21:00
LIFT 2007

Sugata Mitra: Kids can teach themselves

スガタ:ミトラ: 子供の自己教育について

Filmed:

LIFT 2007でスガタ・ミトラは「壁の穴」プロジェクトについて講演しました。少年少女が自らPC操作を理解し、他の子供に教えました。子供の自己教育について説明します。

- Education researcher
Educational researcher Sugata Mitra is the winner of the 2013 TED Prize. His wish: Build a School in the Cloud, where children can explore and learn from one another. Full bio

I have a tough job to do.
私はタフな仕事をしています
00:16
You know, when I looked at the profile of the audience here,
今ここにいる観客のプロフィールを拝見しますと
00:19
with their connotations and design, in all its forms,
多くの人が色々な仕事をされ
00:25
and with so much and so many people working
多くの仲間と協業されたりしています
00:32
on collaborative and networks, and so on, that I wanted to tell you,
そんな皆さんにお伝えしたいのです
00:34
I wanted to build an argument for primary education
特殊な環境における初等教育について
00:39
in a very specific context.
お話しします
00:44
In order to do that in 20 minutes, I have to bring out four ideas --
20分間で4つのアイデアを示します
00:46
it's like four pieces of a puzzle.
4ピースのパズルのようなものです
00:50
And if I succeed in doing that,
もし成功すれば
00:53
maybe you would go back with the thought
このアイデアを持ち帰り 実現し
00:56
that you could build on, and perhaps help me do my work.
私の仕事を手伝って頂けるかもしれません
00:59
The first piece of the puzzle is remoteness
最初のピースは遠隔性と教育品質
01:06
and the quality of education.
についてです
01:09
Now, by remoteness, I mean two or three different kinds of things.
遠隔性という言葉には いくつかの意味があります
01:11
Of course, remoteness in its normal sense, which means
もちろん 一般的には
01:16
that as you go further and further away
都市中心部から遠方へ
01:19
from an urban center, you get to remoter areas.
離れていくことを意味します
01:22
What happens to education?
教育現場では何が起こるでしょうか?
01:27
The second, or a different kind of remoteness
二つ目の意味は
01:30
is that within the large metropolitan areas all over the world,
全世界の巨大都市に存在するポケット つまり
01:32
you have pockets, like slums, or shantytowns, or poorer areas,
スラムや貧困街といった地域です
01:37
which are socially and economically remote
社会的・経済的に
01:42
from the rest of the city, so it's us and them.
我々から隔離されているのです
01:46
What happens to education in that context?
花粉を風で飛ばします
01:49
So keep both of those ideas of remoteness.
このことを覚えておいてください
01:51
We made a guess. The guess was that schools in remote areas
遠隔地の学校において
01:59
do not have good enough teachers.
教員が十分でないという仮説をたてます
02:02
If they do have, they cannot retain those teachers.
仮に持っていたとしても
02:05
They do not have good enough infrastructure.
引き止めるだけの 基盤が十分でないということです
02:07
And if they had some infrastructure,
基盤を持っていたとしても
02:10
they have difficulty maintaining it.
メンテナンスが難しいのです
02:12
But I wanted to check if this is true. So what I did last year was
この仮説を確かめるために 去年
02:14
we hired a car, looked up on Google,
googleでニューデリーからインド北部への
02:19
found a route into northern India from New Delhi
ルートを確認し車を借りました
02:24
which, you know, which did not cross any big cities
このルートは巨大都市を通過しません
02:29
or any big metropolitan centers. Drove out about 300 kilometers,
300km運転し
02:34
and wherever we found a school, administered a set of standard tests,
学校を見つけては基本的なテストを実施し
02:40
and then took those test results and plotted them on a graph.
結果を集めてグラフに落とし込みました
02:45
The graph was interesting, although you need to consider it carefully.
グラフは興味深いものでした もちろん
02:51
I mean, this is a very small sample; you should not generalize from it.
サンプルとしては小さく一般化出来ない為注意が必要です
02:55
But it was quite obvious, quite clear,
しかし一目瞭然でわかります
02:59
that for this particular route that I had taken,
私が選んだこのルートでは
03:01
the remoter the school was, the worse its results seemed to be.
遠隔地になるほど 結果が悪かったのです
03:05
That seemed a little damning,
これは小さくても証拠に見えたので
03:10
and I tried to correlate it with things like infrastructure,
社会基盤や電力事情との関連を
03:12
or with the availability of electricity, and things like that.
見出そうとしました
03:17
To my surprise, it did not correlate.
驚いたことに これは正しくなかったのです
03:20
It did not correlate with the size of classrooms.
花粉の運び手を惹きつけて
03:23
It did not correlate with the quality of the infrastructure.
社会基盤の品質も
03:26
It did not correlate with the poverty levels. It did not correlate.
貧困レベルも全て関係なかったのです
03:31
But what happened was that when I administered a questionnaire
それぞれの学校で教員にひとつだけ質問したところ
03:35
to each of these schools, with one single question for the teachers -- which was,
ある結果が出ました
03:39
"Would you like to move to an urban, metropolitan area?" --
「都市部に転勤したいですか?」
03:43
69 percent of them said yes. And as you can see from that,
69%が「はい」と回答しました
03:48
they say yes just a little bit out of Delhi,
デリーから少し離れた地域の教員は「はい」と答えました
03:53
and they say no when you hit the rich suburbs of Delhi --
デリー郊外の裕福な地域では「いいえ」という回答でした
03:59
because, you know, those are relatively better off areas --
これは比較的裕福な地域のことです
04:02
and then from 200 kilometers out of Delhi, the answer is consistently yes.
デリーから200km離れると回答は常に「はい」でした
04:05
I would imagine that a teacher who comes or walks into class
教員は毎日教室に入るとき
04:09
every day thinking that, I wish I was in some other school,
「違う学校で働いていたらな」と考えているのだと思います
04:12
probably has a deep impact on what happens to the results.
これは調査結果に大きな影響を与えるでしょう
04:16
So it looked as though teacher motivation and teacher migration
つまり 教師のやる気や定着率が
04:20
was a powerfully correlated thing with what was happening in primary schools,
初等教育での成績に 大きく関連しているのでしょう
04:25
as opposed to whether the children have enough to eat,
子供が十分に食べているか
04:30
and whether they are packed tightly into classrooms
教室にぎゅうぎゅう詰めにされていないか
04:33
and that sort of thing. It appears that way.
というようなことは関係ないのです
04:35
When you take education and technology, then I find in the literature that,
テクノロジーを活用した教育について文献を調べると
04:39
you know, things like websites, collaborative environments --
ウェブサイトや協調環境のようなものは
04:44
you've been listening to all that in the morning --
- 今朝聞いたかもしれません -
04:47
it's always piloted first in the best schools, the best urban schools,
まず都会の優れた学校でテストされますが
04:49
and, according to me, biases the result.
これでは結果に歪みが出ると思うのです
04:55
The literature -- one part of it, the scientific literature --
教育にテクノロジーを用いることは 科学文献では常に
04:58
consistently blames ET as being over-hyped and under-performing.
「騒がれ過ぎで効果が低い」と非難されています
05:02
The teachers always say, well, it's fine, but it's too expensive for what it does.
教師はいつも「これは良いけど高価過ぎる」と言います
05:07
Because it's being piloted in a school where the students are already getting,
なぜなら 既に出来る学生に対して実験しているからです
05:13
let's say, 80 percent of whatever they could do.
80点を取ることができる学生に
05:16
You put in this new super-duper technology, and now they get 83 percent.
超一流の技術を投入しても83点にしか向上しないため
05:19
So the principal looks at it and says,
このような評価になるのです
05:23
3 percent for 300,000 dollars? Forget it.
3点のために30万ドルです バカバカしい
05:25
If you took the same technology and piloted it into one of those remote schools,
同じことを遠隔地の学校に投入すれば
05:28
where the score was 30 percent, and, let's say, took that up to 40 percent --
スコアは30点から40点上がるでしょう
05:33
that will be a completely different thing.
これが根本的に違うところです
05:38
So the relative change that ET, Educational Technology, would make,
テクノロジーを活用した教育は ピラミッドの頂点ではなく
05:40
would be far greater at the bottom of the pyramid than at the top,
底辺に適用した方が ずっと効果的なのです
05:44
but we seem to be doing it the other way about.
それは見栄えが良いだけでなく
05:47
So I came to this conclusion that ET should reach
昆虫を心地良くさせるのでしょう
05:50
the underprivileged first, not the other way about.
という結論に辿りつきました
05:53
And finally came the question of, how do you tackle teacher perception?
そして残った質問は「教師の認識を変えるには?」というものです
05:56
Whenever you go to a teacher and show them some technology,
いつの時代でも新しい技術を見せると
05:59
the teacher's first reaction is,
教師の最初の反応は
06:01
you cannot replace a teacher with a machine -- it's impossible.
教師を機械に置き換えることなんて絶対に出来ない というものです
06:03
I don't know why it's impossible, but, even for a moment,
この植物は
06:09
if you did assume that it's impossible -- I have a quotation from Sir Arthur C. Clarke,
あなたも不可能だと思うなら コロンボで会った
06:11
the science fiction writer whom I met in Colombo,
SF作家 アーサーC.クラークの言葉を引用をします
06:16
and he said something which completely solves this problem.
彼は 機械によって置き換えできる教師は
06:20
He said a teacher than can be replaced by a machine, should be.
置き換えるべきだと言っています
06:24
So, you know, it puts the teacher into a tough bind, you have to think.
教師は機械と競い合うことになるわけです
06:30
Anyway, so I'm proposing that an alternative primary education,
ところで 現在の初等教育にとって変わるものを検討しています
06:36
whatever alternative you want, is required where schools don't exist,
学校が存在しない
06:39
where schools are not good enough, where teachers are not available
学校の品質が十分でない 教師がいない
06:44
or where teachers are not good enough, for whatever reason.
追い払おうと何度も頭をぶつけてきて
06:47
If you happen to live in a part of the world where none of this applies,
このような環境で育たなかった場合は
06:50
then you don't need an alternative education.
代替教育が必要ありませんが
06:54
So far I haven't come across such an area, except for one case. I won't name the area,
たった一つの例を除いて 私はそのような地域を知りません
06:56
but somewhere in the world people said, we don't have this problem,
自分たちには完璧な教師と学校があるから
07:02
because we have perfect teachers and perfect schools.
そのような問題はないという人もいますが
07:05
There are such areas, but -- anyway, I'd never heard that anywhere else.
私が見たことがあるのは一つだけです
07:09
I'm going to talk about children and self-organization,
これから子供の自己組織性と
07:15
and a set of experiments which sort of led to this idea
代替教育についてのアイデアを
07:18
of what might an alternative education be like.
導き出した実験についてお話しします
07:22
They're called the hole-in-the-wall experiments.
「壁の穴」と言う実験です
07:26
I'll have to really rush through this. They're a set of experiments.
これは いくつかの実験を組み合わせたものです
07:28
The first one was done in New Delhi in 1999.
最初の実験はニューデリーで1999年に実施しました
07:33
And what we did over there was pretty much simple.
とてもシンプルな実験です
07:39
I had an office in those days which bordered a slum, an urban slum,
このツイストアラムは
07:43
so there was a dividing wall between our office and the urban slum.
オフィスとスラム街の間にある壁に
07:47
They cut a hole inside that wall --
穴を開けました
07:51
which is how it has got the name hole-in-the-wall --
これが「壁の穴」です
07:53
and put a pretty powerful PC into that hole, sort of embedded into the wall
そこに 壁に組み込むように強力なPCを置き
07:55
so that its monitor was sticking out at the other end,
反対側からモニターが見えるようにしました
08:00
a touchpad similarly embedded into the wall,
タッチパッドも同様です
08:03
put it on high-speed Internet, put the Internet Explorer there,
高速インターネット回線とInternet Explorer そしてAltavisaを用意し
08:06
put it on Altavista.com -- in those days -- and just left it there.
そのまま放っておきました
08:12
And this is what we saw.
そしてこれが設置後に見たことです
08:15
So that was my office in IIT. Here's the hole-in-the-wall.
ここが私のオフィスで こちらが壁の穴です
08:20
About eight hours later, we found this kid.
約8時間後この少年を見ました
08:29
To the right is this eight-year-old child who --
右の少年は8才で
08:35
and to his left is a six-year-old girl, who is not very tall.
左の小さな少女は6才です
08:40
And what he was doing was, he was teaching her to browse.
彼は少女にブラウジングを教えています
08:45
So it sort of raised more questions than it answered.
ここでいくつかの疑問が湧きます
08:49
Is this real? Does the language matter,
さっき見た毛がしぼんで
08:54
because he's not supposed to know English?
彼は英語を知っているはずがありません
08:56
Will the computer last, or will they break it and steal it
コンピュータは壊されて盗まれたりしないでしょうか?
08:58
-- and did anyone teach them?
誰かが教えたのでしょうか?
09:01
The last question is what everybody said, but you know,
誰もがこのことを尋ねました しかし
09:03
I mean, they must have poked their head over the wall
子供達は壁に頭を突っ込んで
09:05
and asked the people in your office,
私のオフィスにいる人に
09:07
can you show me how to do it, and then somebody taught him.
使い方を教えてもらったに違いないと
09:09
So I took the experiment out of Delhi and repeated it,
そこで デリーの外に場所を移し実験を続けました
09:12
this time in a city called Shivpuri in the center of India,
インド中央のチップリという町です
09:15
where I was assured that nobody had ever taught anybody anything.
ここでは 誰かがPCの使い方を教えるなんてことは絶対にありません
09:21
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:26
So it was a warm day, and the hole in the wall
温かい日で 壁の穴はこの古い建物に設置されていました
09:30
was on that decrepit old building. This is the first kid who came there;
これが最初にやってきた子供です 彼は13才で
09:35
he later on turned out to be a 13-year-old school dropout.
学校を中退していることが後にわかりました
09:40
He came there and he started to fiddle around with the touchpad.
最初にタッチパッドの回りに触れ すぐに
09:42
Very quickly, he noticed that when he moves his finger on the touchpad
タッチパッドに指が触れると画面で何かが動くことに
09:48
something moves on the screen --
すぐ気付きました
09:51
and later on he told me, "I have never seen a television
後に 色々なことができるテレビは見たことがないと
09:52
where you can do something."
教えてくれました
09:55
So he figured that out. It took him over two minutes
彼は 2分で
09:56
to figure out that he was doing things to the television.
テレビを操作していることに気づいたのです
09:59
And then, as he was doing that, he made an accidental click
そしてまた タッチパッドを叩くことで
10:02
by hitting the touchpad -- you'll see him do that.
偶然クリックをしたところ
10:05
He did that, and the Internet Explorer changed page.
Internet Explorerのページが変わったのです
10:12
Eight minutes later, he looked from his hand to the screen,
8分後にはスクリーンに手をやり
10:18
and he was browsing: he was going back and forth.
行ったり来たりとブラウジング出来るようになりました
10:22
When that happened, he started calling all the neighborhood children,
それから彼は近所の子供達を呼び寄せ
10:26
like, children would come and see what's happening over here.
何が出来るかを見せました
10:31
And by the evening of that day, 70 children were all browsing.
夜になるまでに 70人の子供がブラウジングしていたのです
10:38
So eight minutes and an embedded computer
8分間と埋め込まれたコンピュータ
10:42
seemed to be all that we needed there.
それだけでこんなことが起きたのです
10:46
So we thought that this is what was happening:
子供達のグループが
10:50
that children in groups can self-instruct themselves
コンピュータとインターネットの使い方を
10:53
to use a computer and the Internet. But under what circumstances?
自己学習できることがわかりました でもどんな環境が必要なのでしょう?
10:56
At this time there was a -- the main question was about English.
今回 主に問題となったのは英語についてでした
11:04
People said, you know, you really ought to have this in Indian languages.
インドの言葉を使う必要がありますねと多くの人が言いました
11:10
So I said, have what, shall I translate the Internet
でも私が全てのコンテンツを
11:14
into some Indian language? That's not possible.
インドの言葉に翻訳するなんて不可能です
11:17
So, it has to be the other way about.
ですから別の方法が必要です
11:20
But let's see, how do the children tackle the English language?
では子供達はどのように言葉の壁を乗り越えたのでしょう
11:22
I took the experiment out to northeastern India,
ほとんどのハチは赤が見えません
11:26
to a village called Madantusi,
マダンツシを選びました
11:29
where, for some reason, there was no English teacher,
そこは英語教師がおらず
11:31
so the children had not learned English at all.
子供達はまったく英語を学んでいませんでした
11:35
And I built a similar hole-in-the-wall.
これまでと同様 壁の穴にパソコンを設置しました
11:38
One big difference in the villages, as opposed to the urban slums:
都市のスラムと大きく違った点は
11:42
there were more girls than boys who came to the kiosk.
女子の方が男子よりもたくさん来たということです
11:44
In the urban slums, the girls tend to stay away.
都市部では女子はあまり寄りつきませんでした
11:48
I left the computer there with lots of CDs -- I didn't have any Internet --
ネット接続ができなかったので パソコンを大量のCDとともに置いてきました
11:52
and came back three months later.
3ヵ月後に戻ってくると
11:57
So when I came back there, I found these two kids,
8才と12才の子供が
12:01
eight- and 12-year-olds, who were playing a game on the computer.
パソコンでゲームをしていました
12:05
And as soon as they saw me they said,
私を見つけるとすぐに
12:09
"We need a faster processor and a better mouse."
高速なCPUとより良いマウスが必要だと言いました
12:13
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:16
I was real surprised.
本当に驚きました
12:20
You know, how on earth did they know all this?
撮影は花を傷つけないように行いました
12:22
And they said, "Well, we've picked it up from the CDs."
CDで知ったんだよ と言われたので
12:25
So I said, "But how did you understand what's going on over there?"
どうやって理解したのかを問いました
12:27
So they said, "Well, you've left this machine
それで 紫外線を当てた
12:30
which talks only in English, so we had to learn English."
だから英語を勉強したんだ」
12:32
So then I measured, and they were using 200 English words with each other
子供は皆 200の英単語を使用出来ました
12:35
-- mispronounced, but correct usage --
発音は違いましたが正しく使用していました
12:39
words like exit, stop, find, save, that kind of thing,
終了 停止 検索 保存 のような単語です
12:42
not only to do with the computer but in their day-to-day conversations.
パソコンの中だけでなく日常会話でも使っていました
12:48
So, Madantusi seemed to show that language is not a barrier;
マダンツシで言語は障壁ではないとわかりました
12:51
in fact they may be able to teach themselves the language
本当にやりたいのであれば
12:55
if they really wanted to.
言語は自己学習することもできるでしょう
12:57
Finally, I got some funding to try this experiment out
その後 私はついに これと同じことがどこでも起きるのか
13:00
to see if these results are replicable, if they happen everywhere else.
実験で確かめるための資金を得ることができました
13:05
India is a good place to do such an experiment in,
インドはこのような実験に最適の場所です
13:09
because we have all the ethnic diversities, all the -- you know,
民族的な多様性もあれば
13:12
the genetic diversity, all the racial diversities,
人種も様々で
13:15
and also all the socio-economic diversities.
社会経済的にも多様です
13:18
So, I could actually choose samples to cover a cross section
ですから 全世界をカバーすると言えるほどの
13:20
that would cover practically the whole world.
多様なサンプルを取ることができます
13:25
So I did this for almost five years, and this experiment
約5年この実験を行ない
13:29
really took us all the way across the length and breadth of India.
インドを縦横無尽に移動しました
13:33
This is the Himalayas. Up in the north, very cold.
ここはインド北部 ヒマラヤの寒冷地です
13:36
I also had to check or invent an engineering design
実験には普通のパソコンを使っていたので
13:39
which would survive outdoors, and I was using regular, normal PCs,
屋外使用に耐えるよう デザインを工夫する必要がありました
13:42
so I needed different climates, for which India is also great,
インドは多くの気候があり
13:46
because we have very cold, very hot, and so on.
寒かったり暑かったりします
13:49
This is the desert to the west. Near the Pakistan border.
ここはインド西部 パキスタンとの国境近くの砂漠です
13:52
And you see here a little clip of -- one of these villages --
このあたりで撮影した短いビデオをお見せします
14:04
the first thing that these children did was to find a website
彼らが最初にしたことは アルファベットを
14:08
to teach themselves the English alphabet.
勉強できるウェブサイトを探すことでした
14:11
Then to central India -- very warm, moist, fishing villages,
インド中央の温暖で湿度の高い漁村です
14:15
where humidity is a very big killer of electronics.
湿度は電子機器の大敵です
14:19
So we had to solve all the problems we had
また電力事情も悪い為 エアコン無しで
14:23
without air conditioning and with very poor power,
それを解決する必要がありました
14:26
so most of the solutions that came out used little blasts of air
解決策は 風を適切な場所に吹きつけることで
14:28
put at the right places to keep the machines running.
機械を動かし続けるということでした
14:33
I want to just cut this short. We did this over and over again.
詳細は省きますが あちこちで実験を行いました
14:36
This sequence is also nice. This is a small child, a six-year-old,
このカットも素晴しいです 6歳の少年が
14:41
telling his eldest sister what to do.
姉に何が出来るか教えているのです
14:45
And this happens very often with these computers,
コンピュータの周りでは
14:47
that the younger children are found teaching the older ones.
小さな子供が年上に教える光景がよく見られます
14:49
What did we find? We found that six- to 13-year-olds can self-instruct
これらの実験から 6才から13才までの子供がインターネットで
14:55
in a connected environment,
自己学習出来ることが判ったのです
15:00
irrespective of anything that we could measure.
測定できたいかなる分野でも 自己学習していました
15:02
So if they have access to the computer, they will teach themselves, including intelligence.
彼らはコンピュータにアクセス出来れば 自ら勉強するのです
15:07
I couldn't find a single correlation with anything, but it had to be in groups.
他の要素との相関は見出せませんでしたが グループが必要でした
15:12
And that may be of great, you know, interest to this group,
皆さんも興味を惹かれるでしょう
15:17
because all of you are talking about groups.
グループは皆の話題の中心です
15:21
So here was the power of what a group of children can do,
実験で示されたのは 大人が介入しなければ発揮される
15:23
if you lift the adult intervention.
子供のグループが持つ力です
15:27
Just a quick idea of the measurements.
結果を見てみましょう
15:30
We took standard statistical techniques, so I'm going to not talk about that.
詳しくは説明しませんが標準的な統計手法を使うと
15:34
But we got a clean learning curve,
綺麗な学習曲線が描けました
15:38
almost exactly the same as what you would get in a school.
あなたが学校で得るものと同じです
15:41
I'll leave it at that,
それ以上は言いません
15:44
because, I mean, it sort of says it all, doesn't it?
このグラフが全てを語っているからです
15:46
What could they learn to do?
子供達が学んだのは
15:49
Basic Windows functions, browsing, painting, chatting and email,
windowsの基本的な機能やブラウジング・お絵描き・チャット・メール
15:51
games and educational material, music downloads, playing video.
ゲーム・教材利用・音楽のダウンロード・動画再生など
15:56
In short, what all of us do.
我々がするのと同じようなことです
15:59
And over 300 children will become computer literate
1台のPCに半年触れることができれば
16:01
and be able to do all of these things in six months with one computer.
300人以上の子供が これら全てを行えるようになるでしょう
16:05
So, how do they do that?
どのようにしたのでしょう
16:10
If you calculated the actual time of access,
実使用時間を計算すると
16:11
it would work out to minutes per day,
一日数分程度だったのです
16:13
so that's not how it's happening.
それだけでPCが使えるようにはなりません
16:15
What you have, actually, is there is one child operating the computer.
実際には 一人の子供が使用している間
16:17
And surrounding him are usually three other children,
大体3人ほどの子供が周りにいて
16:22
who are advising him on what they should do.
どのようにするかアドバイスしています
16:24
If you test them, all four will get the same scores in whatever you ask them.
彼らをテストしたら 4人とも同じ点数を取るでしょう
16:28
Around these four are usually a group of about 16 children,
4人の周りには16人ほどの子供のグループがいます
16:32
who are also advising, usually wrongly,
彼等は通常コンピュータの動作を
16:36
about everything that's going on on the computer.
間違えて教えますが
16:39
And all of them also will clear a test given on that subject.
彼等にテストすると全員合格します
16:42
So they are learning as much by watching as they learn by doing.
子供達はPCに触るだけでなく 見ることで学ぶのです
16:47
It seems counter-intuitive to adult learning,
大人からすると 理解しづらいことです
16:51
but remember, eight-year-olds live in a society
でも考えてみて下さい
16:54
where most of the time they are told, don't do this,
8歳の子供は いつも「駄目!」と言われています
16:56
you know, don't touch the whiskey bottle.
ウィスキーボトルに触っては駄目!
17:00
So what does the eight-year-old do?
8歳の子供は何をするでしょう
17:02
He observes very carefully how a whiskey bottle should be touched.
他の人がどのようにボトルを触るのかを慎重に観察します
17:04
And if you tested him,
そしてテストすると
17:08
he would answer every question correctly on that topic.
その話題について正しく答えるでしょう
17:09
So, they seem to be able to acquire very quickly.
とても早く習得出来るのです
17:11
So what was the conclusion over the six years of work?
6年間で得た結論とは
17:17
It was that primary education can happen on its own,
初等教育またはその一部は
17:20
or parts of it can happen on its own.
自然に発生するということです
17:24
It does not have to be imposed from the top downwards.
トップダウンである必要はありません
17:26
It could perhaps be a self-organizing system, so that was
自己学習システムが出来るのです
17:30
the second bit that I wanted to tell you,
もう一つお伝えしたいのが
17:36
that children can self-organize and attain an educational objective.
子供は自己学習し 教育目標を達成出来るということです
17:38
The third piece was on values, and again, to put it very briefly,
3つ目のピースは 価値観についてです
17:42
I conducted a test over 500 children spread across all over India,
インド全体で500人以上の子供にテストを行ないました
17:48
and asked them -- I gave them about 68 different
価値観に関する68の質問をして
17:52
values-oriented questions and simply asked them their opinions.
簡単に意識調査を行ないました 回答例は
17:55
We got all sorts of opinions. Yes, no or I don't know.
「はい」「いいえ」「わかりません」です
17:59
I simply took those questions where I got 50 percent yeses and 50 percent noes --
「はい」と「いいえ」が半分ずつになった質問を抜き出しました
18:03
so I was able to get a collection of 16 such statements.
16問ありました
18:09
These were areas where the children were clearly confused,
これらは「はい」が半分 「いいえ」も半分ですから
18:13
because half said yes and half said no.
子供たちが混乱したのだと言えます
18:17
A typical example being, "Sometimes it is necessary to tell lies."
例えば「時には嘘も必要である」といった質問です
18:19
They don't have a way to determine which way to answer this question;
彼等はこの質問を判断する方法がないのです
18:23
perhaps none of us do.
我々にも無いかもしれません
18:28
So I leave you with this third question.
だから皆さんの判断にお任せします
18:31
Can technology alter the acquisition of values?
技術は 価値観を変更できるか
18:33
Finally, self-organizing systems,
最後に 自己学習システムについては
18:37
about which, again, I won't say too much
沢山お話したので
18:39
because you've been hearing all about it.
これ以上言う必要はありませんが
18:41
Natural systems are all self-organizing:
自然は全て自己学習です
18:45
galaxies, molecules, cells, organisms, societies --
銀河 分子 細胞 生物 社会
18:47
except for the debate about an intelligent designer.
知性の生まれ方については議論が分かれますが
18:50
But at this point in time, as far as science goes,
現時点では 科学的に考えて
18:52
it's self-organization.
自己学習をすると言えます
18:55
But other examples are traffic jams, stock market, society
他の例としては 交通渋滞 株式市場
18:57
and disaster recovery, terrorism and insurgency.
社会や災害復旧 テロ 暴動などが挙げられます
19:00
And you know about the Internet-based self-organizing systems.
インターネットベースの自己学習システムもご存知でしょう
19:06
So here are my four sentences then.
私が伝えたいのは4点です
19:10
Remoteness affects the quality of education.
遠隔性は教育品質に影響を与えます
19:12
Educational technology should be introduced into remote areas first,
テクノロジーを活用した教育は遠隔地に最初に導入されるべきで
19:16
and other areas later.
他の地域にはそれから普及させれば良いのです
19:22
Values are acquired; doctrine and dogma are imposed --
価値というのは得るものですが 教義や信条は押しつけられるものです
19:25
the two opposing mechanisms.
相反する構造です
19:31
And learning is most likely a self-organizing system.
学習とは ほとんどの場合 自己学習システムです
19:33
If you put all the four together, then it gives -- according to me --
これら4つをまとめあげると
19:38
it gives us a goal, a vision, for educational technology.
テクノロジーを活用した教育にゴールとビジョンを与えてくれます
19:43
An educational technology and pedagogy that is digital, automatic,
テクノロジーを活用した教育とは 電子化され自動化され
19:47
fault-tolerant, minimally invasive, connected and self-organized.
障害に強く 人を侵害せず つながりを持った自己学習のことです
19:53
As educationists, we have never asked for technology; we keep borrowing it.
教育者はこれまで 技術を求めたことはありませんでした
19:59
PowerPoint is supposed to be considered a great educational technology,
PowerPointは偉大な教育ツールとされていますが
20:03
but it was not meant for education, it was meant for making boardroom presentations.
「教育に」でなく「黒板プレゼンテーションに」です
20:07
We borrowed it. Video conferencing. The personal computer itself.
ビデオ会議やパソコン自体も借り物の技術です
20:11
I think it's time that the educationists made their own specs,
教育者が技術の仕様を定義すべき時なのです
20:15
and I have such a set of specs. This is a brief look at that.
これまでに説明したような仕様です
20:18
And such a set of specs should produce the technology
その仕様を元に 遠隔性や価値観 暴力に対応できる
20:22
to address remoteness, values and violence.
技術を生み出すべきなのです
20:26
So I thought I'd give it a name -- why don't we call it "outdoctrination."
それを「脱教義化」と呼ぶことにしましょう
20:29
And could this be a goal for educational technology in the future?
将来 技術を活用した教育の到達点になるでしょう
20:35
So I want to leave that as a thought with you.
これで終わりたいとおもいます
20:40
Thank you.
ありがとう
20:43
(Applause)
(拍手)
20:44
Translated by Takafusa Kitazume
Reviewed by Wataru Narita

▲Back to top

About the Speaker:

Sugata Mitra - Education researcher
Educational researcher Sugata Mitra is the winner of the 2013 TED Prize. His wish: Build a School in the Cloud, where children can explore and learn from one another.

Why you should listen

In 1999, Sugata Mitra and his colleagues dug a hole in a wall bordering an urban slum in New Delhi, installed an Internet-connected PC and left it there, with a hidden camera filming the area. What they saw: kids from the slum playing with the computer and, in the process, learning how to use it -- then teaching each other. These famed “Hole in the Wall” experiments demonstrated that, in the absence of supervision and formal teaching, children can teach themselves and each other -- if they’re motivated by curiosity. Mitra, now a professor of educational technology at Newcastle University, called it "minimally invasive education."

Mitra thinks self-organized learning will shape the future of education. At TED2013, he made a bold TED Prize wish: Help me build a School in the Cloud where children can explore and learn on their own -- and teach one another -- using resouces from the worldwide cloud.

The School in the Cloud now includes seven physical locations -- five in India and two in the UK. At the same time, the School in the Cloud online platform lets students participate anywhere, with partner learning labs and programs scattered across the world. In 2016, Mitra held the first School in the Cloud conference in India, and shared that more than 16,000 SOLE sessions had taken place so far, with kids dipping their toes in this new education model.

More profile about the speaker
Sugata Mitra | Speaker | TED.com