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TED2004

James Howard Kunstler: The ghastly tragedy of the suburbs

ジェームス・ハワード・クンスラー 郊外を斬る

February 2, 2004

公共空間は市民生活の息づく中心地であると同時に、共通善の物質的表明であるべきだ。一方今日のアメリカにおける公共空間は、愛するに値しない国を構成している。ジェームズ・ハワード・クンスラーの弁である。

James Howard Kunstler - Social critic
James Howard Kunstler may be the world’s most outspoken critic of suburban sprawl. He believes the end of the fossil fuels era will soon force a return to smaller-scale, agrarian communities -- and an overhaul of the most destructive features of postwar society. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
The immersive ugliness
醜悪さが
00:26
of our everyday environments in America
アメリカの日常を包みこんでいる
00:29
is entropy made visible.
視覚化された均質性だ
00:34
We can't overestimate the amount of despair
計り知れない絶望が
00:38
that we are generating with places like this.
このような場所に生み出されている
00:42
And mostly, I want to persuade you that we have to do better
総じて私は より適切なことをすべだと主張したい
00:47
if we're going to continue the project of civilization in America.
アメリカにおける文明社会を持続させるために
00:51
By the way, this doesn't help.
ところで こんな場所は役に立たない
00:57
Nobody's having a better day down here because of that.
--こんな場所では誰もよりよい日々を送ることはできない
01:00
There are a lot of ways you can describe this.
このような場所を表現する方法は多くある
01:07
You know, I like to call it "the national automobile slum."
私はこれを "国家的自動車スラム街" と呼びたい
01:09
You can call it suburban sprawl.
郊外スプロールと言ってもいい
01:12
I think it's appropriate to call it
こう言っても適切か--
01:15
the greatest misallocation of resources in the history of the world.
--資源配置における史上最大の失敗
01:17
You can call it a technosis externality clusterfuck.
--技術の糞デタラメな顕在化と言ってもいい
01:22
And it's a tremendous problem for us.
これが我々を取り囲む大きな問題なのだ
01:27
The outstanding -- the salient problem about this for us
中でも際立った問題なのは
01:33
is that these are places that are not worth caring about.
こんな場所は愛するに値しないという事だ
01:37
We're going to talk about that some more.
これについてもう少し話をしよう
01:40
A sense of place:
空間の意義とは
01:43
your ability to create places that are meaningful and places of quality and character
意義のある場所や 特色のある場所をつくるためには
01:45
depends entirely on your ability to define space with buildings,
建物とともに空間を定義し
01:52
and to employ the vocabularies, grammars,
建築設計における語彙、文法、
01:57
syntaxes, rhythms and patterns of architecture
構文、リズム、パターンを運用する能力が必要だ
02:01
in order to inform us who we are.
それによって我々は
我々が何者であるかを知ることができる
02:05
The public realm in America has two roles:
アメリカの公共領域には 二つの役割がある
02:08
it is the dwelling place of our civilization and our civic life,
文明と市民生活の息づく場所という役割
02:14
and it is the physical manifestation of the common good.
そして共通善の物質的表明だ
02:19
And when you degrade the public realm,
それゆえ 公共空間が犯されるのであれば
02:24
you will automatically degrade the quality of your civic life
市民生活の質は自動的に損なわれ
02:27
and the character of all the enactments of your public life and communal life that take place there.
そして公共生活、共同体生活における
法の性質もそれに従うだろう
02:30
The public realm comes mostly in the form of the street in America
アメリカでは 公共空間は道のあり様にみてとれる
02:39
because we don't have the 1,000-year-old cathedral plazas
なぜなら1000年続く大聖堂広場や
02:44
and market squares of older cultures.
前時代的な市場街を持たないからだ
02:48
And your ability to define space and to create places that are worth caring about
空間を定義し 愛するに値する場所をつくる能力は
02:52
all comes from a body of culture that we call the culture of civic design.
シビックデザインと呼ばれる文化の本質にすべて由来する
03:00
This is a body of knowledge, method, skill and principle
それは知識、方法論、技術、原則の本質であり
03:05
that we threw in the garbage after World War II
第二次大戦後に捨てられてしまったものだ
03:10
and decided we don't need that anymore; we're not going to use it.
そんなものはもう必要ない
二度と使う事は無いだろうとされたのだ
03:15
And consequently, we can see the result all around us.
その結果が 我々を取り囲んでいる
03:18
The public realm has to inform us not only where we are geographically,
公共領域は我々の地理的な立ち位置だけでなく
03:23
but it has to inform us where we are in our culture.
文化の中での立ち位置を示すものであるべきだ
03:28
Where we've come from, what kind of people we are, and it needs to,
我々はどこから来たのか 我々は何者なのか
03:32
by doing that, it needs to afford us a glimpse to where we're going
そして我々がどこに向かっているのかを示すべきだ
03:37
in order to allow us to dwell in a hopeful present.
それが 希望に満ちた今を生きるために必要なのだ
03:43
And if there is one tremendous --
そしてもし巨大な
03:48
if there is one great catastrophe about the places that we've built,
大いなる失敗が我々のつくった場所にあるならば
03:50
the human environments we've made for ourselves in the last 50 years,
この五十年の間に我々のつくった環境
03:53
it is that it has deprived us of the ability to live in a hopeful present.
それこそが 我々から希望に満ちた今を生きる力を
奪ったものなのだ
03:57
The environments we are living in, more typically, are like these.
よくある住環境といえば こんなものだろう
04:06
You know, this happens to be the asteroid belt of architectural garbage two miles north of my town.
私の街の2マイル北にある
ゴミ建築が群がるアステロイド帯だ
04:10
And remember, to create a place of character and quality,
覚えておいてくれ 特色ある場所をつくるためには
04:16
you have to be able to define space.
空間を定義する必要がある
04:20
So how is that being accomplished here?
で ここでは何がどうなってるのか?
04:22
If you stand on the apron of the Wal-Mart over here
そっちにあるウォールマートの前に立ってたとして
04:24
and try to look at the Target store over here,
あっちにあるターゲットストアをみようとしても
04:27
you can't see it because of the curvature of the Earth. (Laughter)
地球が丸いから見えやしない
04:29
That's nature's way of telling you that you're doing a poor job of defining space.
大自然が教えてくれる空間定義のダメな方法だ
04:35
Consequently, these will be places that nobody wants to be in.
その結果 誰も行きたがらない場所になってしまう
04:41
These will be places that are not worth caring about.
そんな場所は愛するに値しない
04:44
We have about, you know, 38,000 places
そんな場所が38,000ヵ所
04:48
that are not worth caring about in the United States today.
愛するに値しない場所が 今日のアメリカには存在している
04:51
When we have enough of them, we're going to have a nation that's not worth defending.
そんなものに溢れているなら 国を守る価値も無い!
04:53
And I want you to think about that when you think about
考えてみてほしい
04:59
those young men and women who are over in places like Iraq,
イラクにいる若い青年達が
05:03
spilling their blood in the sand,
砂漠の上で血を流していることを
05:05
and ask yourself, "What is their last thought of home?"
そして自問してほしい
彼らが最後に思い浮かべる故郷とは何か?
05:07
I hope it's not the curb cut between the Chuck E. Cheese and the Target store
私はそれが チャックE.チーズと
ターゲットストアの間のカーブじゃないことを願う!
05:12
because that's not good enough for Americans to be spilling their blood for. (Applause)
そんなもののために血を流す理由は無い
05:16
We need better places in this country.
この国には よりよい場所が必要なのだ!
05:22
Public space. This is a good public space.
公共空間 よい公共空間だ
05:25
It's a place worth caring about. It's well defined.
愛するに値する場所 これがよい定義だ
05:27
It is emphatically an outdoor public room.
断固としてそれは屋外の公共空間だ
05:30
It has something that is terribly important --
あまりにも重要なことがここにある
05:33
it has what's called an active and permeable membrane around the edge.
動的で透過性のある膜に覆われていることだ
05:36
That's a fancy way of saying it's got shops, bars, bistros, destinations --
店 バー 居酒屋 レストランなどの特殊なあり方
05:39
things go in and out of it. It's permeable.
ものごとが出入りする これが透過性だ
05:44
The beer goes in and out, the waitresses go in and out,
ビールが運ばれたり ウェイトレスが出入りして
05:47
and that activates the center of this place and makes it a place that people want to hang out in.
それによってこの場の中心が息づき
人々がぶらつきたがるような場所になる
05:50
You know, in these places in other cultures,
他の文化圏では このような場所で
05:55
people just go there voluntarily because they like them.
みんな勝手にこういう場所に行く そこが好きだからだ
05:59
We don't have to have a craft fair here to get people to come here. (Laughter)
こういう場所では 客寄せのための見本市なんぞ
やるべきではない
06:03
You know, you don't have to have a Kwanzaa festival.
クワンザ祭なんかをやる必要もない
06:06
People just go because it's pleasurable to be there.
人々は居心地がよいからそこに集まる
06:09
But this is how we do it in the United States.
一方 これがアメリカのやり方だ
06:13
Probably the most significant public space failure in America,
公共空間についての おそらくアメリカで一番重大な失敗だ
06:17
designed by the leading architects of the day, Harry Cobb and I.M. Pei:
かつての指導的な建築家
ハリー・コブとI.M.ペイがデザインした
06:20
Boston City Hall Plaza.
ボストン市役所広場だ
06:25
A public place so dismal that the winos don't even want to go there. (Laughter)
そりゃあ殺風景で 酒飲みなんざ行きたいとさえ思わない
06:27
And we can't fix it because I.M. Pei's still alive,
なのにI.M.ペイがまだ生きてるから なおすこともできない
06:33
and every year Harvard and M.I.T. have a joint committee to repair it.
毎年ハーバードとM.I.T.が
委員会を開いて改善しようとしてるが
06:36
And every year they fail to because they don't want to hurt I.M. Pei's feelings.
いつも失敗する I.M.ペイのメンツのためだ
06:39
This is the other side of the building.
これが市役所の反対側だ
06:43
This was the winner of an international design award in, I think, 1966, something like that.
国際的なデザインアワードの優勝作品だ
1966年だったか そんなものだ
06:45
It wasn't Pei and Cobb, another firm designed this,
これはペイとコブではなく 他の事務所がやった
06:50
but there's not enough Prozac in the world to make people feel OK about going down this block.
が、こんな場所をゆく連中の気を晴らしてやるには
抗鬱剤が足りない
06:53
This is the back of Boston City Hall,
これはボストン市役所の裏側だ
07:04
the most important, you know, significant civic building in Albany -- excuse me -- in Boston.
アルバニーでもっとも重要な市民のための建物だ
--失礼--  ボストンだ
07:06
And what is the message that is coming,
じゃあ、どんなメッセージをこれは発しているのか
07:14
what are the vocabularies and grammars that are coming, from this building
この建物が発する語彙や文法とは何だ?
07:16
and how is it informing us about who we are?
どうやって 我々が何者であるかを知ることができるのか?
07:19
This, in fact, would be a better building if we put mosaic portraits
この建物をもっと良くするには
07:22
of Josef Stalin, Pol Pot, Saddam Hussein,
ヨシフ・スターリン、ポル・ポト、サダム・フセインでもなんでも
07:26
and all the other great despots of the 20th century on the side of the building,
二十世紀の大いなる独裁者の肖像でもかけておけばいい
07:31
because then we'd honestly be saying what the building is really communicating to us.
それこそが この建物が我々に語りかけてくることだからだ
07:34
You know, that it's a despotic building;
わかるだろ これは独裁的な建物だ
07:39
it wants us to feel like termites. (Laughter)
シロアリにでもなった気分にさせられる
07:41
This is it on a smaller scale:
これがその縮小版だ
07:49
the back of the civic center in my town, Saratoga Springs, New York.
私の街 ニューヨーク、サラトガスプリングスにある
市民センターの裏側だ
07:51
By the way, when I showed this slide to a group of Kiwanians in my town,
ところで このスライドを街の地域奉仕団体に見せた所
07:55
they all rose in indignation from their creamed chicken, (Laughter)
クリームチキンを食いながら文句を言ってきた
08:00
and they shouted at me and said,
そしてこう叫んだ
08:05
"It was raining that day when you took that picture!"
"写真を撮った時 雨が降ってたからだ!"
08:08
Because this was perceived to be a weather problem. (Laughter)
天気の問題だとさ
08:12
You know, this is a building designed like a DVD player. (Laughter)
DVDプレイヤーみたいな建物だろ
08:24
Audio jack, power supply --
オーディオジャック 主電源
08:29
and look, you know these things are important architectural jobs for firms, right?
この手のものが建築事務所の重要な仕事だってことだ
わかるだろ?
08:34
You know, we hire firms to design these things.
こんなものをつくるために 我々は事務所を雇う
08:39
You can see exactly what went on, three o'clock in the morning at the design meeting.
そこで何が起こっていたか はっきりしている
午前三時 デザインミーティング
08:41
You know, eight hours before deadline,
締切まであと八時間
08:45
four architects trying to get this building in on time, right?
四人の設計者が 締切に間に合わせようとしている
08:47
And they're sitting there at the long boardroom table
会議室の長机に座りながら
08:51
with all the drawings, and the renderings,
図面、見取図
08:54
and all the Chinese food caskets are lying on the table, and --
それに中華が入った箱なんかが並べてあって
08:56
I mean, what was the conversation that was going on there? (Laughter)
で そこでどんな会話をしてるっていうんだ?
09:00
Because you know what the last word was, what the last sentence was of that meeting.
そいつらが最後に言う言葉は わかるだろ 最後の言葉は
09:04
It was: "Fuck it." (Laughter) (Applause)
"糞やってらんねえ"
09:09
That -- that is the message of this form of architecture.
それがこの手の建物のメッセージだ
09:16
The message is: We don't give a fuck! We don't give a fuck.
"どうでもいい、糞どうでもいい"
09:22
So I went back on the nicest day of the year, just to --
ところで この年の一番天気のよい時のことを思い出した
09:28
you know -- do some reality testing,
現場検証か何かをしていた
09:31
and in fact, he will not even go down there because (Laughter)
彼はあっちには行かないだろう なぜなら--
09:33
it's not interesting enough for his clients,
彼の ’お客様’ の意向に沿わないからだ
09:37
you know, the burglars, the muggers.
わかるだろ 盗人 強盗
09:39
It's not civically rich enough for them to go down there.
あっちに行ったら公務の金づるにさしさわる
09:42
OK.
さて
09:47
The pattern of Main Street USA --
アメリカにあるメインストリートのパターンは
09:49
in fact, this pattern of building downtown blocks, all over the world, is fairly universal.
実際これは繁華街なら世界中どこでも普遍的だが
09:52
It's not that complicated:
なにも複雑なことではない
09:57
buildings more than one story high, built out to the sidewalk edge,
二階建て以上の建物が歩道の外側に建てられていて
09:59
so that people who are, you know, all kinds of people can get into the building.
どんな人でも中に入れるようになっている
10:05
Other activities are allowed to occur upstairs,
それが許されないことは二階以上で行われる
10:08
you know, apartments, offices, and so on.
アパート、オフィスなどのことだ
10:12
You make provision for this activity called shopping on the ground floor.
ご存知の通り 一階はショッピングフロアだ
10:15
They haven't learned that in Monterey.
なにもモンテレーから学んだわけではない
10:19
If you go out to the corner right at the main intersection right in front of this conference center,
この会議場の目の前にある交差点では
10:21
you'll see an intersection with four blank walls on every corner.
全ての角に四軒の空き家がある
10:25
It's really incredible.
まったく信じられない
10:28
Anyway, this is how you compose and assemble a downtown business building,
これが中心地のオフィス街のあり様だ
10:30
and this is what happened when in Glens Falls, New York,
これはニューヨク、グレンフォールズだ
10:34
when we tried to do it again, where it was missing, right?
同じことをしようとして、空き家になってしまった
10:37
So the first thing they do is they pop up the retail a half a story above grade to make it sporty.
まず最初に かっこつけのために建物をすこしもちあげた
10:39
OK. That completely destroys the relationship between the business and the sidewalk,
それが店と歩道の関係をダメにした
10:45
where the theoretical pedestrians are. (Laughter)
歩行者が想定されてるらしい
10:51
Of course, they'll never be there, as long as this is in that condition.
こんな状況じゃ、当然誰もこんなところに来ないだろう
10:54
Then because the relationship between the retail is destroyed,
店との関係がダメになったから
10:58
we pop a handicapped ramp on that,
障がい者スロープをあてがった
11:02
and then to make ourselves feel better, we put a nature Band-Aid in front of it.
ごまかしのために、緑のバンドエイドをはっつけた
11:05
And that's how we do it.
それがアメリカのやり方だ
11:09
I call them "nature Band-Aids" because there's a general idea in America
私はそれを "緑のバンドエイド" と呼ぶ
アメリカにおける一般論として
11:11
that the remedy for mutilated urbanism is nature.
傷つけられた都市へ施されるのは緑だからだ
11:15
And in fact, the remedy for wounded and mutilated urbanism is good urbanism, good buildings.
ところが実際に傷つけ切り刻まれた都市へ施すべきは
良い都市であり、良い建物なのだ
11:20
Not just flower beds, not just cartoons of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
単なる花壇やら、シエラネバダのまがいものなどではない
11:27
You know, that's not good enough.
そんなものでは不十分だ
11:33
We have to do good buildings.
良い建物をつくるべきなのだ
11:34
The street trees have really four jobs to do and that's it:
街路樹の本当の役割は次の四つだ
11:36
To spatially denote the pedestrian realm,
歩行者の領域を空間的に示すこと
11:39
to protect the pedestrians from the vehicles in the carriageway,
歩行者を車道の車から守ること
11:42
to filter the sunlight onto the sidewalk,
木漏れ日を歩道に落とすこと
11:47
and to soften the hardscape of the buildings
そして建物の威圧感を和らげることだ
11:50
and to create a ceiling -- a vaulted ceiling -- over the street, at its best.
アーチ状の天井になっているのが一番良い
11:52
And that's it. Those are the four jobs of the street trees.
そう この四つが街路樹の役割だ
11:56
They're not supposed to be a cartoon of the North Woods;
まがいもののノース・ウッドをつくるためにあるんじゃない
12:00
they're not supposed to be a set for "The Last of the Mohicans."
"ラスト・オブ・モヒカン"のセットじゃないんだよ
12:03
You know, one of the problems with the fiasco of suburbia is that it destroyed our understanding
郊外の大失敗に伴う問題の一つは 田園と都市--
12:08
of the distinction between the country and the town, between the urban and the rural.
--都会と田舎の区別をでたらめにしたことだ
12:16
They're not the same thing.
同じものではない
12:20
And we're not going to cure the problems of the urban by dragging the country into the city,
田園を都市に引きずり込んでも問題を治すことはできない
12:22
which is what a lot of us are trying to do all the time.
いつだって多くの輩はそうしようとする
12:26
Here you see it on a small scale -- the mothership has landed,
これがその縮小版だ -- 母船が着陸して
12:28
R2-D2 and C-3PO have stepped out to test the bark mulch
R2-D2とC-3POが出てきてわめきちらし
12:32
to see if they can inhabit this planet. (Laughter)
この星に住めるかどうかテストしてやがる
12:38
A lot of this comes from the fact that the industrial city in America was such a trauma
アメリカでは、都市の工業化が大きなトラウマとなり
12:43
that we developed this tremendous aversion for the whole idea of the city,
その結果、都市に関する全てを厄介がる風潮がはびこった
12:48
city life, and everything connected with it.
都市生活と それにまつわる全てだ
12:52
And so what you see fairly early, in the mid-19th century,
19世紀中ごろには
12:54
is this idea that we now have to have an antidote to the industrial city,
そういった産業都市への処方となる考えがあった
12:59
which is going to be life in the country for everybody.
全ての人に田園の暮らしを という考えだ
13:03
And that starts to be delivered in the form of the railroad suburb:
まずそれは鉄道にもとづいた郊外という形で与えられる
13:06
the country villa along the railroad line,
鉄道沿いにある田園に居住すれば
13:10
which allows people to enjoy the amenity of the city,
都市の設備を享受しながら
13:13
but to return to the countryside every night.
夜には田園に帰ることができる
13:16
And believe me, there were no Wal-Marts or convenience stores out there then,
信じてくれ
そこにはウォールマートやコンビニなんか無かった
13:18
so it really was a form of country living.
それは本当の田園生活だった
13:21
But what happens is, of course, it mutates over the next 80 years
しかし現実には その後の80年間で自体は一変した
13:23
and it turns into something rather insidious.
なんだか陰険なものになってしまった
13:27
It becomes a cartoon of a country house, in a cartoon of the country.
まがい物の田園にある まがい物の田園住宅だ
13:29
And that's the great non-articulated agony of suburbia
郊外における 茫漠とした苦悩だ
13:34
and one of the reasons that it lends itself to ridicule.
ばかばかしくなった理由だ
13:39
Because it hasn't delivered what it's been promising for half a century now.
半世紀前に約束されたものは果たされなかった
13:41
And these are typically the kind of dwellings we find there, you know.
これがそこで見つかる典型的な家だ
13:46
Basically, a house with nothing on the side
基本的に 横には何もついてない
13:50
because this house wants to state, emphatically,
なぜならこう言いたいからだ
13:53
"I'm a little cabin in the woods. There's nothing on either side of me.
"私は森の中のちっちゃな小屋なんです
だから横にはなんにもないんです
13:55
I don't have any eyes on the side of my head. I can't see."
目も何にもついてない ああ、なにも見えない”
13:58
So you have this one last facade of the house,
この家にはファサードの成れの果てがある
14:02
the front, which is really a cartoon of a facade of a house.
前面に 実のところはまがいもののファサードがある
14:04
Because -- notice the porch here.
なぜなら -- みてみろ、玄関がここにある
14:07
Unless the people that live here are Munchkins, nobody's going to be using that.
住んでるやつらが妖精でもなければ
だれもこんなの使わない
14:09
This is really, in fact, a television broadcasting a show 24/7 called "We're Normal."
これは 四六時中”私たちは普通です”という番組を
映すテレビだ
14:16
We're normal, we're normal, we're normal, we're normal, we're normal.
私たちは普通です私たちは普通です私たちは普通です
私たちは普通です私たちは普通です
14:22
Please respect us, we're normal, we're normal, we're normal.
どうか認めて私たちは普通です
私たちは普通です私たちは普通です
14:25
But we know what's going on in these houses, you know.
だが 何がここで起こっているかは明らかだ わかるだろ
14:27
We know that little Skippy is loading his Uzi down here,
スキッピー少年はUZIに銃弾をつめて
14:29
getting ready for homeroom. (Laughter)
ホームルームの支度をしてる
14:33
We know that Heather, his sister Heather, 14 years old,
14歳の妹 ヘザーは
14:37
is turning tricks up here to support her drug habit.
ここにドラッグを隠してる
14:40
Because these places, these habitats,
こんな場所が こんな住環境が
14:43
are inducing immense amounts of anxiety and depression in children,
子供たちの計り知れない不安と憂鬱の温床となっている
14:46
and they don't have a lot of experience with medication.
投薬された経験なんて多くないから
14:51
So they take the first one that comes along, often.
最初に現れるものに手を染める
14:55
These are not good enough for Americans.
こんなものはアメリカ人にふさわしくない
14:57
These are the schools we are sending them to:
我々は子供たちをこんな学校に通わせている。
14:59
The Hannibal Lecter Central School, Las Vegas, Nevada.
ハンニバル・レクター中央学校、ネバダ州、ラス・ヴェガス
15:02
This is a real school!
これは本当に学校なんだぞ!
15:08
You know, but there's obviously a notion that if you let the inmates of this thing out,
この柵の中にいる奴らを逃がしたら
15:10
that they would snatch a motorist off the street and eat his liver.
車からドライバーを引きずり出して臓物を食うぞ
と言ってるようなもんだ!
15:14
So every effort is made to keep them within the building.
全てのものを建物の中に閉じ込めておこうと
手が尽くされている
15:18
Notice that nature is present. (Laughter)
見てみろ 自然が配置されてるぞ
15:23
We're going to have to change this behavior whether we like it or not.
どうあれ こんなやり方は変えなければならない
15:30
We are entering an epochal period of change in the world, and -- certainly in America
我々は 未曾有の変化の時代に足を踏み入れている
アメリカにおいては確実だ
15:32
-- the period that will be characterized by the end of the cheap oil era.
安価な石油の終焉によって特徴づけられる時代だ
15:37
It is going to change absolutely everything.
何もかもが一変するだろう
15:42
Chris asked me not to go on too long about this, and I won't,
これについて あまり長く話すなとクリスに言われた
だからこれ以上話さない
15:46
except to say there's not going to be a hydrogen economy.
代わりにこう言っておく 水素エコノミーなど訪れない
15:49
Forget it. It's not going to happen.
忘れてしまえ そんなものは起こらない
15:52
We're going to have to do something else instead.
それとは別のことをすべきだ
15:54
We're going to have to down-scale, re-scale, and re-size
小さな規模で、再設計し、大きさを変え
15:56
virtually everything we do in this country and we can't start soon enough to do it.
この国で起こっている全てを行わなければならない
すぐに始めるべきだ
16:01
We're going to have -- (Applause) -- we're going to have to live closer to where we work.
我々は -- (拍手) -- 我々は職住を近接させるべきだ
16:05
We're going to have to live closer to each other.
我々は、互いがより近くに住むべきなのだ
16:09
We're going have to grow more food closer to where we live.
住む場所により近い場所で、より多くの食料をつくるべきだ
16:11
The age of the 3,000 mile Caesar salad is coming to an end.
3,000マイルかかるシーザー・サラダの時代は
終わりつつある
16:15
We're going to have to -- we have a railroad system that the Bulgarians would be ashamed of!
ブルガリア人も恥じ入る鉄道網を持とうではないか
16:20
We gotta do better than that!
より良いことをしなければならない!
16:25
And we should have started two days before yesterday.
もっと早くそうすべきだった
16:27
We are fortunate that the new urbanists were there, for the last 10 years,
幸運なことに ニュー・アーバニスト達はこの十年間の間
16:30
excavating all that information that was thrown in the garbage
ゴミ箱に投げ捨てられた情報を発掘してきた
16:35
by our parents' generation after World War II.
戦後 親世代が捨てた情報だ
16:39
Because we're going to need it if we're going to learn how to reconstruct towns.
それらは 街を再構築するために必要になるだろう
16:42
We're going to need to get back this body of methodology and principle and skill
そこにある方法論、原則、技術の本質に立ち返る必要がある
16:44
in order to re-learn how to compose meaningful places, places that are integral,
意義にあふれた、統合された場所を
いかにしてつくるのかを学びなおすために
16:50
that allow -- that are living organisms in the sense that they contain all the organs of our civic life
それは活力ある組織を可能にする
市民生活に必要な全てを供え
16:56
and our communal life, deployed in an integral fashion.
共同生活を 統合的な様式によって展開するのだ
17:03
So that, you know, the residences make sense
住居が意味を持つために
17:08
deployed in relation to the places of business, of culture and of governance.
ビジネス、文化、行政との関係性のなかに展開される
17:11
We're going to have to re-learn what the building blocks of these things are:
それらの基礎単位を学びなおすべきなのだ
17:16
the street, the block, how to compose public space that's both large and small,
街路 区画 大小の公共空間をいかに構成するか
17:20
the courtyard, the civic square
中庭 市民広場
17:26
and how to really make use of this property.
そして それらをいかに活用するか
17:29
We can see some of the first ideas
まず目の前にあるいくつかの
17:32
for retro-fitting some of the catastrophic property that we have in America.
アメリカの壊滅的な場所を改装するアイデアを見てみよう
17:35
The dead malls: what are we going to do with them?
シャッター街 これをどうするか
17:40
Well, in point of fact, most of them are not going to make it.
実際のところ ほとんどは役に立たない
17:43
They're not going to be retro-fitted;
それらを改装することはできない
17:45
they're going to be the salvage yards of the future.
将来のための保留地になるだろう
17:47
Some of them we're going to fix, though.
しかし いくつかは治すことになる
17:49
And we're going to fix them by imposing back on them street and block systems
道路区画に則り
17:51
and returning to the building lot as the normal increment of development.
開発の進行のために宅地に戻す
17:55
And if we're lucky, the result will be revivified town centers and neighborhood centers
幸運ならば 活性化された中心地となり 地域センターを
18:01
in our existing towns and cities.
既存の市街地にもたらす
18:07
And by the way, our towns and cities are where they are, and grew where they were
ところで 街や都市はあるべきところにあり、
あるべきところで育った
18:09
because they occupy all the important sites.
なぜなら、それらは重要な位置を占めているからだ
18:14
And most of them are still going to be there,
それゆえ それらのほとんどはそこにあり続ける
18:16
although the scale of them is probably going to be diminished.
規模は減少するが
18:19
We've got a lot of work to do.
やるべきことが多くある
18:24
We're not going to be rescued by the hyper-car; we're not going to be rescued by alternative fuels.
革新的な自動車やら代替資源燃料によって
救われることはないだろう
18:26
No amount or combination of alternative fuels
代替資源を組み合わせても
18:31
is going to allow us to continue running what we're running, the way we're running it.
今の行いを続けることはできない
18:34
We're going to have to do everything very differently.
すべてを まったく異なる方法ですべきなのだ
18:38
And America's not prepared.
アメリカは準備できていない
18:41
We are sleepwalking into the future.
未来に向かって夢中歩行している
18:43
We're not ready for what's coming at us.
これから起こることに 準備できていないのだ
18:46
So I urge you all to do what you can.
だから あなた方にはできることをしてほしい
18:49
Life in the mid-21st century is going to be about living locally.
21世紀中期の生活は ローカルな生き方になる
18:52
Be prepared to be good neighbors.
良き地域関係をたもつことだ
18:59
Be prepared to find vocations that make you useful
自分自身が役立つ職業を見つけ
19:02
to your neighbors and to your fellow citizens.
地域や同胞の市民に資するすることだ
19:07
One final thing -- I've been very disturbed about this for years,
最後に一つ 何年も気にかけていたこと
19:09
but I think it's particularly important for this audience.
しかし この聴衆に対しては特に重要なことだ
19:12
Please, please, stop referring to yourselves as "consumers." OK?
お願いだ 自分を”消費者”に貶めるな いいか?
19:15
Consumers are different than citizens.
消費者は 市民では無い
19:21
Consumers do not have obligations, responsibilities and duties
消費者は 義務や責任や務めを
19:23
to their fellow human beings.
同胞たる人類に対して負いはしない
19:28
And as long as you're using that word consumer in the public discussion,
公の議論で消費者という言葉を使い続ける限り
19:30
you will be degrading the quality of the discussion we're having.
議論の価値は貶められるだろう
19:33
And we're going to continue being clueless
手掛かりの無い状態が続き
19:37
going into this very difficult future that we face.
あまりに困難な未来へと歩みを進めるだろう
19:40
So thank you very much.
どうもありがとう
19:43
Please go out and do what you can to make this a land full of places that are worth caring about
ここから出たら この地が愛するに値する場所に
あふれるよう できることをしてほしい
19:44
and a nation that will be worth defending. (Applause)
守るに値する国にするために
19:50
Translator:Yuki Yoshino
Reviewer:Takeyasu Kanke

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James Howard Kunstler - Social critic
James Howard Kunstler may be the world’s most outspoken critic of suburban sprawl. He believes the end of the fossil fuels era will soon force a return to smaller-scale, agrarian communities -- and an overhaul of the most destructive features of postwar society.

Why you should listen

James Howard Kunstler calls suburban sprawl "the greatest misallocation of resources the world has ever known." His arguments bring a new lens to urban development, drawing clear connections between physical spaces and cultural vitality.

Geography of Nowhere, published in 1993, presented a grim vision of America in decline -- a nation of cookie-cutter strip malls, vacuous city centers, and dead spaces wrought by what Kunstler calls the ethos of Happy Motoring: our society-wide dependence on the automobile.

The Long Emergency (2005) takes a hard look at energy dependency, arguing that the end of the fossil fuels era will force a return to smaller-scale, agrarian-focused communities and an overhaul of many of the most prominent and destructive features of postwar society.

His confrontational approach and propensity for doomsday scenarios make Kunstler a lightning rod for controversy and critics. But his magnificent rants are underscored with logic and his books are widely read, particularly by architectural critics and urban planners.

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