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TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

Ian Ritchie: O dia em que disse não a Tim Berners-Lee

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Imaginem que, no final de 1990, acabam de conhecer um rapaz jovem e agradável chamado Tim Berners-Lee, que começa a falar-vos do seu proposto sistema de World Wide Web. Ian Ritchie estava lá....e não acreditou. Uma história curta sobre informação, conectividade e como aprender com os nossos erros.

- Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

00:15
Well we all know the World Wide Web
Todos nós reconhecemos
que a World Wide Web
00:17
has absolutely transformed publishing, broadcasting,
tem transformado por completo
os media escritos e audiovisuais,
00:21
commerce and social connectivity,
o comércio e as relações sociais,
00:23
but where did it all come from?
mas de onde veio tudo isso?
00:25
And I'll quote three people:
Vou citar três pessoas:
00:27
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart
e Tim Berners-Lee.
00:30
So let's just run through these guys.
Vamos falar sobre eles.
00:32
This is Vannevar Bush.
Este é Vannevar Bush.
Era o principal assistente científico
do governo dos EUA, durante a guerra.
00:34
Vannevar Bush was the U.S. government's chief scientific adviser during the war.
00:37
And in 1945,
Em 1945,
00:39
he published an article in a magazine called Atlantic Monthly.
publicou um artigo numa revista
chamada Atlantic Monthly.
00:42
And the article was called "As We May Think."
O artigo chamava-se
"Como Podemos Pensar".
Vannevar Bush estava a dizer
00:45
And what Vannevar Bush was saying
que usamos informação
de uma maneira fragmentada.
00:47
was the way we use information is broken.
00:50
We don't work in terms of libraries
Não trabalhamos como bibliotecas
00:53
and catalog systems and so forth.
e sistemas de catálogo, etc..
00:55
The brain works by association.
O cérebro funciona por associações
00:57
With one item in its thought, it snaps instantly to the next item.
Com um item no pensamento,
ele passa logo para o seguinte.
01:00
And the way information is structured
A forma como a informação é estruturada
01:02
is totally incapable of keeping up with this process.
é totalmente incapaz
de acompanhar esse processo.
01:05
And so he suggested a machine,
Então ele sugeria uma máquina,
01:07
and he called it the memex.
a que chamou "memex".
01:09
And the memex would link information,
Esse memex ligaria informações,
01:11
one piece of information to a related piece of information and so forth.
uma informação associada
a outra informação e assim por diante.
01:14
Now this was in 1945.
Isto foi em 1945.
01:16
A computer in those days
Naquela época, um computador era uma coisa
01:18
was something the secret services used to use for code breaking.
que o serviço secreto usava
para decifrar códigos.
01:21
And nobody knew anything about it.
Ninguém tinha conhecimento disso.
01:23
So this was before the computer was invented.
Isto aconteceu antes
de ser inventado o computador.
01:25
And he proposed this machine called the memex.
Ele propôs essa máquina chamada memex.
01:27
And he had a platform where you linked information to other information,
Tinha uma plataforma onde ligávamos
uma informação a outra,
01:30
and then you could call it up at will.
e podíamos ir buscá-la quando quiséssemos.
01:32
So spinning forward,
Avançando no tempo,
01:34
one of the guys who read this article was a guy called Doug Engelbart,
um dos sujeitos que leu esse artigo
era um homem chamado Doug Engelbart,
01:36
and he was a U.S. Air Force officer.
que era oficial da força aérea americana.
01:38
And he was reading it in their library in the Far East.
Leu-o na biblioteca no Extremo-Oriente.
01:41
And he was so inspired by this article,
Sentiu-se tão inspirado, que esse artigo
01:43
it kind of directed the rest of his life.
acabou por dirigir o resto da vida dele.
01:45
And by the mid-60s, he was able to put this into action
Em meados dos anos 60,
pôde pôr o seu plano em ação,
01:48
when he worked at the Stanford Research Lab in California.
quando trabalhou no laboratório
de pesquisa de Stanford, na Califórnia.
01:52
He built a system.
Criou um sistema.
01:54
The system was designed to augment human intelligence, it was called.
Esse sistema foi projetado para aumentar
a inteligência humana, dizia-se.
01:57
And in a premonition of today's world
Numa premonição do mundo de hoje
de informática por nuvem
e software de serviços,
02:00
of cloud computing and softwares of service,
02:02
his system was called NLS
esse sistema chamava-se NLS
02:04
for oN-Line System.
o que significava Sistema On-Line.
02:06
And this is Doug Engelbart.
Este é Doug Engelbart.
02:08
He was giving a presentation at the Fall Joint Computer Conference
Estava a fazer uma palestra
na Conferência de Outono de Computadores
02:11
in 1968.
em 1968.
02:14
What he showed --
Sentou-se num palco como este
e demonstrou esse sistema.
02:16
he sat on a stage like this, and he demonstrated this system.
02:19
He had his head mic like I've got.
Tinha um microfone de ouvido
como o meu
02:21
And he works this system.
E demonstra este sistema.
02:23
And you can see, he's working between documents
Como podem ver,
ele trabalha entre documentos
02:25
and graphics and so forth.
e gráficos, etc..
02:27
And he's driving it all
Está a manejar tudo
com esta plataforma aqui,
02:29
with this platform here,
02:31
with a five-finger keyboard
com um teclado de cinco dedos,
02:33
and the world's first computer mouse,
e o primeiro rato de computador do mundo,
02:35
which he specially designed in order to do this system.
que desenhou especialmente
para este sistema.
02:37
So this is where the mouse came from as well.
Foi daqui que surgiu o rato.
02:39
So this is Doug Engelbart.
Então este é Doug Engelbart.
02:41
The trouble with Doug Engelbart's system
O problema do seu sistema,
02:43
was that the computers in those days cost several million pounds.
era que os computadores da época
custavam milhões de libras,
02:46
So for a personal computer,
Para um computador pessoal,
milhões de libras eram o equivalente
a ter um avião particular;
02:48
a few million pounds was like having a personal jet plane;
02:50
it wasn't really very practical.
não era muito prático.
02:52
But spin on to the 80s
Mas passando para os anos 80,
02:54
when personal computers did arrive,
quando chegaram os computadores pessoais,
02:56
then there was room for this kind of system on personal computers.
já havia espaço neles
para esse tipo de sistema.
02:58
And my company, OWL
A minha empresa, a OWL,
03:00
built a system called Guide for the Apple Macintosh.
criou um sistema chamado
Guia para o Apple Macintosh.
03:03
And we delivered the world's first hypertext system.
Introduzimos o primeiro sistema
de hipertexto do mundo.
03:07
And this began to get a head of steam.
Isso começou a ganhar balanço.
03:09
Apple introduced a thing called HyperCard,
A Apple introduziu o chamado HyperCard,
03:11
and they made a bit of a fuss about it.
que foi lançado com muito entusiasmo.
03:13
They had a 12-page supplement in the Wall Street Journal the day it launched.
Quando foi lançado, saiu um suplemento
de 12 páginas no Wall Street Journal,
03:16
The magazines started to cover it.
As revistas começaram a cobri-lo.
03:18
Byte magazine and Communications at the ACM
A revista Byte e Comunicações da ACM,
03:20
had special issues covering hypertext.
lançaram edições especiais
falando do hipertexto.
03:22
We developed a PC version of this product
Nós criámos uma versão
desse produto para PC,
03:24
as well as the Macintosh version.
e também para a versão Macintosh.
03:26
And our PC version became quite mature.
A nossa versão para PC
tornou-se bastante amadurecida.
03:29
These are some examples of this system in action in the late 80s.
Há exemplos desse sistema em ação
no final dos anos 80.
Podíamos entregar documentos
e fazê-lo através de redes.
03:33
You were able to deliver documents, were able to do it over networks.
03:36
We developed a system such
Criámos um sistema
que tinha uma língua de marcação
baseada em html.
03:38
that it had a markup language based on html.
03:40
We called it hml: hypertext markup language.
Chamámos-lhe html:
língua de marcação de hipertexto.
03:43
And the system was capable of doing
Esse sistema era capaz de fazer
sistemas muito grandes
03:45
very, very large documentation systems over computer networks.
de documentação através
de redes de computadores,
Levei esse sistema para uma exposição
de tecnologia em Versailles, perto de Paris,
03:49
So I took this system to a trade show in Versailles near Paris
03:52
in late November 1990.
no final de novembro de 1990.
Fui abordado por um rapaz jovem
e simpático, chamado Tim Berners-Lee.
03:55
And I was approached by a nice young man called Tim Berners-Lee
03:57
who said, "Are you Ian Ritchie?" and I said, "Yeah."
Perguntou-me se eu era Ian Ritchie,
e eu disse que sim.
03:59
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
Disse que precisava de falar comigo.
04:01
And he told me about his proposed system called the World Wide Web.
Falou-me do seu sistema
que se chamava World Wide Web.
04:04
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious name,
Achei que o nome
era bastante pretensioso,
04:07
especially since the whole system ran on his computer in his office.
porque todo o sistema estava ligado
ao computador do escritório dele.
04:10
But he was completely convinced that his World Wide Web
Mas ele estava totalmente convencido
de que esse World Wide Web
04:13
would take over the world one day.
um dia cobriria o mundo.
04:15
And he tried to persuade me to write the browser for it,
Tentou persuadir-me a criar o navegador,
04:17
because his system didn't have any graphics or fonts or layout or anything;
porque o sistema dele não tinha gráficos,
nem fontes, nem layout, nada;
04:20
it was just plain text.
era somente texto.
04:22
I thought, well, you know, interesting,
Eu achei que era interessante,
04:25
but a guy from CERN, he's not going to do this.
mas que um tipo do CERN não ia fazer isso.
04:27
So we didn't do it.
Portanto, não o fizemos.
04:29
In the next couple of years,
Nos anos que se seguiram,
04:31
the hypertext community didn't recognize him either.
a comunidade de hipertexto
também não lhe deu muita atenção.
04:33
In 1992, his paper was rejected for the Hypertext Conference.
Em 1992, o trabalho dele foi rejeitado
na Conferência de Hipertexto.
04:36
In 1993,
Em 1993, havia uma mesa na conferência
na cidade de Seattle,
04:39
there was a table at the conference in Seattle,
04:41
and a guy called Marc Andreessen
e um rapaz chamado Marc Andreessen,
04:43
was demonstrating his little browser for the World Wide Web.
estava a demonstrar um navegador
para o World Wide Web.
04:46
And I saw it, and I thought, yep, that's it.
Quando o vi, pensei, sim, é isso mesmo.
04:48
And the very next year, in 1994, we had the conference here in Edinburgh,
No ano seguinte, em 1994, tivemos
a conferência aqui em Edimburgo
04:51
and I had no opposition in having Tim Berners-Lee as the keynote speaker.
e não tive relutância em ter
Tim Berners-Lee como palestrante principal.
04:55
So that puts me in pretty illustrious company.
Isto pôs-me num grupo de pessoas ilustres.
04:57
There was a guy called Dick Rowe
Havia um rapaz chamado Dick Rowe,
04:59
who was at Decca Records and turned down The Beatles.
da Decca Records
que havia rejeitado os Beatles.
05:01
There was a guy called Gary Kildall
Havia outro chamado Gary Kildall
05:03
who went flying his plane
que tinha ido andar de avião
quando a IBM o foi procurar
para um sistema operativo
05:05
when IBM came looking for an operating system
05:07
for the IBM PC,
para o PC IBM
e, como ele não estava lá,
foram ter com o Bill Gates.
05:09
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill Gates.
05:11
And the 12 publishers
E os 12 editores que, imagino,
05:13
who turned down J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter, I guess.
terão rejeitado
o Harry Potter de J.K. Rowling.
05:16
On the other hand, there's Marc Andreessen
Do outro lado, temos Marc Andreessen,
05:18
who wrote the world's first browser for the World Wide Web.
que escreveu o primeiro navegador
para o World Wide Web.
05:20
And according to Fortune magazine,
Segundo a revista Fortune,
05:22
he's worth 700 million dollars.
ele vale 700 milhões de dólares.
05:24
But is he happy?
Mas será que ele é feliz?
05:26
(Laughter)
(Risos)
05:28
(Applause)
(Aplausos)
Translated by Anahi Sapucaia
Reviewed by Wanderley Jesus

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About the speaker:

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

More profile about the speaker
Ian Ritchie | Speaker | TED.com