we did that, we had to remind ourselves,
ただ その間も過去の挫折を
02:27
sometimes there are setbacks.
記憶に留める必要がありました
02:30
So you see, on the bottom, that rocket was supposed to go upward;
下の方にあるのは 上昇すべきロケットが
02:32
somehow it ended going sideways.
なぜか横倒しになってしまいました
02:35
So that's what we call the misguided missile.
いわば誘導失敗したミサイルです
02:37
But then also, just to celebrate that,
この出来事を記念して
02:40
we started an event at JPL for "Miss Guided Missile."
「ミス誘導ミサイル」コンテストを始めました
02:42
So, we used to have a celebration every year and select --
毎年お祭りをして勝者を選ぶ
02:45
there used to be competition and parades and so on.
コンテストやパレード等をしたものです
02:48
It's not very appropriate to do it now. Some people tell me to do it;
今では適切ではなくなりました
02:51
I think, well, that's not really proper, you know, these days.
たしかに最近の風潮を考えると上品とは言えません
02:54
So, we do something a little bit more serious.
そこで少し真面目になりました
02:58
And that's what you see in the last Rose Bowl, you know,
前回のローズボールに参加した時
03:00
when we entered one of the floats.
皆さんがご覧になったものです
03:03
That's more on the play side. And on the right side,
これはお遊びですが 右側のローバーは
03:05
that's the Rover just before we finished its testing
最終テストを経て打ち上げのため
03:07
to take it to the Cape to launch it.
ケープカナベラルに輸送する直前です
03:10
These are the Rovers up here that you have on Mars now.
火星に軟着陸した実物です
03:12
So that kind of tells you about, kind of, the fun things,
楽しみながら同時に真剣に仕事する
03:15
you know, and the serious things that we try to do.
様子がお分かりでしょう
03:18
But I said I'm going to show you a short clip
これから短いビデオをご紹介します
03:20
of one of our employees to kind of give you an idea
私たちの従業員の一人が持つ才能が
03:22
about some of the talent that we have.
お分かりになると思います
03:25
Video: Morgan Hendry: Beware of Safety is
ビアウェア・オブ・セイフティ は
03:39
an instrumental rock band.
ロックバンドの名前です
03:41
It branches on more the experimental side.
比較的実験的な音楽を探究しています
03:43
There's the improvisational side of jazz.
即興的なジャズがあったり
03:46
There's the heavy-hitting sound of rock.
力強いロックのサウンドもあります
03:49
Being able to treat sound as an instrument, and be able to dig
音を楽器として扱い
電子機器とアコースティックを
03:52
for more abstract sounds and things to play live,
混ぜて より抽象的なサウンドや
03:57
mixing electronics and acoustics.
ライブ演奏をします
03:59
The music's half of me, but the other half --
音楽は私の半面です もう一方では
04:01
I landed probably the best gig of all.
素晴らしい仕事に就けました
04:05
I work for the Jet Propulsion Lab. I'm building the next Mars Rover.
私はジェット推進研究所で働き
火星ローバーを開発しています
04:08
Some of the most brilliant engineers I know
私が知る最も優秀な技術者達は
04:11
are the ones who have that sort of artistic quality about them.
芸術の才能も長けています
04:14
You've got to do what you want to do.
人は したいことをすべきです
04:18
And anyone who tells you you can't, you don't listen to them.
おまえは無理と言う人など聞く必要ない
04:20
Maybe they're right - I doubt it.
彼らは正しいかもしれないが 疑わしいのさ
04:23
Tell them where to put it, and then just do what you want to do.
とにかく やりたいことをすればいい
04:26
I'm Morgan Hendry. I am NASA.
私はモーガン・ヘンドリー
私はNASAです
04:28
Charles Elachi: Now, moving from the play stuff to the serious stuff,
それでは余興から本題に移りましょう
04:34
always people ask, why do we explore?
どうして探索するのか といつも聞かれます
04:37
Why are we doing all of these missions and why are we exploring them?
ミッションを計画し探索する理由は何でしょう?
04:39
Well, the way I think about it is fairly simple.
私の考えは とてもシンプルです
04:42
Somehow, 13 billion years ago there was a Big Bang, and you've heard
ご存じのとおり 130億年前に
04:44
a little bit about, you know, the origin of the universe.
宇宙の起源であるビッグバンが起きました
04:47
But somehow what strikes everybody's imagination --
非常に興味深いのは そのビッグバン以来
04:50
or lots of people's imagination -- somehow from that original Big Bang
どういった経緯か 今日私たちが住む
04:53
we have this beautiful world that we live in today.
世界は非常に素晴らしい
04:56
You look outside: you have all that beauty that you see,
外には美しい景色が広がってますし
04:59
all that life that you see around you,
生命に満ちあふれています
05:02
and here we have intelligent people like you and I
そして皆さんのような人間がいて
05:04
who are having a conversation here.
ここで知的な会話をしている
05:06
All that started from that Big Bang. So, the question is:
全てはビッグバンから始まった
そこで疑問は
05:08
How did that happen? How did that evolve? How did the universe form?
どのように起きたのか? どのように進化したのか?
どのように宇宙が形成されたのか?
05:10
How did the galaxies form? How did the planets form?
どのように銀河ができたのか?
どのように惑星ができたのか?
05:15
Why is there a planet on which there is life which have evolved?
どうして生命を育む惑星ができたのか?
05:17
Is that very common?
それは普通なことなのか?
05:20
Is there life on every planet that you can see around the stars?
恒星を回る全ての惑星に生命は存在するのか?
05:22
So we literally are all made out of stardust.
文字通り私たちは星くずでできているのです
05:26
We started from those stars; we are made of stardust.
私たちの原点は星です
私たちは星くずなのです
05:28
So, next time you are really depressed, look in the mirror
ですから次に落ち込んだ時は鏡を覗いて
05:31
and you can look and say, hi, I'm looking at a star here.
こう言えばいいのです
「今見ているのは星なんだ」
05:33
You can skip the dust part.
「くず」は省いて構いません
05:35
But literally, we are all made of stardust.
文字通り 私たちは星くずで出来ています
05:37
So, what we are trying to do in our exploration is effectively
ですから私たちの探索は 今日存在するものが
05:39
write the book of how things have came about as they are today.
どのように出来たか本を書くようなものです
05:43
And one of the first, or the easiest, places we can go
そして私たちが探索するのに最も身近な
05:48
and explore that is to go towards Mars.
惑星が火星なのです
05:51
And the reason Mars takes particular attention:
火星が特に興味深い理由のひとつは
05:53
it's not very far from us.
遠くないことです
05:56
You know, it'll take us only six months to get there.
わずか6ヶ月で到達できます
05:58
Six to nine months at the right time of the year.
時期により6〜9ヶ月です 火星は地球より
06:00
It's a planet somewhat similar to Earth. It's a little bit smaller,
少し小さいですがよく似ています
06:03
but the land mass on Mars is about the same
海を除いた
06:05
as the land mass on Earth, you know,
火星の陸地面積は
06:08
if you don't take the oceans into account.
だいたい地球と同じです
06:09
It has polar caps. It has an atmosphere somewhat thinner than ours,
極冠があり 地球よりも若干薄い大気が存在し
06:11
so it has weather. So, it's very similar to some extent,
気象があります ある程度までとても似ています
06:16
and you can see some of the features on it,
火星の地形がご覧になります
06:19
like the Grand Canyon on Mars,
火星のグランド・キャニオンとも
言える渓谷があります
06:21
or what we call the Grand Canyon on Mars.
火星のグランド・キャニオンとも
言える渓谷があります
06:22
It is like the Grand Canyon on Earth, except a hell of a lot larger.
地球のグランド・キャニオンに
似ていますがとても巨大です
06:24
So it's about the size, you know, of the United States.
アメリカ合衆国と同じくらいの大きさです
06:29
It has volcanoes on it. And that's Mount Olympus on Mars,
火山が存在し その一つオリンパス山は
06:32
which is a kind of huge volcanic shield on that planet.
いわば巨大な盾状の火山です
06:37
And if you look at the height of it
その標高を見ると
06:41
and you compare it to Mount Everest, you see, it'll give you
エベレストと比較すれば
06:43
an idea of how large that Mount Olympus, you know, is,
オリンパス山がいかに巨大であるかお分かりでしょう
06:47
relative to Mount Everest.
オリンパス山がいかに巨大であるかお分かりでしょう
06:51
So, it basically dwarfs, you know, Mount Everest here on Earth.
エベレストが隠れる位です
06:53
So, that gives you an idea of the tectonic events or volcanic events
火星の地殻変動や火山活動の
規模を把握できます
06:56
which have happened on that planet.
火星の地殻変動や火山活動の
規模を把握できます
07:00
Recently from one of our satellites, this shows that it's Earth-like --
最近 人工衛星が地球上に似た
07:02
we caught a landslide occurring as it was happening.
地滑りが発生する様子を観測しました
07:05
So it is a dynamic planet,
活動的な惑星なのです
07:09
and activity is going on as we speak today.
活動は今も継続しています
07:11
And these Rovers, people wonder now, what are they doing today,
ローバーは今何をしているか知りたいですよね?
07:14
so I thought I would show you a little bit what they are doing.
そこで皆さんに現在の様子をご覧に入れましょう
07:17
This is one very large crater. Geologists love craters,
巨大なクレーターです
地質学者はクレーターが大好きです
07:21
because craters are like digging a big hole in the ground
何の苦労もなく地面に大きな
07:24
without really working at it,
穴を掘ったようなもので
07:26
and you can see what's below the surface.
地表の下が見えるからです
07:28
So, this is called Victoria Crater,
これはヴィクトリア・クレーターと呼ばれています
07:30
which is about a few football fields in size.
サッカー場が数面分の大きさです
07:32
And if you look at the top left, you see a little teeny dark dot.
左上に小さな暗い点が見えます
07:34
This picture was taken from an orbiting satellite.
この写真は軌道上の衛星から撮影しました
07:38
If I zoom on it, you can see: that's the Rover on the surface.
拡大するとそれが地上のローバーなのです
07:40
So, that was taken from orbit; we had the camera zoom on the surface,
軌道上から撮影して地上を拡大すると
07:43
and we actually saw the Rover on the surface.
実際にローバーを見ることが出来ました
07:46
And we actually used the combination of the satellite images
衛星からの映像とローバーの両方を
07:49
and the Rover to actually conduct science,
使って調査を行いました
07:53
because we can observe large areas
まず広域を観測し
07:56
and then you can get those Rovers to move around
ローバーに指示して
07:58
and basically go to a certain location.
任意の場所に移動させます
08:00
So, specifically what we are doing now is
具体的にはローバーを
08:02
that Rover is going down in that crater.
クレーターに降下させています
08:05
As I told you, geologists love craters.
地質学者はクレーターが大好きです
08:07
And the reason is, many of you went to the Grand Canyon,
グランド・キャニオンに行った方は多いでしょうが
08:09
and you see in the wall of the Grand Canyon, you see these layers.
グランド・キャニオンの壁には地層が見えます
08:12
And what these layers -- that's what the surface used to be
地層というのは百万年 一千万年
08:16
a million years ago, 10 million years ago,
一億万年前に地表であった部分であり
08:19
100 million years ago, and you get deposits on top of them.
そこには当時の堆積物があります
08:22
So if you can read the layers it's like reading your book,
地層を解読すれば歴史書を読むようなものです
08:24
and you can learn the history of what happened in the past
その場所で過去にどのような事が起きたのか
08:27
in that location.
学ぶことが出来るのです
08:30
So what you are seeing here are the layers on the wall
これはクレーター壁面であり
08:32
of that crater, and the Rover is going down now, measuring, you know,
ローバーはそこを降りながら
08:35
the properties and analyzing the rocks
地層の特性を
08:39
as it's going down, you know, that canyon.
調査したり岩石を分析したりするのです
08:41
Now, it's kind of a little bit of a challenge driving
このような坂を下るのは
08:44
down a slope like this.
困難なことです
08:46
If you were there you wouldn't do it yourself.
普通そんなことはしないでしょう
08:48
But we really made sure we tested those Rovers
しかし私たちはローバーが
08:50
before we got them down -- or that Rover --
降下を始める前に全ての機能が
08:52
and made sure that it's all working well.
万全であることを確認しました
08:55
Now, when I came last time, shortly after the landing --
前回 着陸後まもなく ここに来た時は
08:57
I think it was, like, a hundred days after the landing --
たしか着陸後100日ほどでしたが
09:00
I told you I was surprised that those Rovers
みなさんにローバーが100日も
09:02
are lasting even a hundred days.
稼働したことは驚きだと申し上げました
09:04
Well, here we are four years later, and they're still working.
そして4年経ちましたが今でも動いています
09:07
Now you say, Charles, you are really lying to us, and so on,
眉唾だと言われるでしょう
09:09
but that's not true. We really believed they were going to last
でも違います 私たちは90〜100日程度しか
09:12
90 days or 100 days, because they are solar powered,
持たないと考えていました
太陽光発電が動力で
09:14
and Mars is a dusty planet, so we expected the dust
火星のような埃の多い惑星では
09:18
would start accumulating on the surface, and after a while
表面に埃が積もり ローバーの作動に必要な
09:21
we wouldn't have enough power, you know, to keep them warm.
電力を充分に得られないと思っていたのです
09:24
Well, I always say it's important that you are smart,
賢いことは大切ですが
09:27
but every once in a while it's good to be lucky.
時にはツキも味方します
09:29
And that's what we found out. It turned out that every once in a while
まさにツキがありました 火星では時折
09:32
there are dust devils which come by on Mars, as you are seeing here,
ご覧のようなつむじ風が発生して
09:35
and when the dust devil comes over the Rover, it just cleans it up.
ローバーの埃を吹き飛ばしてくれるのです
09:39
It is like a brand new car that you have,
まるで新車のような状態になり
09:42
and that's literally why they have lasted so long.
長期間に渡り作動しているのです
09:45
And now we designed them reasonably well,
もちろん それなりの設計をしました
09:48
but that's exactly why they are lasting that long
つむじ風こそ 長い間機能していまだに
09:50
and still providing all the science data.
科学的データを提供できる理由なのです
09:54
Now, the two Rovers, each one of them is, kind of, getting old.
それでも 2台のローバーは古くなりつつあります
09:56
You know, one of them, one of the wheels is stuck, is not working,
一台の車輪が動かなくなっています
09:59
one of the front wheels, so what we are doing,
前輪の一つです そこで
10:02
we are driving it backwards.
バックで運転しています
10:04
And the other one has arthritis of the shoulder joint, you know,
別の一台は結合部の故障のため
10:06
it's not working very well, so it's walking like this,
アームがうまく動かないので
10:08
and we can move the arm, you know, that way.
騙しながら動かしています
10:11
But still they are producing a lot of scientific data.
それでも大量の科学的データを提供しています
10:13
Now, during that whole period, a number of people got excited,
これまでの間 多くの科学界以外の人も
10:16
you know, outside the science community about these Rovers,
これらのローバーに大いに興奮しました
10:19
so I thought I'd show you a video just to give you a reflection
そこで科学界以外の人々が
10:23
about how these Rovers are being viewed by people
ローバーをどのように受け止めたか
10:26
other than the science community.
ビデオでご紹介します
10:29
So let me go on the next short video.
どうぞ ご覧ください
10:32
By the way, this video is pretty accurate of how the landing took place, you know,
ところで このビデオは4年前の着陸時の
様子をとても正確に表現しています
10:34
about four years ago.
ところでこのビデオは4年前の着陸時の
様子をとても正確に表現しています
10:39
Video: Okay, we have parachute aligned.
パラシュートがそろって開いた
10:40
Okay, deploy the airbags. Open.
エアバッグ展開 開け
10:42
Camera. We have a picture right now.
カメラ 映像が到着しました
10:46
Yeah!
やった!
10:51
CE: That's about what happened in the Houston operation room. It's exactly like this.
ヒューストンのオペレーション・ルームの様子です
全くこの通りでした
10:53
Video: Now, if there is life, the Dutch will find it.
火星人を探すのはオランダ人に任せよう
10:58
What is he doing?
何やってるんだ?
11:09
What is that?
なんだこれは?
11:12
CE: Not too bad.
悪くないでしょう?
11:24
So anyway, let me continue on showing you a little bit
それでは火星の美しさについて
11:34
about the beauty of that planet.
もう少し紹介しましょう
11:37
As I said earlier, it looked very much like Earth,
述べた通り とても地球に似ています
11:38
so you see sand dunes.
砂丘がご覧になれます
11:41
It looks like I could have told you these are pictures taken
サハラ砂漠かどこかだと
11:43
from the Sahara Desert or somewhere, and you'd have believed me,
言ったとしても 皆さん信じることでしょう
11:45
but these are pictures taken from Mars.
しかしこれは火星の写真なのです
11:48
But one area which is particularly intriguing for us
特に興味深い地域と言えば
11:49
is the northern region, you know, of Mars, close to the North Pole,
火星の北部 北極点に近い所です
11:52
because we see ice caps, and we see the ice caps shrinking
まるでカナダ北部にあるような
11:55
and expanding, so it's very much like you have in northern Canada.
極冠氷があり 拡大したり縮小したりします
11:58
And we wanted to find out -- and we see all kinds of glacial features on it.
氷河の特徴的地形が観測できます
12:02
So, we wanted to find out, actually,
実際私たちはその氷が
12:05
what is that ice made of, and could that have embedded in it
何で出来ていているのか
有機物が含まれているか
12:07
some organic, you know, material.
調査しようとしました
12:11
So we have a spacecraft which is heading towards Mars,
フェニックスと呼ぶ宇宙船が
12:14
called Phoenix, and that spacecraft will land
火星に向かっており 今からちょうど
12:16
17 days, seven hours and 20 seconds from now,
17日と7時間20秒で着陸する予定です
12:19
so you can adjust your watch.
時計をセットしておいて下さい
12:23
So it's on May 25 around just before five o'clock our time here
だいたい西海岸時間で5月25日5時前に
12:25
on the West Coast, actually we will be landing on another planet.
別の惑星に着陸します
12:29
And as you can see, this is a picture of the spacecraft put on Mars,
これは火星に降り立った宇宙船の想像図ですが
12:32
but I thought that just in case you're going to miss that show, you know,
17日後の着陸ショーを
12:36
in 17 days, I'll show you, kind of,
ご覧になれない方のために
12:39
a little bit of what's going to happen.
その様子を ご覧に入れます
12:41
Video: That's what we call the seven minutes of terror.
ご紹介するのは「恐怖の7分間」です
12:43
So the plan is to dig in the soil and take samples
計画では地表を掘ってサンプルを採集し
13:00
that we put them in an oven and actually heat them
オーブンに入れて加熱します
13:02
and look what gases will come from it.
そして噴出するガスを測定するのです
13:05
So this was launched about nine months ago.
約9ヶ月前に打ち上げられました
13:07
We'll be coming in at 12,000 miles per hour, and in seven minutes
時速約2万キロで突入し7分後に
13:13
we have to stop and touch the surface very softly
着陸船を破損することなく
13:17
so we don't break that lander.
地表に軟着陸させるのです
13:20
Ben Cichy: Phoenix is the first Mars Scout mission.
フェニックスは初の火星偵察計画です
13:38
It's the first mission that's going to try to land
初めて火星の北極近くに着陸し
13:40
near the North Pole of Mars, and it's the first mission
これも初めて地球以外の
13:42
that's actually going to try and reach out and touch water
惑星に存在する水に触れる計画です
13:44
on the surface of another planet.
惑星に存在する水に触れる計画です
13:47
Lynn Craig: Where there tends to be water, at least on Earth,
少なくとも地球では水がある所に
13:49
there tends to be life, and so it's potentially a place
生命が存在する傾向があるので 火星でも
13:52
where life could have existed on the planet in the past.
過去に生命が存在した可能性があるのは水中です
13:55
Erik Bailey: The main purpose of EDL is to take a spacecraft that is traveling
大気圏突入から軟着陸では時速2万キロで
14:03
at 12,500 miles an hour and bring it to a screeching halt
飛ぶ宇宙船を非常に短時間で減速し
優しく停止させることが求められます
14:06
in a soft way in a very short amount of time.
飛ぶ宇宙船を非常に短時間で減速し
優しく停止させることが求められます
14:12
BC: We enter the Martian atmosphere.
火星の大気圏に突入します
14:16
We're 70 miles above the surface of Mars.
火星の地表から112キロの高度です
14:18
And our lander is safely tucked inside what we call an aeroshell.
着陸船はエアロシェルと呼ぶ中に格納されています
14:20
EB: Looks kind of like an ice cream cone, more or less.
アイスクリームのコーンのような形です
14:23
BC: And on the front of it is this heat shield,
前部の皿に見える部分には
14:25
this saucer-looking thing that has about a half-inch
耐熱処理が施され厚さ1センチほどの
14:27
of essentially what's cork on the front of it,
耐熱効果を持つコルクに覆われています
14:30
which is our heat shield.
耐熱効果を持つコルクに覆われています
14:32
Now, this is really special cork,
この非常に特殊なコルクは
14:33
and this cork is what's going to protect us
大気圏突入時の過酷な
14:35
from the violent atmospheric entry that we're about to experience.
衝撃から宇宙船を守るのです
14:37
Rob Grover: Friction really starts to build up on the spacecraft,
大気を宇宙船が通過する際
14:41
and we use the friction when it's flying through the atmosphere
摩擦が発生するのでそれを利用して
14:44
to our advantage to slow us down.
速度を落とします
14:47
BC: From this point, we're going to decelerate from 12,500 miles an hour
ここから時速2万キロを
14:50
down to 900 miles an hour.
時速1500キロまで減速します
14:55
EB: The outside can get almost as hot as the surface of the Sun.
外部は太陽の表面と同じ位熱くなります
14:57
RG: The temperature of the heat shield can reach 2,600 degrees Fahrenheit.
耐熱部分の温度は1400℃になります
14:59
EB: The inside doesn't get very hot.
内部は熱くなりません
15:05
It probably gets about room temperature.
おそらく室温と同程度でしょう
15:07
Richard Kornfeld: There is this window of opportunity
パラシュートを展開するタイミングがきました
15:10
within which we can deploy the parachute.
パラシュートを展開するタイミングがきました
15:13
EB: If you fire the 'chute too early, the parachute itself could fail.
早過ぎるとパラシュートは機能しません
15:16
The fabric and the stitching could just pull apart.
生地と縫い目が破れてしまいます
15:19
And that would be bad.
それはダメです
15:24
BC: In the first 15 seconds after we deploy the parachute,
パラシュートが開いて15秒後に
15:26
we'll decelerate from 900 miles an hour
時速1500キロから時速400キロという
15:29
to a relatively slow 250 miles an hour.
比較的遅い速度まで減速します
15:31
We no longer need the heat shield to protect us
大気圏突入の際に機体を守った
耐熱シールドは もう必要ないので切り離します
15:34
from the force of atmospheric entry, so we jettison the heat shield,
大気圏突入の際に機体を守った
耐熱シールドは もう必要ないので切り離します
15:36
exposing for the first time our lander to the atmosphere of Mars.
そこで初めて着陸船が火星の大気に触れます
15:40
LC: After the heat shield has been jettisoned and the legs are deployed,
耐熱シールドを切り離し脚が展開されると
15:43
the next step is to have the radar system begin to detect
次にレーダーシステムがフェニックスの
地表からの高度を計測し始めます
15:47
how far Phoenix really is from the ground.
次にレーダーシステムがフェニックスの
地表からの高度を計測し始めます
15:51
BC: We've lost 99 percent of our entry velocity.
大気圏突入時点から99%減速しています
15:55
So, we're 99 percent of the way to where we want to be.
着陸まで99%の行程が終わったのです
15:58
But that last one percent, as it always seems to be, is the tricky part.
しかしこの場合でも 残り1%が非常に難しいのです
16:01
EB: Now the spacecraft actually has to decide
ここで宇宙船は いつパラシュートを
16:04
when it's going to get rid of its parachute.
切り離すか決定します
16:07
BC: We separate from the lander going 125 miles an hour
時速200キロで落下する宇宙船を
16:09
at roughly a kilometer above the surface of Mars: 3,200 feet.
火星の地表から1キロ上空で切り離します
16:11
That's like taking two Empire State Buildings
ちょうどエンパイア・ステートビルを
二つ縦に重ねた位です
16:15
and stacking them on top of one another.
ちょうどエンパイア・ステートビルを
二つ縦に重ねた位です
16:17
EB: That's when we separate from the back shell,
その時点で後部シェルから切り離し
16:18
and we're now in free-fall.
宇宙船は自由落下に入ります
16:20
It's a very scary moment; a lot has to happen
まさに恐怖の瞬間です
とても多くのことが瞬時に起きます
16:24
in a very short amount of time.
まさに恐怖の瞬間です
とても多くのことが瞬時に起きます
16:26
LC: So it's in a free-fall,
宇宙船は自由落下しながら
16:30
but it's also trying to use all of its actuators
全ての機器を使って着陸するのに
適正な姿勢を保ちます
16:32
to make sure that it's in the right position to land.
全ての機器を使って着陸するのに
適正な姿勢を保ちます
16:36
EB: And then it has to light up its engines, right itself,
そしてエンジンを点火し 姿勢を正し
16:39
and then slowly slow itself down and touch down on the ground safely.
ゆっくりとスピードを緩めながら
安全に着陸するのです
16:43
BC: Earth and Mars are so far apart that it takes over ten minutes
地球と火星は信号が届くのに
16:53
for a signal from Mars to get to Earth.
10分以上かかるほど離れています
16:57
And EDL itself is all over in a matter of seven minutes.
この一連の操作は7分ほどの出来事です
16:59
So by the time you even hear from the lander that EDL has started
ですから大気圏突入を始めた信号を
受信した時には全てが終わっています
17:02
it'll already be over.
ですから大気圏突入を始めた信号を
受信した時には全てが終わっています
17:05
EB: We have to build large amounts of autonomy into the spacecraft
安全に着陸するために
17:06
so that it can land itself safely.
宇宙船に高度な自律性を
持たせる必要があります
17:09
BC: EDL is this immense, technically challenging problem.
火星軟着陸は技術的に非常に困難です
17:12
It's about getting a spacecraft that's hurtling through deep space
宇宙空間を飛んできた宇宙船を
17:14
and using all this bag of tricks to somehow figure out
考え得る全ての技術を用いて
17:17
how to get it down to the surface of Mars at zero miles an hour.
火星の地表に着陸させるのですから
17:19
It's this immensely exciting and challenging problem.
刺激的で挑戦のしがいがあります
17:22
CE: Hopefully it all will happen the way you saw it in here.
ご覧頂いたように事が運べばいいのですが
17:33
So it will be a very tense moment, you know,
宇宙船が別の惑星に
17:37
as we are watching that spacecraft landing on another planet.
着陸する瞬間は とても緊張するでしょう
17:39
So now let me talk about the next things that we are doing.
では私たちの次の計画についてご紹介します
17:43
So we are in the process, as we speak, of actually designing
現在私たちは次に火星に送り込むローバーの
17:45
the next Rover that we are going to be sending to Mars.
設計を進めています
17:48
So I thought I would go a little bit and tell you, kind of,
設計段階の状況を
17:50
the steps we go through.
少しご紹介しましょう
17:52
It's very similar to what you do when you design your product.
皆さんの製品企画にも共通することです
17:54
As you saw a little bit earlier,
ご覧頂いたように
17:57
when we were doing the Phoenix one,
フェニックス計画では
17:59
we have to take into account the heat that we are going to be facing.
直面する熱の対策をする必要がありました
18:00
So we have to study all kinds of different materials,
考え得る全ての素材や形状を研究しました
18:03
the shape that we want to do.
考え得る全ての素材や形状を研究しました
18:05
In general we don't try to please the customer here.
顧客を満足させようとする訳ではありません
18:07
What we want to do is to make sure we have an effective, you know,
実用的かつ効率的な機器を確実に制作しようと
18:09
an efficient kind of machine.
思っているのです
18:12
First we start by we want to have our employees
はじめに従業員にはできる限り
18:14
to be as imaginative as they can.
創造性を発揮してもらおうとしました
18:16
And we really love being close to the art center, because we have,
アートセンターに近いのが非常に好ましいです
18:18
as a matter of fact, one of the alumni from the art center,
実際にアートセンター卒業生の
18:22
Eric Nyquist, had put a series of displays,
エリック・ニキストは私たちの
18:24
far-out displays, you know,
ミッション 宇宙船設計室に
18:26
in our what we call mission design or spacecraft design room,
素晴らしい作品を展示して
18:28
just to get people to think wildly about things.
私たちに様々な発想を促しました
18:31
We have a bunch of Legos. So, as I said,
山ほどのレゴもあります
18:33
this is a playground for adults, where they sit down and try to play
まさに大人の遊び場です
18:36
with different shapes and different designs.
座り込んでは様々な形状やデザインを考えています
18:39
Then we get a little bit more serious, so we have
そして段々と より真剣になっていきます
18:43
what we call our CAD/CAMs and all the engineers who are involved,
CAD/CAM技師 技術者 科学者が参画して
18:46
or scientists who are involved, who know about thermal properties,
熱の性質 設計 大気の特性
パラシュートについて
18:49
know about design, know about atmospheric interaction, parachutes,
チームで詳細な検討を検討し
18:52
all of these things, which they work in a team effort
コンピューターで ある程度まで
18:55
and actually design a spacecraft in a computer to some extent,
私たちの要求する仕様に適合する
18:58
so to see, does that meet the requirement that we need.
宇宙船を設計します
19:02
On the right, also, we have to take into account
一方 目指している惑星の
19:05
the environment of the planet where we are going.
環境も考慮する必要があります
19:07
If you are going to Jupiter, you have a very high-radiation,
木星に行くとすれば そこは非常に放射線の強い
19:09
you know, environment. It's about the same radiation environment
環境です 木星近辺の
19:12
close by Jupiter as inside a nuclear reactor.
放射線量は原子炉の内部と同程度です
19:14
So just imagine: you take your P.C. and throw it into a nuclear reactor
皆さんのパソコンを原子炉に放り込んでも正常に
19:17
and it still has to work.
稼働しないといけない様なものです
19:20
So these are kind of some of the little challenges, you know,
こういった様々な大小の問題に
19:22
that we have to face.
私たちは直面しているのです
19:24
If we are doing entry, we have to do tests of parachutes.
大気圏突入に備えてパラシュート試験もします
19:27
You saw in the video a parachute breaking. That would be a bad day,
ビデオでパラシュートが
破壊するシーンがありました
19:29
you know, if that happened, so we have to test,
実際に起きたら最悪ですから試験します
19:32
because we are deploying this parachute at supersonic speeds.
このパラシュートは超音速で展開します
19:35
We are coming at extremely high speeds, and we are deploying them
超高速な状態から展開して減速する
19:38
to slow us down. So we have to do all kinds of tests.
従って有りとあらゆる試験ををします
19:41
To give you an idea of the size, you know, of that parachute
パラシュートを立っている人と比較すると
19:43
relative to the people standing there.
その大きさが分かると思います
19:46
Next step, we go and actually build some kind of test models
次に実験機を制作しそれを
19:48
and actually test them, you know, in the lab at JPL,
JPLの火星ヤードと呼ぶ実験場所に
19:52
in what we call our Mars Yard.
運び込んで試験をします
19:55
We kick them, we hit them, we drop them,
蹴ったり叩いたり落としたりして
19:57
just to make sure we understand how, where would they break.
どこがどう壊れるか検証して確認します
19:59
And then we back off, you know, from that point.
そして懸念点を修正するのです
20:03
And then we actually do the actual building and the flight.
そして実際に本番機を制作し飛行させます
20:09
And this next Rover that we're flying is about the size of a car.
次に飛ばすローバーは乗用車位の大きさです
20:13
That big shield that you see outside,
外側の大きなシールドが
20:17
that's a heat shield which is going to protect it.
ローバーを熱から守ります
20:19
And that will be basically built over the next year,
来年にかけて制作し
20:21
and it will be launched June a year from now.
1年後の6月に発射する予定です
20:24
Now, in that case, because it was a very big Rover,
とても大きなローバーなので
20:27
we couldn't use airbags.
エアバッグを使えませんでした
20:30
And I know many of you, kind of, last time afterwards said
前回多くの人がエアバッグは
20:32
well, that was a cool thing to have -- those airbags.
とても名案だったと言ってくれました
20:34
Unfortunately this Rover is, like, ten times the size of the, you know,
残念なことに今回のローバーは前のローバーの
20:37
mass-wise, of the other Rover, or three times the mass.
大きさは10倍 重さは3倍あります
20:40
So we can't use airbags. So we have to come up with
そのためエアバッグは使えません
20:43
another ingenious idea of how do we land it.
何か他の巧妙な着陸手段が必要です
20:45
And we didn't want to take it propulsively all the way to the surface
地表を汚染しないためにも
20:47
because we didn't want to contaminate the surface;
送り込む物質を減らそうとしました
20:51
we wanted the Rover to immediately land on its legs.
ローバーの脚部で直に着陸させたかったのです
20:53
So we came up with this ingenious idea,
そこで地球でもヘリコプターで使っている
20:56
which is used here on Earth for helicopters.
アイディアを用いることにしました
20:58
Actually, the lander will come down to about 100 feet and hover
実際着陸船は地表30メートルほどで 一旦停止し
21:02
above that surface for 100 feet, and then we have a sky crane
そしてスカイクレーンを使って
21:06
which will take that Rover and land it down on the surface.
ローバーを地表に降ろします
21:09
Hopefully it all will work, you know, it will work that way.
思惑通りにいくことを祈っています
21:11
And that Rover will be more kind of like a chemist.
今回のローバーは化学者のようものです
21:14
What we are going to be doing with that Rover as it drives around,
ローバーを走行させてすることは
21:17
it's going to go and analyze the chemical composition of rocks.
岩石の化学物質の構成の解析です
21:20
So it will have an arm which will take samples,
ローバーにはアームがありサンプルを採取して
21:23
put them in an oven, crush and analyze them.
オーブンに入れ砕き解析します
21:26
But also, if there is something that we cannot reach
高くて届かない所にある検体を
21:28
because it is too high on a cliff, we have a little laser system
採取するにはレーザーシステムを展開して
21:31
which will actually zap the rock, evaporate some of it,
岩石に投射し気化した成分を
21:34
and actually analyze what's coming from that rock.
吸入し岩石の成分を解析します
21:37
So it's a little bit like "Star Wars," you know, but it's real.
まるでスターウォーズのようですが本物です
21:39
It's real stuff.
現実のものです
21:42
And also to help you, to help the community
そして私たちの一助になるよう
21:44
so you can do ads on that Rover, we are going to train that Rover
ローバーに広告を掲載し
ローバーを訓練して
21:46
to actually in addition to do this, to actually serve cocktails,
火星でカクテルを
サーブできるようにします
21:50
you know, also on Mars.
火星でカクテルを
サーブできるようにします
21:53
So that's kind of giving you an idea of the kind of, you know,
火星でしている楽しいことを
お分かり頂けたかと思います
21:55
fun things we are doing on Mars.
火星でしている楽しいことを
お分かり頂けたかと思います
21:58
I thought I'd go to "The Lord of the Rings" now
次に土星に行ってみましょう
21:59
and show you some of the things we have there.
いくつか分かっていることをご紹介します
22:02
Now, "The Lord of the Rings" has two things played through it.
土星には二つとても興味深い点があります
22:04
One, it's a very attractive planet --
まずとても魅力的な惑星であること
22:07
it just has the beauty of the rings and so on.
とても美しいリングをもっています
22:10
But for scientists, also the rings have a special meaning,
科学者にとっても このリングは特別なんです
22:12
because we believe they represent, on a small scale,
リングは太陽系が どのように形成されたか
22:15
how the Solar System actually formed.
小規模で示していると考えています
22:18
Some of the scientists believe that the way the Solar System formed,
一部の科学者は太陽系が形成されて
22:21
that the Sun when it collapsed and actually created the Sun,
太陽が凝縮して生まれた際に
22:25
a lot of the dust around it created rings
塵が周囲にリングを形成し
22:29
and then the particles in those rings accumulated together,
リングの粒子が お互いに堆積しながら
22:31
and they formed bigger rocks, and then that's how the planets,
次第に大きな岩石になり やがて
惑星が形成されたと考えています
22:34
you know, were formed.
次第に大きな岩石になり やがて
惑星が形成されたと考えています
22:37
So, the idea is, by watching Saturn we're actually watching
つまり土星を観測することでリアルタイムに
22:38
our solar system in real time being formed on a smaller scale,
小規模な太陽系の誕生を把握できます
22:41
so it's like a test bed for it.
いわばテスト環境です
22:44
So, let me show you a little bit
では土星系システムを
22:46
on what that Saturnian system looks like.
少しご紹介しましょう
22:48
First, I'm going to fly you over the rings.
まずリングの上にお連れします
22:51
By the way, all of this is real stuff.
もちろん これらは実写です
22:54
This is not animation or anything like this.
アニメーション等ではありません
22:56
This is actually taken from the satellite
カッシーニという土星を
22:58
that we have in orbit around Saturn, the Cassini.
周回する衛星から撮影しました
23:00
And you see the amount of detail that is in those rings,
リングを構成する粒子の詳細が見えます
23:03
which are the particles.
リングを構成する粒子の詳細が見えます
23:06
Some of them are agglomerating together to form larger particles.
粒子はお互いに衝突して より大きくなります
23:07
So that's why you have these gaps, is because a small satellite, you know,
その結果小さな衛星が形成されると
23:10
is being formed in that location.
そこに溝ができるのです
23:14
Now, you think that those rings are very large objects.
リングは とても大きな物体だと思うでしょう
23:17
Yes, they are very large in one dimension;
ええ 直径は非常に大きいです
23:19
in the other dimension they are paper thin. Very, very thin.
しかし厚さは とてもとても薄いのです
23:21
What you are seeing here is the shadow of the ring on Saturn itself.
これはリングが土星に影を作っているところです
23:24
And that's one of the satellites
そこで形成された衛星の一つが見えます
23:28
which was actually formed on that one.
そこで形成された衛星の一つが見えます
23:29
So, think about it as a paper-thin,
とても薄い
23:32
huge area of many hundreds of thousands of miles, which is rotating.
巨大なリングが回転しているのです
23:34
And we have a wide variety of kind of satellites which will form,
様々な種類の衛星が将来形成され
23:39
each one looking very different and very odd, and that keeps
ひとつひとつが とても個性豊かなので
23:42
scientists busy for tens of years trying to explain this,
科学者達は何十年もかけて研究しています
23:45
and telling NASA we need more money so we can explain
これら物体の形状や生い立ちを理解するには
23:48
what these things look like, or why they formed that way.
より多くの予算が必要だとNASAに求めています
23:51
Well, there were two satellites which were particularly interesting.
特に興味深い二つの衛星があります
23:53
One of them is called Enceladus.
ひとつはエンケラドスです
23:56
It's a satellite which was all made of ice,
全て氷の衛星です
23:58
and we measured it from orbit. Made of ice.
衛星の軌道から計測しました
24:01
But there was something bizarre about it.
しかもとても奇妙なことがあるのです
24:03
If you look at these stripes in here, what we call tiger stripes,
虎縞のように見える地域の
24:05
when we flew over them, all of a sudden we saw
上空を通過する際に計測すると
24:09
an increase in the temperature, which said that those stripes
惑星の他の部分に比べ
24:11
are warmer than the rest of the planet.
温度が突然上昇するのです
24:14
So as we flew by away from it, we looked back. And guess what?
通過した後に振り返ると
間欠泉が吹き出ているのを
24:16
We saw geysers coming out.
発見しました
24:21
So this is a Yellowstone, you know, of Saturn.
まさに土星のイエローストーンです
24:23
We are seeing geysers of ice which are coming out of that planet,
氷の間欠泉が噴出していることで
24:25
which indicate that most likely there is an ocean, you know,
内部に海があるのが推測できます
24:29
below the surface.
内部に海があるのが推測できます
24:31
And somehow, through some dynamic effect, we're having these geysers
運よく大きな動きをする間欠泉が
24:33
which are being, you know, emitted from it.
放出される瞬間を捉えられました
24:36
And the reason I showed the little arrow there,
この小さい矢印は約50キロを
24:39
I think that should say 30 miles,
指していますが
24:41
we decided a few months ago to actually fly the spacecraft
数か月前に間欠泉の噴煙の中に
24:43
through the plume of that geyser
宇宙船を通過させることにしました
24:46
so we can actually measure the material that it is made of.
噴煙の構成物を解明するためです
24:48
That was [unclear] also -- you know, because we were worried
当然リスクのある試みでしたが
24:53
about the risk of it, but it worked pretty well.
うまくいきました
24:56
We flew at the top of it, and we found that there is a fair amount of
噴煙の頂点部を通過しましたが
24:58
organic material which is being emitted in combination with the ice.
氷と共に有機物が噴出するのを観測できました
25:01
And over the next few years, as we keep orbiting, you know, Saturn,
そして土星を何年か周回するうち
25:05
we are planning to get closer and closer down to the surface
表面に近づきながら より正確な観測をする
25:09
and make more accurate measurements.
計画です
25:12
Now, another satellite also attracted a lot of attention,
タイタンも大きな注目を集めています
25:14
and that's Titan. And the reason Titan is particularly interesting,
タイタンが興味深い理由は
25:16
it's a satellite bigger than our moon, and it has an atmosphere.
タイタンが月よりも大きく大気があるからです
25:19
And that atmosphere is very -- as dense as our own atmosphere.
私たちの大気と同じ位濃い密度なのです
25:24
So if you were on Titan, you would feel the same pressure
ですからタイタンでは地球上と同じ位の
25:27
that you feel in here. Except it's a lot colder,
大気圧を感じるのです
ただし とても寒く
25:30
and that atmosphere is heavily made of methane.
大気はメタンでできています
25:34
Now, methane gets people all excited, because it's organic material,
メタンが注目を浴びたのは有機物だからです
25:37
so immediately people start thinking,
そのため多くの人は
25:40
could life have evolved in that location,
有機物が大量に存在すれば
25:42
when you have a lot of organic material.
生命が進化した可能性を考えました
25:45
So people believe now that Titan is most likely what we call
今ではタイタンは前生物的な惑星と呼ばれています
25:47
a pre-biotic planet, because it's so cold organic material did not get
あまりの寒さのため 有機物が生命の誕生と進化に
25:51
to the stage of becoming biological material,
必要な生命の素材に
25:57
and therefore life could have evolved on it.
発展しなかったと考えられます
25:59
So it could be Earth, frozen three billion years ago
そのためタイタンは生命が生まれる前に冷凍した
26:01
before life actually started on it.
30億年前の地球と見られます
26:05
So that's getting a lot of interest, and to show you some example
興味を引く話題なので私たちが
26:07
of what we did in there, we actually dropped a probe,
実行したことを話します 欧州の同僚が開発した
26:10
which was developed by our colleagues in Europe, we dropped a probe
探査機を土星の軌道上から落下しました
26:14
as we were orbiting Saturn.
探査機を土星の軌道上から落下しました
26:16
We dropped a probe in the atmosphere of Titan.
タイタンの大気に突入させたのです
26:19
And this is a picture of an area as we were coming down.
降下中に撮影した地形の写真です
26:21
Just looked like the coast of California for me.
私にはカリフォルニアの海岸に見えます
26:24
You see the rivers which are coming along the coast,
海岸沿いに川も見えます
26:26
and you see that white area which looks like Catalina Island,
白い部分は まるでカタリナ島みたいです
26:29
and that looks like an ocean.
あれは海のようですね
26:31
And then with an instrument we have on board, a radar instrument,
そして搭載しているレーダー機器で
26:33
we found there are lakes like the Great Lakes in here,
五大湖に似た湖も見つけました
26:36
so it looks very much like Earth.
本当に地球に似ているのです
26:39
It looks like there are rivers on it, there are oceans or lakes,
川や海や湖があり 雲が発生して
26:40
we know there are clouds. We think it's raining also on it.
雨も降ると考えられます
26:44
So it's very much like the cycle on Earth except
地球における水循環にとても似ていますが
26:47
because it's so cold, it could not be water, you know,
水ではありません 寒すぎて
26:49
because water would have frozen.
水は凍ってしまうからです
26:52
What it turned out, that all that we are seeing, all this liquid,
このような液体は実は
26:54
[is made of] hydrocarbon and ethane and methane,
炭化水素 エタン メタンです
26:56
similar to what you put in your car.
私たちの車の燃料に似ています
26:59
So here we have a cycle of a planet which is like our Earth,
地球に似た液体循環がありますが
27:01
but is all made of ethane and methane and organic material.
エタン メタン等 有機物の惑星です
27:05
So if you were on Mars -- sorry, on Titan,
ですからタイタンでは
27:09
you don't have to worry about four-dollar gasoline.
ガソリンの価格を心配する必要はないのです
27:12
You just drive to the nearest lake, stick your hose in it,
近くの湖まで行ってホースを入れ
27:14
and you've got your car filled up.
車を満タンにすればいいのです
27:16
On the other hand, if you light a match
ただしマッチを擦って火を起こすと
27:19
the whole planet will blow up.
惑星ごと爆発してしまうでしょう
27:21
So in closing, I said I want to close by a couple of pictures.
最後に数枚の写真をご紹介します
27:25
And just to kind of put us in perspective,
宇宙の概念が少し分かることでしょう
27:28
this is a picture of Saturn taken with a spacecraft
これは土星の裏側から太陽の方向を
27:31
from behind Saturn, looking towards the Sun.
向いて撮影した写真です
27:34
The Sun is behind Saturn, so we see what we call "forward scattering,"
土星の裏側に太陽があるので
「前方散乱」を観測できます
27:36
so it highlights all the rings. And I'm going to zoom.
全ての土星の輪がはっきり見えます
ズームアップしてみます
27:40
There is a -- I'm not sure you can see it very well,
はっきり見えないでしょうが
27:43
but on the top left, around 10 o'clock,
左上10時くらいの方角にある
27:46
there is a little teeny dot, and that's Earth.
小さな点が地球です
27:48
You barely can see ourselves. So what I did, I thought I'd zoom on it.
ほとんど見えませんね そこで
27:51
So as you zoom in, you know, you can see Earth, you know,
ズームアップすると地球が見えてきます
27:55
just in the middle here. So we zoomed all the way on the art center.
アートセンターが見えるまでズームします
27:59
So thank you very much.
ご清聴有難うございました
28:06
Translator:Ichiro Nishimura
Reviewer:Akira Kan

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Charles Elachi - Planetary scientist
Charles Elachi is the director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he oversees space exploration programs such as the Mars Rovers.

Why you should listen

Charles Elachi is the director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab at Caltech. He leads JPL's efforts to build robots that explore space -- including the surprisingly long-lived Mars Rovers. In the wake of the Rovers' success (and even fame), it's worth remembering that they grew out of some troubled earlier attempts to reach Mars. Elachi's careful management of the Rover program, wrote the US News and World Report, was a key piece of its success. And Elachi gives equal credit to some extraordinary luck.

As JPL's director for space and Earth science programs from 1982 to 2000, and then its head since then, he's led the development of many new instruments and programs for observing Earth and exploring the planets. It's in part thanks to him that, as of May 2008, we have 17 different robots exploring space. His own academic specialty is active microwave remote sensing and electromagnetic theory.

The original video is available on TED.com
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