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TEDxZurich 2011

Sebastian Wernicke: 1000 TEDTalks, 6 words

セバスチャン・ウェルニッケ 「TEDトーク1000個、6つの単語で」

November 10, 2011

セバスチャン・ウェルニッケは、すべてのTEDトークは6つの単語で要約できると考えています。TEDxチューリッヒという舞台で彼はその方法を披露します。

Sebastian Wernicke - Data scientist
After making a splash in the field of bioinformatics, Sebastian Wernicke moved on to the corporate sphere, where he motivates and manages multidimensional projects. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
There's currently over a thousand TEDTalks on the TED website.
TEDには 今や1,000個以上のTEDトークがあります
00:15
And I guess many of you here
そして ここにいる皆さんの多くは
00:19
think that this is quite fantastic --
素晴らしいことだとお考えでしょう
00:22
except for me. I don't agree with this.
私を除いてね
00:24
I think we have a situation here.
ここには問題があると思うのです
00:26
Because if you think about it, 1,000 TEDTalks,
1,000個ものTEDトークということは
00:28
that's over 1,000 ideas worth spreading.
「広める価値のあるアイデア」が1,000個以上あるのです
00:31
How on earth
一体どのようにして
00:34
are you going to spread a thousand ideas?
1,000個のアイデアを広めますか?
00:36
Even if you just try to get all of those ideas into your head
たとえ全部のTEDトークを見て
00:38
by watching all those thousand TED videos,
アイデア全てを頭に入れようとしても
00:40
it would actually currently take you
これを実行するためには
00:42
over 250 hours to do so.
250時間以上かかるでしょう
00:45
And I did a little calculation of this.
ちょっと計算をしてみました
00:47
The damage to the economy for each one who does this
これを行う人1人当たりの経済的損害は
00:49
is around $15,000.
およそ15,000ドルです
00:52
So having seen this danger to the economy,
この危機を目の当たりにして思いました
00:54
I thought, we need to find a solution to this problem.
この問題の解決策を見つける必要があると
00:57
Here's my approach to it all.
私なりの方法はこんな感じです
01:00
If you look at the current situation,
現在の状況を見てみましょう
01:02
you have a thousand TEDTalks.
1,000個のTEDトークがあります
01:04
Each of those TEDTalks has an average length
TEDトーク1個の平均的な長さは
01:06
of about 2,300 words.
だいたい2,300語です
01:08
Now take this together
さて これらを計算すると
01:10
and you end up with 2.3 million words of TEDTalks,
230万語のTEDトークになり
01:12
which is about three Bibles-worth of content.
聖書3冊ほどの量に等しいです
01:15
The obvious question here is,
問題は明らかです
01:18
does a TEDTalk really need 2,300 words?
TEDトーク1個に2,300語も必要なのか?
01:20
Isn't there something shorter?
もっと短くはならないのか?
01:23
I mean, if you have an idea worth spreading,
「広める価値のあるアイデア」が1つなら
01:25
surely you can put it into something shorter
確実にもっと短くまとめられます
01:27
than 2,300 words.
2,300語よりもね
01:29
The only question is, how short can you get?
問題は「どのくらい短くできるか」です
01:31
What's the minimum amount of words
TEDで話すときに必要となる
01:33
you would need to do a TEDTalk?
最少限の単語数はいくつか?
01:35
While I was pondering this question,
この問題を考えていたら
01:37
I came across this urban legend about Ernest Hemingway,
ヘミングウェイの都市伝説が思い浮かびました
01:39
who allegedly said that these six words here:
彼の最高傑作は
01:42
"For sale: baby shoes, never worn,"
「売ります 赤ちゃんの靴 未使用」
01:45
were the best novel he had ever written.
という新聞広告でした
01:48
And I also encountered a project called Six-Word Memoirs
また 「6語で自叙伝」という
01:51
where people were asked,
プロジェクトのことを知りました
01:53
take your whole life and please sum this up into six words, such as these here:
これは人生を6つの単語にまとめるものです 例えば・・
01:55
"Found true love, married someone else."
「真の愛を発見 結婚相手は別」
01:58
Or "Living in existential vacuum; it sucks."
「空しい人生 うんざり」
02:00
I actually like that one.
後者は私のお気に入りです
02:03
So if a novel can be put into six words
小説が6つの単語に収まり
02:05
and a whole memoir can be put into six words,
自叙伝も6つの単語に収まるのなら
02:08
you don't need more than six words for a TEDTalk.
TEDトークも6つの単語で十分なはずです
02:11
We could have been done by lunch here.
そうしたら昼食前にお開きですね
02:14
I mean ...
つまり・・
02:16
And if you did this for all thousand TEDTalks,
これをTEDトーク全てに適用すれば
02:19
you would get from 2.3 million words down to 6,000.
230万語から6,000語にまで縮小できます
02:21
So I thought this was quite worthwhile.
やりがいがあると思いました
02:24
So I started asking all my friends,
そこで友人みんなに頼んで
02:26
please take your favorite TEDTalk and put that into six words.
お気に入りのTEDトークを選んで6語にしてもらいました
02:28
So here are some of the results that I received. I think they're quite nice.
結果の一部をお見せします
02:31
For example, Dan Pink's talk on motivation,
例えばダニエル・ピンクの「やる気」の話
02:33
which was pretty good if you haven't seen it:
これを6語にしたものは
02:35
"Drop carrot. Drop stick. Bring meaning."
「アメを捨て ムチを捨て 意義をもたらせ」
02:37
It's what he's basically talking about in those 18 and a half minutes.
これは概ね彼が18分半をかけて話していた内容です
02:39
Or some even included references to the speakers,
また 話者自身を評価した友人もいました
02:42
such as Nathan Myhrvold's speaking style,
いい例はネイサン・ミアボルドの語り口や
02:44
or the one of Tim Ferriss,
ティム・フェリスが経験した
02:46
which might be considered a bit strenuous at times.
非常に骨が折れそうな努力などです
02:48
The challenge here is, if I try to systematically do this,
さて この作業を組織的にやろうとすれば
02:51
I would probably end up with a lot of summaries,
最終的に私の元に残るのは
02:54
but not with many friends in the end.
たくさんの要約と数少ない友達でしょう
02:56
So I had to find a different method,
だから代案を考えたのです
02:58
preferably involving total strangers.
なるべく他人を巻き込もうとしました
03:00
And luckily there's a website for that called Mechanical Turk,
運よく Mechanical Turkというサイトを見つけました
03:02
which is a website where you can post tasks
これは「自分でしたくない作業」を
03:05
that you don't want to do yourself,
他人にやってもらうウェブサイトです
03:07
such as "Please summarize this text for me in six words."
例えば「この文章を6語で要約して下さい」と投稿するのです
03:09
And I didn't allow any low-cost countries to work on this,
今回 人件費の安い国の人に頼むのはお断りしました
03:12
but I found out I could get a six-word summary for just 10 cents,
しかし 6語要約がたったの10セントでやってもらえると判明したのです
03:15
which I think is a pretty good price.
結構お得だと思いました
03:19
Even then, unfortunately,
残念ながら そうは言っても
03:21
it's not possible to summarize each TEDTalk individually.
全てのTEDトークを1つ1つ要約するのは無理です
03:23
Because if you do the math, you have a thousand TEDTalks,
1,000個のTEDトークに
03:26
the pay 10 cents each;
それぞれ10セントの支払いですが
03:28
you have to do more than one summary for each of those talks,
1回の要約で済むとは限りません
03:30
because some of them will probably be, or are, really bad.
ひどい失敗作ができる可能性があるからです
03:33
So I would end up paying hundreds of dollars.
結局 数百ドルを払うはめになります
03:36
So I thought of a different way
だから他の方法を考えました
03:39
by thinking, well, the talks revolve around certain themes.
TEDトークは「あるテーマ」を中心に話が展開されます
03:41
So what if I don't let people summarize
そのため トークを個別に
03:44
individual TEDTalks to six words,
6語で要約するのではなく
03:46
but give them 10 TEDTalks at the same time
10個のトークを一緒に渡して
03:48
and say, "Please do a six-word summary for that one."
「これを6つの単語で要約してください」と頼むのです
03:50
I would cut my costs by 90 percent.
コストを90%カットできます
03:53
So for $60,
60ドルの出費で
03:55
I could summarize a thousand TEDTalks
1,000個あるTEDトークを
03:58
into just 600 summaries,
600個の要約に落とし込めます
04:00
which would actually be quite nice.
かなりいい感じですよね
04:02
Now some of you might actually right now be thinking,
さて皆さんの何人かは たった今
04:04
It's downright crazy to have 10 TEDTalks summarized into just six words.
トーク10個を6語にするのはクレイジーだとお思いでしょう
04:06
But it's actually not,
しかし実は違うのです
04:09
because there's an example by statistics professor, Hans Rosling.
統計学のロスリング教授による実例があります
04:11
I guess many of you have seen one or more of his talks.
彼のトークをいくつかご存じでしょう
04:14
He's got eight talks online,
TEDに8個も載っています
04:16
and those talks can basically be summed up into just four words,
この8個のトークは概ね 4つの単語にまとめられます
04:18
because that's all he's basically showing us,
なぜなら基本的に彼が示すのは
04:21
our intuition is really bad.
「直感が当てにならないこと」です
04:23
He always proves us wrong.
「私たちは正しくない」と毎回証明します
04:25
So people on the Internet, some didn't do so well.
さて この作業の一部はうまくいきませんでした
04:27
I mean, when I asked them to summarize the 10 TEDTalks at the same time,
トーク10個の要約を頼むと
04:30
some took the easy route out.
手抜きをする人が現れました
04:32
They just had some general comment.
とりあえず ありがちな意見を書くのです
04:34
There were others, and I found this quite cheeky.
他にも これは生意気ですが
04:37
They used their six words to talk back to me
作業者自身の6語を使って 私に
04:40
and ask me if I'd been too much on Google lately.
「グーグルに没頭しすぎでは?」と尋ねてきたこともありました
04:42
And finally also, I never understood this,
さらには 持論を6語で送ってきた人もいました
04:46
some people really came up with their own version of the truth.
「EbayとAmazonは健全さを売れない」
04:49
I don't know any TEDTalk that contains this.
私はこんな内容のTEDトークを知りません
04:52
But, oh well. In the end, however,
しかし 最終的には
04:55
and this is really amazing,
素晴らしいものとなりました
04:57
for each of those 10 TEDTalk clusters that I submitted,
10個セットのトークそれぞれに
04:59
I actually received meaningful summaries.
有意義な要約を得られたのです
05:01
Here are some of my favorites.
これらは私のお気に入りです
05:03
For example, for all the TEDTalks around food,
食にまつわるトーク全てを要約して
05:05
someone summed this up into: "Food shaping body, brains and environment,"
「食物は身体・脳・環境を形作る」
05:07
which I think is pretty good.
けっこういいですよね
05:09
Or happiness: "Striving toward happiness =
幸せにまつわるトーク全てを要約して
05:11
moving toward unhappiness."
「幸せを追う=不幸を辿る」
05:13
So here I was.
さて本題に戻りましょう
05:15
I had started out with a thousand TEDTalks
まず1,000個のTEDトークから始め
05:17
and I had 600 six-word summaries for those.
これに対して 600個の6語要約を得ました
05:19
Actually it sounded nice in the beginning,
最初はいい感じに聞こえました
05:22
but when you look at 600 summaries, it's quite a lot.
しかし600個の要約は結構な量で
05:24
It's a huge list.
膨大なリストができました
05:26
So I thought, I probably have to take this one step further here
そこで もう一歩踏み込む必要があるだろうと思い
05:28
and create summaries of the summaries -- and this is exactly what I did.
「要約の要約」を実際に作ったのです
05:32
So I took the 600 summaries that I had,
600個ある要約を
05:35
put them into nine groups
TED.comでの評定を基に
05:37
according to the ratings that the talks had originally received on TED.com
9つのカテゴリーに分類して
05:39
and asked people to do summaries of those.
それらの要約を作業員に頼みました
05:43
Again, there were some misunderstandings.
やはり 解釈違いもありました
05:46
For example, when I had a cluster of all the beautiful talks,
「美しいトーク」の要約集を渡したとき
05:48
someone thought I was just trying to find the ultimate pick-up line.
「究極の口説き文句を探している」と勘違いされました
05:50
But in the end, amazingly,
ですが驚くことに 最終的には
05:53
again, people were able to do it.
彼らはやってくれました
05:56
For example, all the courageous TEDTalks:
「勇ましいトーク」に対しては
05:58
"People dying," or "People suffering," was also one,
「人々は死んでいく(悩んでいく)
06:00
"with easy solutions around."
安易な解決策を選んで」
06:02
Or the recipe for the ultimate jaw-dropping TEDTalk:
「びっくり仰天トーク」に対しては
06:04
"Flickr photos of intergalactic classical composer."
「銀河系間クラシック音楽作曲家のフリッカー写真集」
06:06
I mean that's the essence of it all.
核心を得ていると思います
06:09
Now I had my nine groups,
さて 9つのカテゴリーに絞りました
06:12
but, I mean, it's already quite a reduction.
すでに結構な削減だと思うのですが・・
06:14
But of course, once you are that far, you're not really satisfied.
しかし当然 まだまだ満足できないでしょう
06:17
I wanted to go all the way, all the way down the distillery,
私は徹底的にやりたかったのです
06:20
starting out with a thousand TEDTalks.
1,000個のトークから出発してね
06:23
I wanted to have a thousand TEDTalks summarized into just six words --
1,000個のトークを6語だけにしたかったのです
06:25
which would be a 99.9997 percent reduction in content.
それはトーク内容の99.9997%を削減したことになります
06:28
And I would only pay $99.50 --
そして 私は100ドルにも満たない
06:32
so stay even below a hundred dollars for it.
99.50ドルだけを払いました
06:35
So I had 50 overall summaries done.
全部で50個の要約を終えたのです
06:38
This time I paid 25 cents
この時は25セント払いました
06:40
because I thought the task was a bit harder.
というのも作業がちょっと難しいと思ったからです
06:42
And unfortunately when I first received the answers --
初めに要約を受け取ったとき
06:45
and here you'll see six of the answers --
ここに6通りの要約がありますが
06:47
I was a bit disappointed.
私は少し落ち込みました
06:49
Because I think you'll agree, they all summarize some aspect of TED,
これらの要約が全て TEDの側面なのは分かるでしょう
06:51
but to me they felt a bit bland,
しかし 私にとっては平凡であり
06:54
or they just had a certain aspect of TED in them.
単に側面の1つを示しているように見えたのです
06:56
So I was almost ready to give up
だからもう諦めようとしていました
06:59
when one night I played around with these sentences
ある夜 これらを並べ変えていたら
07:02
and found out that there's actually a beautiful solution in here.
ここに素晴らしい答えを発見したのです
07:04
So here it is,
さあ いきますよ
07:08
a crowd-sourced, six-word summary of a thousand TEDTalks
1,000個あるTEDトークの6語要約をクラウドソーシングしました
07:11
at the value of $99.50:
支払った金額は99.50ドルでした
07:15
"Why the worry? I'd rather wonder."
「なぜ悩むのか むしろ不思議だよ」
07:18
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
07:20
(Applause)
(拍手)
07:22
Translator:Naoki Funahashi
Reviewer:SHIGERU MASUKAWA

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Sebastian Wernicke - Data scientist
After making a splash in the field of bioinformatics, Sebastian Wernicke moved on to the corporate sphere, where he motivates and manages multidimensional projects.

Why you should listen

Dr. Sebastian Wernicke heads the data science department at Solon, a Munich-based consultancy supporting companies and investors in media, entertainment, telecoms, and technology industries. Wernicke originally studied bioinformatics and previously led the strategy and growth of Seven Bridges Genomics, a Cambridge-based startup that builds platforms for genetic analysis.

Before his career in statistics began, Wernicke worked stints as both a paramedic and successful short animated filmmaker. He's also the author of the TEDPad app, an irreverent tool for creating an infinite number of "amazing and really bad" and mostly completely meaningless talks. He's the author of the statistically authoritative and yet completely ridiculous "How to Give the Perfect TEDTalk."

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