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TEDGlobal 2011

Ian Ritchie: The day I turned down Tim Berners-Lee

Ian Ritchie: Deň, v ktorý som odmietol Tima Berners-Leeho

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Predstavte si, že je koniec roka 1990 a vy ste práve spoznali sympatického mladého muža menom Tim Berners-Lee, ktorý vám začne rozprávať o ním navrhnutom systéme, ktorý sa volá World Wide Web. Ian Ritchie pri tom bol. A ... a nezhltol to. Krátky príbeh o informácii, pripojení a učení sa z chýb.

- Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie Full bio

Well we all know the World Wide Web
Nuž, všetci vieme, že World Wide Web
00:15
has absolutely transformed publishing, broadcasting,
kompletne zmenil vydavateľstvo, vysielanie,
00:17
commerce and social connectivity,
obchod a sociálne siete,
00:21
but where did it all come from?
ale odkiaľ sa to všetko vzalo?
00:23
And I'll quote three people:
Budem citovať troch ľudí:
00:25
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart and Tim Berners-Lee.
Vannevar Bush, Doug Engelbart a Tim Berners-Lee.
00:27
So let's just run through these guys.
Tak sa na týchto pánov pozrime.
00:30
This is Vannevar Bush.
Toto je Vannevar Bush.
00:32
Vannevar Bush was the U.S. government's chief scientific adviser during the war.
Vannevar Bush bol počas vojny hlavným vedeckým poradcom vlády USA.
00:34
And in 1945,
A v roku 1945
00:37
he published an article in a magazine called Atlantic Monthly.
publikoval článok v časopise Atlantic Monthly.
00:39
And the article was called "As We May Think."
A tento článok niesol názov "Ako si možno myslíme."
00:42
And what Vannevar Bush was saying
Vannevar Bush tvrdil,
00:45
was the way we use information is broken.
že spôsob, akým využívame informácie, je chybný.
00:47
We don't work in terms of libraries
Nefungujeme ako knižnice
00:50
and catalog systems and so forth.
alebo katalógové systémy a tak ďalej.
00:53
The brain works by association.
Mozog pracuje pomocou asociácií.
00:55
With one item in its thought, it snaps instantly to the next item.
Z jednej myšlienky skáče okamžite na druhú.
00:57
And the way information is structured
A spôsob, akým je informácia štruktúrovaná,
01:00
is totally incapable of keeping up with this process.
nie je schopný udržať tempo s týmto procesom.
01:02
And so he suggested a machine,
A tak navrhol prístroj,
01:05
and he called it the memex.
ktorý pomenoval memex.
01:07
And the memex would link information,
Memex prepájal informácie,
01:09
one piece of information to a related piece of information and so forth.
jeden kúsok informácie so súvisiacim kúskom inej informácie a tak ďalej.
01:11
Now this was in 1945.
Toto bolo v roku 1945.
01:14
A computer in those days
Počítač v tej dobe
01:16
was something the secret services used to use for code breaking.
bolo niečo, čo používali tajné služby k rozlúšteniu kódov.
01:18
And nobody knew anything about it.
A nikto o tom nič nevedel.
01:21
So this was before the computer was invented.
Takže toto bolo predtým, ako bol vynájdený počítač.
01:23
And he proposed this machine called the memex.
A on prišiel s takýmto prístrojom s názvom memex.
01:25
And he had a platform where you linked information to other information,
Mal platformu, na ktorej ste prepojili jednu informáciu s druhou
01:27
and then you could call it up at will.
a potom ste to mohli vyvolať na žiadosť.
01:30
So spinning forward,
Tak, pohneme sa ďalej,
01:32
one of the guys who read this article was a guy called Doug Engelbart,
jedným z ľudí, ktorí čítali tento článok, bol pán menom Doug Engelbart,
01:34
and he was a U.S. Air Force officer.
bol to dôstojník vojenského letectva U.S.
01:36
And he was reading it in their library in the Far East.
Čítal to v ich knižnici na Ďalekom východe.
01:38
And he was so inspired by this article,
A tento článok ho tak inšpiroval,
01:41
it kind of directed the rest of his life.
že to v podstate nesmerovalo, celý jeho ďalší život.
01:43
And by the mid-60s, he was able to put this into action
A do polovice 60. rokov sa mu to podarilo uviesť do akcie,
01:45
when he worked at the Stanford Research Lab in California.
keď pracoval v Kalifornii v Stanford Research Lab.
01:48
He built a system.
Vybudoval systém.
01:52
The system was designed to augment human intelligence, it was called.
Tento systém bol navrhnutý tak, aby rozšíril ľudskú inteligenciu.
01:54
And in a premonition of today's world
A ako predzvesť dnešného sveta
01:57
of cloud computing and softwares of service,
cloud computingu a softvéru ako služby,
02:00
his system was called NLS
sa jeho systém volal NLS
02:02
for oN-Line System.
ako "oN-Line System" (Online Systém).
02:04
And this is Doug Engelbart.
A to je Doug Engelbart.
02:06
He was giving a presentation at the Fall Joint Computer Conference
V roku 1968 prezentoval na konferencii
02:08
in 1968.
Fall Joint Computer Conference.
02:11
What he showed --
Kde ukázal -
02:14
he sat on a stage like this, and he demonstrated this system.
takto si sadol na pódium a názorne predviedol tento systém.
02:16
He had his head mic like I've got.
Mal takýto mikrofón na hlave, ako mám ja.
02:19
And he works this system.
A obsluhoval tento systém.
02:21
And you can see, he's working between documents
Môžete vidieť, ako pracuje medzi dokumentmi
02:23
and graphics and so forth.
a grafikou a tak ďalej.
02:25
And he's driving it all
A celé to riadi
02:27
with this platform here,
pomocou tejto platformy tu,
02:29
with a five-finger keyboard
s klávesnicou pre päť prstov
02:31
and the world's first computer mouse,
a prvou počítačovou myšou na svete,
02:33
which he specially designed in order to do this system.
ktorú navrhol špeciálne kvôli tomuto systému.
02:35
So this is where the mouse came from as well.
Takže aj myš pochádza odtiaľto.
02:37
So this is Doug Engelbart.
Takže toto je Doug Engelbart.
02:39
The trouble with Doug Engelbart's system
Problém so systémom Douga Engelbarta
02:41
was that the computers in those days cost several million pounds.
bol ten, že počítače v tej dobe stáli niekoľko miliónov libier.
02:43
So for a personal computer,
Takže mať osobný počítač
02:46
a few million pounds was like having a personal jet plane;
za niekoľko miliónov libier bolo ako mať osobné lietadlo.
02:48
it wasn't really very practical.
Nebolo to veľmi praktické.
02:50
But spin on to the 80s
Ale presuňme sa do 80. rokov,
02:52
when personal computers did arrive,
kedy dorazili osobné počítače,
02:54
then there was room for this kind of system on personal computers.
vtedy tam už bol priestor pre takéto systémy na osobných počítačoch.
02:56
And my company, OWL
A moja spoločnosť, OWL,
02:58
built a system called Guide for the Apple Macintosh.
vybudovala systém s názvom Príručka (Guide) pre Apple Macintosh.
03:00
And we delivered the world's first hypertext system.
A my sme dodali prvý hypertextový systém na svete.
03:03
And this began to get a head of steam.
A to sa pustilo plnou parou vpred.
03:07
Apple introduced a thing called HyperCard,
Apple predstavil vec menom HyperCard
03:09
and they made a bit of a fuss about it.
a urobili okolo toho trochu rozruchu.
03:11
They had a 12-page supplement in the Wall Street Journal the day it launched.
V deň, kedy to vyšlo mali vo Wall Street Journal 12-stránkovú prílohu.
03:13
The magazines started to cover it.
Časopisy o tom začali písať.
03:16
Byte magazine and Communications at the ACM
Časopis Byte a Communications od ACM
03:18
had special issues covering hypertext.
mali špeciálne čísla o hypertexte.
03:20
We developed a PC version of this product
Vyvinuli sme PC verziu pre tento produkt
03:22
as well as the Macintosh version.
tak ako aj verziu pre Macintosh.
03:24
And our PC version became quite mature.
A naša PC verzia bola celkom vyspelá.
03:26
These are some examples of this system in action in the late 80s.
Toto je pár príkladov tohto systému v akcii na konci 80. rokov.
03:29
You were able to deliver documents, were able to do it over networks.
Mohli ste posielať dokumenty, mohli ste to robiť po sieti.
03:33
We developed a system such
Vyvinuli sme systém tak,
03:36
that it had a markup language based on html.
že mal značkový jazyk založený na html.
03:38
We called it hml: hypertext markup language.
Nazvali sme ho html: hypertext markup language (hypertextový značkový jazyk).
03:40
And the system was capable of doing
Tento systém dokázal robiť
03:43
very, very large documentation systems over computer networks.
veľmi, veľmi rozsiahle dokumentačné systémy po počítačových sieťach.
03:45
So I took this system to a trade show in Versailles near Paris
Tak som na konci novembra roku 1990 vzal tento systém na veľtrh
03:49
in late November 1990.
do Versailles blízko Paríža.
03:52
And I was approached by a nice young man called Tim Berners-Lee
A oslovil ma sympatický mladý muž menom Tim Berners-Lee,
03:55
who said, "Are you Ian Ritchie?" and I said, "Yeah."
ktorý sa spýtal, "Vy ste Ian Ritchie?" a ja na to, "Áno."
03:57
And he said, "I need to talk to you."
A on povedal, "Potrebujem s vami hovoriť."
03:59
And he told me about his proposed system called the World Wide Web.
A povedal mi o systéme menom World Wide Web, ktorý navrhol.
04:01
And I thought, well, that's got a pretentious name,
A ja som si pomyslel, nuž, to má ale okázalý názov,
04:04
especially since the whole system ran on his computer in his office.
obzvlášť keď celý ten systém beží na počítači v jeho kancelárii.
04:07
But he was completely convinced that his World Wide Web
No on bol celkom presvedčený, že jeho World Wide Web
04:10
would take over the world one day.
jedného dňa ovládne svet.
04:13
And he tried to persuade me to write the browser for it,
A snažil sa ma presvedčiť, aby som pre to vytvoril prehliadač,
04:15
because his system didn't have any graphics or fonts or layout or anything;
pretože jeho systém nemal žiadnu grafiku ani fonty, ani layout ani nič;
04:17
it was just plain text.
bol to len jednoduchý text.
04:20
I thought, well, you know, interesting,
Pomyslel som si, nuž, viete, zaujímavé,
04:22
but a guy from CERN, he's not going to do this.
ale chlapík z CERNu, nepodarí sa mu to.
04:25
So we didn't do it.
Takže sme to neurobili.
04:27
In the next couple of years,
Pár najbližších rokov
04:29
the hypertext community didn't recognize him either.
si ho nevšímala ani hypertextová komunita.
04:31
In 1992, his paper was rejected for the Hypertext Conference.
V roku 1992 bol jeho návrh pre Hypertextovú konferenciu odmietnutý.
04:33
In 1993,
V roku 1993
04:36
there was a table at the conference in Seattle,
bol na konferencii v Seattli stôl
04:39
and a guy called Marc Andreessen
a chlapík menom Marc Andreessen
04:41
was demonstrating his little browser for the World Wide Web.
tam predvádzal svoj malý prehliadač pre World Wide Web.
04:43
And I saw it, and I thought, yep, that's it.
A ja som to zbadal a pomyslel si, hej, tak toto je ono.
04:46
And the very next year, in 1994, we had the conference here in Edinburgh,
A hneď na ďalší rok, 1994, sme mali konferenciu tu v Edinburghu
04:48
and I had no opposition in having Tim Berners-Lee as the keynote speaker.
a ja som nemal žiadne námietky voči tomu, že Tim Berners-Lee je hlavný rečník.
04:51
So that puts me in pretty illustrious company.
To ma dostáva do dosť významnej spoločnosti.
04:55
There was a guy called Dick Rowe
Je tam chlapík menom Dick Rowe,
04:57
who was at Decca Records and turned down The Beatles.
ktorý bol z Decca Records a odmietol The Beatles.
04:59
There was a guy called Gary Kildall
Je tam chlapík menom Gary Kildall,
05:01
who went flying his plane
ktorý si šiel zalietať lietadlom,
05:03
when IBM came looking for an operating system
keď IBM hľadali operačný systém
05:05
for the IBM PC,
pre IBM PC,
05:07
and he wasn't there, so they went back to see Bill Gates.
a keďže tam nebol, tak sa vrátili a šli za Billom Gatesom.
05:09
And the 12 publishers
A 12 vydavateľov,
05:11
who turned down J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter, I guess.
ktorí odmietli Harryho Pottera od J.K. Rowling.
05:13
On the other hand, there's Marc Andreessen
Na druhej strane, je tu Marc Andreessen,
05:16
who wrote the world's first browser for the World Wide Web.
ktorý napísal prvý prehliadač pre World Wide Web na svete.
05:18
And according to Fortune magazine,
A podľa časopisu Fortune
05:20
he's worth 700 million dollars.
má hodnotu 700 miliónov dolárov.
05:22
But is he happy?
Ale je šťastný?
05:24
(Laughter)
(Smiech)
05:26
(Applause)
(Potlesk)
05:28

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About the speaker:

Ian Ritchie - Software entrepreneur
Ian Ritchie

Why you should listen

Ian Ritchie is chair of iomart plc. and several other computer and learning businesses, including Computer Application Services Ltd., the Interactive Design Institute and Caspian Learning Ltd. He is co-chair of the Scottish Science Advisory Council, a board member of the Edinburgh International Science Festival and the chair of Our Dynamic Earth, the Edinburgh Science Centre.

Ritchie founded and managed Office Workstations Limited (OWL) in Edinburgh in 1984 and its subsidiary OWL International Inc. in Seattle from 1985. OWL became the first and largest supplier of Hypertext/Hypermedia authoring tools (a forerunner to the World Wide Web) for personal computers based on its Guide product. OWL's customers used its systems to implement large interactive multimedia documentation systems in industry sectors such as automobile, defence, publishing, finance, and education. OWL was sold to Matsushita Electrical Industrial (Panasonic) of Japan in December 1989. He is the author of New Media Publishing: Opportunities from the digital revolution (1996).

He was awarded a CBE in the 2003 New Years Honours list for services to enterprise and education; he is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering; a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh; and a Fellow and a past-President of the British Computer Society (1998-99). 

More profile about the speaker
Ian Ritchie | Speaker | TED.com