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TED2015

Theaster Gates: How to revive a neighborhood: with imagination, beauty and art

シアスター・ゲイツ: イマジネーション、美、芸術で地域に活力を吹き込む

March 18, 2015

陶芸師シアスター・ゲイツはシカゴのサウスサイドの忌むべき状況を変えたいと社会活動家となりました。 廃屋を生まれ変わらせコミュニティハブを作り、そこに住む人々を繋げ、インスピレーションを生み、そして新たな居住者も惹き寄せるのです。 この真摯なトークで、ゲイツは彼の「小さなヴェルサイユ宮殿」をシカゴに作るという情熱を説明し、文化がどんな場所でもどんな市でも生まれ変わらせる為のカタリストと成り得るという彼の熱い信念を語ります。

Theaster Gates - Artist, potter, community builder
Theaster Gates is a potter whose ambitions stretch far beyond the wheel and the kiln. In Chicago, his leadership of artist-led spaces has catalyzed interest and excitement in a formerly neglected neighborhood, as he uses culture as a transformational weapon. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
私は陶芸師です
00:14
I'm a potter,
しがない職業に思われるかも知れません
00:17
which seems like a fairly humble vocation.
焼き物の事はとても良く知っています
00:21
I know a lot about pots.
15年陶芸を続けて来ましたから
00:24
I've spent about 15 years making them.
芸術活動や 陶芸家としての鍛錬を通して
00:28
One of the things that really
excites me in my artistic practice
最も充実感を覚えるのは
00:31
and being trained as a potter
無から素晴らしい物を創りあげる事を
非常に速く学べるということや
00:33
is that you very quickly learn
how to make great things out of nothing;
粘土を手にろくろの前で
多くの時間を創作に費やしたこと
00:39
that I spent a lot of time at my wheel
with mounds of clay trying stuff;
それに 自分の可能性や能力の限界は
00:46
and that the limitations
of my capacity, my ability,
自分の両手と想像力に
かかっていたということ―
00:49
was based on my hands and my imagination;
もし素敵な器を作りたくて
00:52
that if I wanted to make
a really nice bowl
まだそれに付ける
脚の作り方を知らなくても
00:54
and I didn't know how to make a foot yet,
では それを学べば良いのだ
00:56
I would have to learn how to make a foot;
この学習プロセスは
非常に重要な人生の糧になって来ました
00:59
that that process of learning
has been very, very helpful to my life.
陶芸師は
01:04
I feel like, as a potter,
世界を形作る方法をも
学び始めるのだと感じるのです
01:06
you also start to learn
how to shape the world.
幾度か 私の芸術的能力の許す限り
01:10
There have been times
in my artistic capacity
アメリカや世界の歴史の
01:13
that I wanted to reflect
重要な出来事の数々を―
01:16
on other really important moments
それも過酷な出来事を 作品に表してみたいと
思ったことがあります
01:19
in the history of the U.S.,
the history of the world
01:23
where tough things happened,
しかし 難しい概念を
01:25
but how do you talk about tough ideas
それにまつわる物事から人々を分断せずに
語るには どうしたら良いだろう?
01:27
without separating people
from that content?
例えば このアラバマから来た
古い 消火ホースの切れ端を芸術として用いて
01:32
Could I use art like these old,
discontinued firehoses from Alabama,
60年代の市民権運動の頃の
複雑さを語る事が出来ないだろうか?
01:37
to talk about the complexities of a moment
of civil rights in the '60s?
父と二人で共に作業をした
時のことを語れないだろうか?
01:43
Is it possible to talk about my father
and I doing labor projects?
父は屋根職人として
小さな工務店を営んでいました
01:48
My dad was a roofer, construction guy,
he owned small businesses,
80歳にして引退し 私はタールケットル
(タールを溶解させる釜)を譲り受けました
01:52
and at 80, he was ready to retire
and his tar kettle was my inheritance.
タールケットルはご想像の通り
大した財産ではありませんでした
01:59
Now, a tar kettle doesn't sound
like much of an inheritance. It wasn't.
臭いがひどいし
スタジオの中で場所を取るし
02:03
It was stinky and it took up
a lot of space in my studio,
でも 私は父に一緒にアートを作ろうと言いました
02:07
but I asked my dad if he would be willing
to make some art with me,
こうした価値の無い素材の可能性を見直して
02:11
if we could reimagine this kind
of nothing material
何かとても特別なものと考えてみようと
02:15
as something very special.
父の技術と材料を
芸術に昇華することで
02:18
And by elevating the material
and my dad's skill,
タールを陶芸用の粘土のように捉え直し
02:21
could we start to think about tar
just like clay, in a new way,
それで様々な形を構想し
私たちの想像を促そうと考えました
02:27
shaping it differently,
helping us to imagine what was possible?
粘土の後 色々な素材に興味が湧き
02:33
After clay, I was then kind of turned on
to lots of different kinds of materials,
造形出来るのは素材では無く
創造力があるからなのだと考え
02:37
and my studio grew a lot
because I thought, well,
02:40
it's not really about the material,
it's about our capacity to shape things.
私のスタジオはかなり広くなって行きました
次第にいろいろなアイデアが湧き
02:44
I became more and more interested in ideas
段々とスタジオの外で起こっていることに
興味を持ち始めました
02:47
and more and more things that
were happening just outside my studio.
少し背景をご説明しましょう
私はシカゴに住んでいます
02:53
Just to give you a little bit of context,
I live in Chicago.
私は今 サウスサイドに住んでいる
ウエストサイダーです
02:56
I live on the South Side now.
I'm a West Sider.
シカゴの人間では無い人々には
何の意味も持たないことでしょう
03:00
For those of you who are not Chicagoans,
that won't mean anything,
でももし私がウエストサイダーだと
言わなかったら
03:03
but if I didn't mention
that I was a West Sider,
憤慨する人が地元に大勢いるでしょうね
03:05
there would be a lot of people
in the city that would be very upset.
私はグランド・クロッシング
という地区に住んでいます
03:10
The neighborhood that I live in
is Grand Crossing.
ここはかつて
栄えていたこともありますが
03:12
It's a neighborhood
that has seen better days.
品の良い高級住宅地からは程遠いエリアで
03:16
It is not a gated community by far.
多くの空き家が打ち捨てられており
03:20
There is lots of abandonment
in my neighborhood,
私が 陶芸などの創作活動や
美術のキャリアを築く事に
03:24
and while I was kind of busy
making pots and busy making art
忙しく明け暮れていた傍ら
03:27
and having a good art career,
私のスタジオの外では
03:29
there was all of this stuff
that was happening
あらゆることが起こっていました
03:31
just outside my studio.
住宅価格の下落そして
それに伴う都市環境の荒廃は
03:34
All of us know about
failing housing markets
皆さんご存知のとおりで
03:37
and the challenges of blight,
特にその中でも 私の街が
頻繁に取り上げられるようですが
03:39
and I feel like we talk about it
with some of our cities more than others,
思うに 多くのアメリカの街や近郊が
03:42
but I think a lot of our
U.S. cities and beyond
手のつけようのないまでに
03:45
have the challenge of blight,
廃屋が増えつつある状況に悩まされています
03:47
abandoned buildings that people
no longer know what to do anything with.
だから こう考え始めました
03:52
And so I thought, is there a way
that I could start to think
これらの建物を自分の芸術活動の
延長と考えられないだろうか?
03:54
about these buildings as an extension
or an expansion of my artistic practice?
それで もし創造する側の人々と
共に考えを巡らせたら―
04:00
And that if I was thinking
along with other creatives --
建築家、エンジニア、不動産ブローカー
04:03
architects, engineers,
real estate finance people --
こうした人々と共に
街を生まれ変わらせ再生する方法を
04:06
that us together might be able
to kind of think
より詳細に計画出来るかもしれないと
04:09
in more complicated ways
about the reshaping of cities.
それで建物を購入しました
04:14
And so I bought a building.
この家屋はとても安く買えました
04:16
The building was really affordable.
それからこの建物に手を加え
04:19
We tricked it out.
この地区で何らかの活動が起こるように
私たちは この建物を出来る限り美しくしました
04:21
We made it as beautiful as we could
to try to just get some activity happening
04:25
on my block.
200万円程で建物を買った後には
04:27
Once I bought the building
for about 18,000 dollars,
財布が底を突いてしまい
04:30
I didn't have any money left.
それで 私は建物の
掃除パフォーマンスを始めました
04:32
So I started sweeping the building
as a kind of performance.
これはパフォーマンス・アートとして行っていたので
人々は見物に来て―
04:37
This is performance art,
and people would come over,
それから私は掃除をし始める訳です
04:40
and I would start sweeping.
ホウキも床を掃くのも無料でしたからね
04:41
Because the broom was free
and sweeping was free.
これは成功でした
04:44
It worked out.
(笑)
04:46
(Laughter)
そこから建物で展示をしたり
小規模の夕食会を開いたりしはじめ
04:48
But we would use the building, then,
to stage exhibitions, small dinners,
私の区画であるドーチェスターにある建物―
04:54
and we found that that building
on my block, Dorchester --
その区画は 今では
ドーチェスター・プロジェクトと呼ばれ
04:58
we now referred to the block
as Dorchester projects --
その建物が 色々な活動の為の
集会場のようなものになったと気付きました
05:00
that in a way that building
became a kind of gathering site
05:04
for lots of different kinds of activity.
私たちは この建物を
「アーカイブ・ハウス」と呼び
05:06
We turned the building into
what we called now the Archive House.
アーカイブ・ハウスでは
様々な 素晴らしい催しが行われました
05:11
The Archive House would do
all of these amazing things.
市内外を問わず著名な方々が
05:14
Very significant people
in the city and beyond
この地区まで足を運ぶ時
05:17
would find themselves
in the middle of the hood.
こう思いました
05:20
And that's when I felt like
私自身が粘土を扱って来た歴史と
05:22
maybe there was a relationship
between my history with clay
この新しく生まれつつあるものとは
関係があるのではないかと
05:25
and this new thing that was
starting to develop,
私たちはゆっくりと
人々が持つ サウスサイドの
05:27
that we were slowly starting
イメージを一新し始めていたのではないかと
05:30
to reshape how people imagined
the South Side of the city.
それから 1つの家屋が2~3戸に増え
05:35
One house turned into a few houses,
私たちはその度にいつもこうつけ加えました
05:37
and we always tried to suggest
大切なのは美しい容れ物を作ることだけではなく
05:39
that not only is creating
a beautiful vessel important,
その場所で催される企画の内容も大事なんだと
05:43
but the contents of what happens
in those buildings is also very important.
私たちは 再開発だけでなく
05:47
So we were not only thinking
about development,
催されるプログラムの事や
05:50
but we were thinking about the program,
そこで建物同士、隣人同士の間に
05:52
thinking about the kind of connections
that could happen
どんな繋がりが生まれるだろうか
ということを考えていました
05:56
between one house and another,
between one neighbor and another.
この建物は「リスニング・ハウス」
と呼ばれるようになり
06:01
This building became what we call
the Listening House,
ジョンソン出版社からの廃棄書物や
06:05
and it has a collection of discarded books
ジョンソン出版社からの廃棄書物や
06:08
from the Johnson Publishing Corporation,
店を畳んだ書店からも
本が寄付されました
06:10
and other books from an old bookstore
that was going out of business.
私はこれらの建物が出来る限り
有意義な使われ方をするように
06:14
I was actually just wanting to activate
these buildings as much as I could
力になろうというモノや人を
とにかく 仕掛けたかったのです
06:19
with whatever and whoever would join me.
シカゴには 使われていない
建物が豊かに眠っています
06:23
In Chicago, there's
amazing building stock.
この建物は
界隈の麻薬密売所だったのですが
06:26
This building, which had been
the former crack house on the block,
空き家になった時
06:30
and when the building became abandoned,
その新たな用途を見い出し
再利用する素晴らしい機会が生まれたのです
06:33
it became a great opportunity to really
imagine what else could happen there.
それでここはブラック・シネマ・ハウス
と呼ばれる建物に生まれ変わりました
06:37
So this space we converted into
what we call Black Cinema House.
ブラック・シネマ・ハウスは
この地区で
06:41
Black Cinema House was an opportunity
in the hood to screen films
私の周りに住んでいるような人々にとって
重要で関連深い映画を上映する場所で
06:45
that were important and relevant
to the folk who lived around me,
例えばメルヴィン・ヴァン・ピーブルズの映画を
鑑賞できるような場所なのです
06:49
that if we wanted to show
an old Melvin Van Peebles film, we could.
『カー・ウォッシュ』を上映したりも出来ます
06:53
If we wanted to show "Car Wash," we could.
そうなるといいですね
06:55
That would be awesome.
ここは直ぐに手狭になり
06:57
The building we soon outgrew,
もっと広い空間が必要になりました
07:00
and we had to move to a larger space.
ブラック・シネマ・ハウスは
小さな粘土の塊から始まり
07:02
Black Cinema House, which was made
from just a small piece of clay,
より大きな粘土の塊へと育ち
それは今や私のスタジオとなりました
07:07
had to grow into a much larger
piece of clay, which is now my studio.
都市計画や土地利用規制が大好きな方々からは
07:14
What I realized was that
for those of you who are zoning junkies,
07:18
that some of the things that I was doing
打ち捨てられた空き家で私がやっていたことが
07:20
in these buildings
that had been left behind,
07:23
they were not the uses by which
the buildings were built,
元々建物が建てられた時の目的と違っていて
市の規制により
07:27
and that there are city policies that say,
「住宅は住居空間として利用しなさい」
と警告を受けることがありました
07:29
"Hey, a house that is residential
needs to stay residential."
でも それがもし誰もそこに住もうとも思わないような
地域の事だったら 一体どうしますか?
07:33
But what do you do in neighborhoods when
ain't nobody interested in living there?
引っ越せる財力があった人々は
もう既に去って行った後の
07:37
That the people who have
the means to leave have already left?
廃屋の数々をどうしたら良いと思います?
07:41
What do we do with
these abandoned buildings?
それで 私は文化によって
建物たちを目覚めさせようと考えました
07:44
And so I was trying
to wake them up using culture.
このアイデアを人々はとても気に入り
07:47
We found that that
was so exciting for folk,
プロジェクトへの反応がとても高かったので
より大きな建物が必要になりました
07:50
and people were so responsive to the work,
that we had to then find bigger buildings.
より大きな建物が見つかった時
07:55
By the time we found bigger buildings,
この構想が可能になったのですが―
07:57
there was, in part, the resources
necessary to think about those things.
私達が「アート・バンク」と呼ぶ
この建物は当初ひどい有様でした
08:01
In this bank that we called the Arts Bank,
it was in pretty bad shape.
2メートル弱も水が溜まっていて
08:05
There was about six feet
of standing water.
銀行はこの地域の活性化に興味を持たず
08:09
It was a difficult project to finance,
資金も集めにくかったのです
08:11
because banks weren't interested
in the neighborhood
誰も興味を持っていなかったからです
08:13
because people weren't interested
in the neighborhood
何も無い場所でしたから
08:16
because nothing had happened there.
ゴミ溜めでした 何も無い
どこでも無い そんな場所でした
08:18
It was dirt. It was nothing.
It was nowhere.
それで私達は想像し始めたんです―
ではこの建物でどんなことが出来るだろう?
08:22
And so we just started imagining,
what else could happen in this building?
(拍手)
08:28
(Applause)
それで私の建物の噂は広まり
08:33
And so now that the rumor
of my block has spread,
大勢が訪れはじめ
08:36
and lots of people are starting to visit,
銀行だったそこは
08:38
we've found that the bank
can now be a center
今や展覧会や資料館
音楽ホールとなるセンターになり
08:40
for exhibition, archives,
music performance,
人々はこの いわば私たちがおこした火に惹かれ
08:43
and that there are people
who are now interested
興味を持ち この建物たちの近くに集まりだしました
08:46
in being adjacent to those buildings
because we brought some heat,
興味を持ち この建物たちの近くに集まりだしました
08:50
that we kind of made a fire.
その中の一つが ジョンソン出版社による
資料館になる予定です
08:52
One of the archives that we'll have there
is this Johnson Publishing Corporation.
私達は近所に住んでいる人や
かつて住んでいた方々から
08:56
We've also started to collect
memorabilia from American history,
アメリカの歴史に関する
記念品を収集し始めました
09:00
from people who live
or have lived in that neighborhood.
中には虐げられた
黒人の姿を描いたものもあり
09:04
Some of these images
are degraded images of black people,
私たちの意識に強く訴える
内容の歴史を映し出しています
09:07
kind of histories
of very challenging content,
このお陰で私たちの地区では
09:11
and where better than a neighborhood
人種や階級の複雑さを語る為の
アイデンティティを
09:13
with young people who are constantly
asking themselves about their identity
若者たちが問い続けなくても良いので
09:17
to talk about some of the complexities
恵まれていると言えます
09:20
of race and class?
ある意味 この「銀行」は 私たちが
かなり本格的な文化活動の中心拠点を
09:22
In some ways, the bank represents a hub,
09:26
that we're trying to create a pretty
hardcore node of cultural activity,
創りだそうとしていることから
ハブを象徴しています
もし私たちが複数のこのようなハブを作り
09:31
and that if we could start
to make multiple hubs
周りの緑と繋げ
09:34
and connect some cool
green stuff around there,
買い取った建物を改装して
09:37
that the buildings that we've
purchased and rehabbed,
―現在60から70棟あります―
09:40
which is now around 60 or 70 units,
そこにいわば小さなヴェルサイユ宮殿を作り
09:43
that if we could land
miniature Versailles on top of that,
美しい緑地帯で
これらの建物を繋げたら―
09:49
and connect these buildings
by a beautiful greenbelt --
(拍手)
09:52
(Applause) --
人々が忌み避けていた場所が
09:55
that this place where people
never wanted to be
国中いや世界中の人々が訪れたいと願う
09:59
would become an important destination
重要な目的地となるでしょう
10:01
for folk from all over
the country and world.
ある意味 私たちは
10:04
In some ways, it feels
very much like I'm a potter,
まるでろくろに向かう陶芸師そのもので
10:08
that we tackle the things
that are at our wheel,
それぞれに備わっている才能で
10:12
we try with the skill that we have
次に作りたい器について考える
そんな感じを受けます
10:14
to think about this next bowl
that I want to make.
それは器から 一軒の家となり
次に隣近所から地区となり―
10:18
And it went from a bowl to a singular
house to a block to a neighborhood
文化地域となり 市全体となりましたが
10:23
to a cultural district
to thinking about the city,
その全ての過程で 私は思っても
みなかったことを学びました
10:26
and at every point, there were things
that I didn't know that I had to learn.
区画整理法についてこんなに
学んだことはありませんでした
10:30
I've never learned so much
about zoning law in my life.
学ぶ日が来るなんて思ってもいませんでした
10:33
I never thought I'd have to.
結果として 私は自分の芸術活動だけでなく
10:35
But as a result of that, I'm finding
that there's not just room
その他にも沢山の
10:38
for my own artistic practice,
別の芸術的機会があることに気付きました
10:40
there's room for a lot of other
artistic practices.
次第にこんな質問が来るようになりました
10:43
So people started asking us,
「シアスタ― どうやって
拡大展開しようというのかね?」
10:45
"Well, Theaster, how are you
going to go to scale?"
「持続維持可能性計画は
どうなってる?」とかね
10:47
and, "What's your sustainability plan?"
(笑)(拍手)
10:49
(Laughter) (Applause)
オハイオ州のアクロンやミシガン州デトロイト
10:54
And what I found was that
I couldn't export myself,
インディアナ州ゲーリーのような場所が
必要としていたように―
10:58
that what seems necessary
in cities like Akron, Ohio,
自分の能力を箱詰めにして
届けたりは出来なかったけれど
11:02
and Detroit, Michigan, and Gary, Indiana,
そうした場所にはその場所の
可能性や魅力を信じている人々がいて
11:04
is that there are people in those places
who already believe in those places,
そこを美しくして行きたいと
痛切に願っている人々がいて
11:08
that are already dying
to make those places beautiful,
そうした場所に情熱を持つ人々は
11:11
and that often, those people
who are passionate about a place
往々にして そうしたクールな事を
実現する為の資源や
11:14
are disconnected from the resources
necessary to make cool things happen,
その実現を手助け出来る人々と
出会う機会から
11:19
or disconnected from
a contingency of people
分断されている事に気付きました
11:21
that could help make things happen.
だから今 私たちは
国中へアドバイスをし始めています
11:23
So now, we're starting to give advice
around the country
今ある資源で どう始めるか
11:28
on how to start with what you got,
目の前の資源を使って
11:30
how to start with the things
that are in front of you,
無から価値のある物をどう作るのか
11:32
how to make something out of nothing,
世界をどう創り変えていくのかを
そのステージがろくろであれ 住んでいる地域であれ
11:35
how to reshape your world
at a wheel or at your block
そして 市という大きな規模であれ
11:39
or at the scale of the city.
有難うございました
11:42
Thank you so much.
(拍手)
11:44
(Applause)
ジューン・コーエン:有難うございました
11:51
June Cohen: Thank you. So I think
many people watching this
最後の質問を自らに問いかける人が
大勢いるでしょうね
11:55
will be asking themselves
the question you just raised at the end:
どうすれば自分達の街でこれが出来るだろう?と
11:58
How can they do this in their own city?
あなたがどこにでも
駆けつける訳には行かないので
12:00
You can't export yourself.
あなたのようなプロジェクトで
自分の街を変えたいという
12:02
Give us a few pages out of your playbook
about what someone who is inspired
インスピレーションを受けた方々への
アドバイスをお願いします
12:05
about their city can do
to take on projects like yours?
シアスター・ゲイツ:
重要だと気付いた事は
12:08
Theaster Gates: One of the things
I've found that's really important
ある古い家屋だとか 一つのプロジェクトに
12:11
is giving thought to not just
the kind of individual project,
固執してしまうのではなく
12:15
like an old house,
その古い家屋と地元の学校
小さな食糧雑貨店
12:18
but what's the relationship
between an old house,
12:21
a local school, a small bodega,
そうしたものの関係や
相乗効果に目を向け
12:24
and is there some kind of synergy
between those things?
人々が出会い
語り合い始めることが出来るか?
12:27
Can you get those folk talking?
健全に発展しなかった地域にも
12:29
I've found that in cases
where neighborhoods have failed,
それぞれ まだ可能性があります
12:34
they still often have a pulse.
どうしたらその脈動や
情熱を持つ人々を見つけ
12:36
How do you identify the pulse
in that place, the passionate people,
どうやればその場所で20年も生活し
燻り奮闘し続けて来た人々に
12:40
and then how do you get folk
who have been fighting,
12:43
slogging for 20 years, reenergized
about the place that they live?
自分の住む地域について希望を持ち
活気付かせる事ができるかを考えるのです
誰かがそれをやらなくちゃならない
12:47
And so someone has to do that work.
もし私が従来の土地開発業者だったら
ビルのことだけ考えて
12:50
If I were a traditional developer,
I would be talking about buildings alone,
「貸出中」の看板を窓に貼って
それで終わりでしょう
12:54
and then putting
a "For Lease" sign in the window.
実はそれ以上のものを
創り出さなければならないんです
12:58
I think that you actually
have to curate more than that,
より注意深く考えるべき問題があります
13:00
that there's a way in which
you have to be mindful about,
例えばどんなビジネスが
ここで育まれるべきだろうか?
13:03
what are the businesses
that I want to grow here?
それからここに住む人々は
私と共に
13:06
And then, are there people
who live in this place
そのビジネスを育てたいだろうか?
ということです
13:09
who want to grow those businesses with me?
何故なら 単に文化施設や
家屋があれば良いのではなく
13:11
Because I think it's not just
a cultural space or housing;
そこには経済活動を核とした
再生が起こるべきなのです
13:13
there has to be the recreation
of an economic core.
だからそうしたことを
同時に考えてこそ しっくり来ますね
13:16
So thinking about those things
together feels right.
コーエン:20年も停滞していた
環境にいた人々に再び活気を
13:20
JC: It's hard to get people
to create the spark again
取り戻してもらうのは至難の業でしょうね
13:23
when people have been
slogging for 20 years.
これまで何か 特に有効だった
方法はありましたか?
13:25
Are there any methods you've found
that have helped break through?
ゲイツ:ええ 今では多くの人々が
素晴らしい成果をあげている
13:28
TG: Yeah, I think that now
there are lots of examples
例があります
13:31
of folk who are doing amazing work,
そうした例が 時折採る手法は例えば
13:33
but those methods are sometimes like,
when the media is constantly saying
メディアが常にその場所の暴力的な事件だけを
取り上げているような状況に対して
13:37
that only violent things
happen in a place,
自分の技術や文脈を用いて
そうした地域のイメージを
13:40
then based on your skill set
and the particular context,
払拭するような事を企画する
13:44
what are the things that you can do
in your neighborhood
そうした方法があります
13:47
to kind of fight some of that?
だから もしあなたが演劇の方面の人だったら
13:49
So I've found that
if you're a theater person,
屋外でシアター・フェスティバルを
開催したり出来る
13:52
you have outdoor street theater festivals.
時には 貧しい地域に目を引くような
13:54
In some cases, we don't have
the resources in certain neighborhoods
イベントが出来るほどの
資源が無いことがあります
13:58
to do things that are
a certain kind of splashy,
しかし 地元の人々と そこで行われる事に
賛同し援助する人々が
14:02
but if we can then find ways
of making sure that people
14:05
who are local to a place,
力を合わせられるように 仕組めると
14:06
plus people who could be supportive
of the things that are happening locally,
14:10
when those people get together,
本当に素晴らしい事を起こせると思います
14:12
I think really amazing things can happen.
コーエン:本当に興味深いですね
14:14
JC: So interesting.
それではどうしたらあなたが
創り出しているプロジェクトが
14:15
And how can you make sure
that the projects you're creating
本当に 恵まれない人々の為に提供され―
14:18
are actually for the disadvantaged
ベジタリアンでインディー映画好き
そんな格好の良い流行好きなだけの層に移り住まれ
14:19
and not just for the sort of
vegetarian indie movie crowd
いい所だけを持って行かれたり
しないように出来るのでしょう?
14:24
that might move in
to take advantage of them.
ゲイツ:その通り その点が実は複雑に入り組む
この話の繁みの部分につながるんです
14:26
TG: Right on. So I think this is where
it starts to get into the thick weeds.
コーエン:行っちゃいましょう
ゲイツ:今グランド・クロッシングは
14:31
JC: Let's go there.
TG: Right now, Grand Crossing
99%が黒人で占められており―
少なくとも住んでおり
14:33
is 99 percent black, or at least living,
そこの土地の所有者は
日々そこで生活している人達とは
14:36
and we know that maybe
who owns property in a place
違うタイプでしょう
14:40
is different from who walks
the streets every day.
だから グランド・クロッシングはもう既に
14:42
So it's reasonable to say
that Grand Crossing is already
今日のグランド・クロッシングとは違う場所に
なりつつあると言えると思います
14:45
in the process of being something
different than it is today.
しかし(低所得者層の為の公益の)
住宅・土地信託基金や
14:49
But are there ways to think about
housing trusts or land trusts
公共の利益追求型の開発事業が
活動が起こる為の
14:54
or a mission-based development
土地を保護し始めるような事を
考えることは可能でしょうか―
14:57
that starts to protect
some of the space that happens,
何しろ 街に7,500もの空き地があれば
そこで何か文化活動が
15:00
because when you have
7,500 empty lots in a city,
起こって欲しいと思うものですから―
15:04
you want something to happen there,
しかしそれには単に利益追求の為に
開発する業者では無く
15:06
but you need entities that are not
just interested in the development piece,
人々がそこに根付き土地が健全な発展を続ける事を
目的とする開発業者が必要で
15:10
but entities that are interested
in the stabilization piece,
そのうえ 往々にして土地の再開発という
側面は非常に勢いづいているが
15:13
and I feel like often the developer piece
is really motivated,
その ご近所の住民の為の工夫や
取り組みというものは
15:17
but the other work of a kind
of neighborhood consciousness,
忘れ去られていると感じます
15:20
that part doesn't live anymore.
ですから 再開発後
そこに長年住んで来た住民達にも
15:22
So how do you start to grow up
important watchdogs
新たに流入して来た居住者たち同様に
15:27
that ensure that the resources
that are made available
新たに創出された価値や資源が
15:30
to new folk that are coming in
行き渡るように 重要な番人が計らうような仕組みを
育てられるかが大切です
15:31
are also distributed to folk
who have lived in a place for a long time.
コーエン:成程 良く分かりました
もう一つ聞かせて下さい
15:35
JC: That makes so much sense.
One more question:
あなたは美や芸術の重要性について
説得力のある主張をしています
15:37
You make such a compelling case for beauty
and the importance of beauty and the arts.
資金を恵まれない方々への
サービスに使う方が良いと
15:41
There would be others who would argue
that funds would be better spent
考える人々もいるでしょう
15:45
on basic services for the disadvantaged.
そうした考えにはどう反論しますか?
15:48
How do you combat that viewpoint,
or come against it?
ゲイツ:美は私達に不可欠な
サービスだと信じています
15:52
TG: I believe that beauty
is a basic service.
(拍手)
15:54
(Applause)
私がしばしば気付いたのは―
16:02
Often what I have found is that
when there are resources
そもそも資源に手が届かない貧しい街や地域
コミュニティなどには
16:05
that have not been made available
to certain under-resourced cities
16:09
or neighborhoods or communities,
16:11
that sometimes culture is the thing
that helps to ignite,
時として 文化が起爆剤となります
そしてもちろん私には
全てを手助けすることはできません
16:16
and that I can't do everything,
でも もし文化を創りだすことから始め―
16:18
but I think that there's a way in which
if you can start with culture
そこに住まう人々が
その場所に力を注ぐようになり
16:22
and get people kind of
reinvested in their place,
その周りの施設も徐々に発展し始めると
16:25
other kinds of adjacent
amenities start to grow,
更に文化への憧憬が生まれ
詩的な要求が生じます
16:29
and then people can make a demand
that's a poetic demand,
すると街を目覚めさせる為の
政治・経済的要求もまた
16:33
and the political demands that
are necessary to wake up our cities,
詩的な要求へと変化して行くのです
16:38
they also become very poetic.
コーエン:しっかりと心に響きました
16:40
JC: It makes perfect sense to me.
シアスター 今日はご登壇いただき
本当に有難うございました
16:42
Theaster, thank you so much
for being here with us today.
シアスター・ゲイツでした
16:45
Thank you. Theaster Gates.
(拍手)
16:46
(Applause)
Translator:Eriko T.
Reviewer:Mari Arimitsu

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Theaster Gates - Artist, potter, community builder
Theaster Gates is a potter whose ambitions stretch far beyond the wheel and the kiln. In Chicago, his leadership of artist-led spaces has catalyzed interest and excitement in a formerly neglected neighborhood, as he uses culture as a transformational weapon.

Why you should listen

Theaster Gates is helping to define the future of artistic place-based efforts, in research and practice. Beginning with interventions in small-scale residences now known as Dorchester Projects, Gates’ houses in Greater Grand Crossing in Chicago have become a nexus for globally engaged experiments in structures of individual and collective living, working and art-making. Launched into the international art world at Documenta(13), the houses embodied a new system of values and celebrated both a flexible use of space and provided a way for artists, visitors and students to connect and collaborate.

The latest example of this kind of work is the Stony Island Arts Bank, set to open for the Chicago Architecture Biennial in October 2015. Gates will convert a formerly derelict bank on Chicago's south side to create an artwork -- and a communal and creative space.

At the University of Chicago, where he is a professor and the director of arts and public life, Gates leads the Arts Incubator in Washington Park. Gates also leads an urban research initiative known as the Place Lab, a team of social scientists, architects, creative professionals and business leaders. With support from the Knight Foundation, Gates and his team will create frameworks for reimagining the role that culture plays in the redevelopment of transforming African American communities.

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