06:04
TED2016

Laura Indolfi: Good news in the fight against pancreatic cancer

ローラ・インドルフィ: 膵臓がん患者への吉報

Filmed:

膵臓がんは、他に何の健康の問題もない人ですら罹る事のある病気です。愛する人を膵臓がんで亡した人なら誰でも、この病気が如何に衝撃的な早さで進行するかご存知でしょう。TEDフェローでバイオ物医療起業家であるローラ・インドルフィは、この複雑で致命的な病気の、革新的な治療技術の開発に携わっています。腫瘍を封じ込め、転移を防ぎ、薬を腫瘍に直接投与するという画期的なデバイスを紹介しながら、「いつか、膵臓がんを治せるようにしたいと願っている」とインドルフィは語ります。

- Biomedical entrepreneur
Laura Indolfi is revolutionizing cancer treatment with new technologies including implantable devices for delivering drugs locally to the site of a tumor. Full bio

By raising your hand,
挙手をお願いします
00:14
how many of you know
at least one person on the screen?
この中で1人は知っている という方
手を挙げて下さい
00:15
Wow, it's almost a full house.
わあ ほとんど全員ですね
00:20
It's true, they are very famous
in their fields.
それぞれの分野で
名を成した方々ですものね
00:22
And do you know what
all of them have in common?
彼らに共通する点をご存知ですか?
00:24
They all died of pancreatic cancer.
全員 膵臓がんで亡くなりました
00:27
However, although it's very,
very sad this news,
とても悲しい事ですが
00:30
it's also thanks to their personal stories
この方々の知名度のお陰で
00:33
that we have raised awareness
of how lethal this disease can be.
膵臓がんが どれ程致命的か
という認識が高められました
00:36
It's become the third cause
of cancer deaths,
膵臓がんは3番目に
致死率の高い癌です
00:40
and only eight percent of the patients
will survive beyond five years.
この患者の5年生存率は
わずか8%で
00:43
That's a very tiny number,
それは
00:49
especially if you compare it
with breast cancer,
特に 90%に近い
乳がん患者の生存率と比べると
00:51
where the survival rate
is almost 90 percent.
非常に低い数字です
00:53
So it doesn't really come as a surprise
従って
00:57
that being diagnosed
with pancreatic cancer
膵臓がんだと診断されるのは
01:00
means facing an almost
certain death sentence.
死の宣告を受けたのも
同然の事なのです
01:02
What's shocking, though,
is that in the last 40 years,
でも 驚く事に 過去40年間
01:06
this number hasn't changed a bit,
その生存率は
少しも変わっていないのです
01:09
while much more progress has been made
他の癌の生存率は
01:12
with other types of tumors.
随分と上がって来たというのに―
01:14
So how can we make pancreatic cancer
treatment more effective?
では どうすれば 膵臓がんの治療は
より効果的になるのでしょうか?
01:16
As a biomedical entrepreneur,
私はバイオ医療起業家として
01:20
I like to work on problems
that seem impossible,
不可能と思われる問題に
01:22
understanding their limitations
その限界を理解しながら
01:25
and trying to find new,
innovative solutions
結果を変えられる
新しい革新的な解決法を捜そうと
01:27
that can change their outcome.
取り組むのが好きです
01:30
The first piece of bad news
with pancreatic cancer
膵臓がんのまず最初の問題は
01:33
is that your pancreas is in the middle
of your belly, literally.
膵臓が まさに
お腹の真ん中にあるという事です
01:35
It's depicted in orange on the screen.
スライドでは膵臓は
オレンジ色になっていますが
01:39
But you can barely see it
その前にある他の臓器を
どけないと よく見えません
01:41
until I remove all the other
organs in front.
その前にある他の臓器を
どけないと よく見えません
01:43
It's also surrounded
by many other vital organs,
また命に関わる重要な臓器—
01:47
like the liver, the stomach,
the bile duct.
肝臓、胃、胆管などに囲まれています
01:50
And the ability of the tumor
to grow into those organs
それらの隣接した臓器に
転移しやすいことが
01:53
is the reason why pancreatic cancer
膵臓がんを
01:56
is one of the most painful tumor types.
最も痛みの激しい
癌の1つにしているのです
01:58
The hard-to-reach location
also prevents the doctor
また手術で摘出し難い場所にあり
02:02
from surgically removing it,
また手術で摘出し難い場所にあり
02:05
as is routinely done
for breast cancer, for example.
乳がんの様に 日常的には
手術が行われていません
02:07
So all of these reasons leave
chemotherapy as the only option
これらの理由から 化学療法だけが
02:10
for the pancreatic cancer patient.
膵臓がん患者に
残された選択肢です
02:14
This brings us to the second
piece of bad news.
これが 次の問題を引き起こします
02:16
Pancreatic cancer tumors have
very few blood vessels.
膵臓がんは血管が殆どないのです
02:19
Why should we care
about the blood vessel of a tumor?
なぜ腫瘍の血管が
問題となるのでしょう?
02:23
Let's think for a second
how chemotherapy works.
化学療法の働きを
考えてみましょう
02:27
The drug is injected in the vein
薬が血管に注入され
02:30
and it navigates throughout the body
until it reaches the tumor site.
薬は体中を巡り 腫瘍に届きます
02:32
It's like driving on a highway,
trying to reach a destination.
それは目的地まで到着しようと
高速道路を運転するようなものです
02:37
But what if your destination
doesn't have an exit on the highway?
もしその高速道路に
目的地への出口がなかったらどうでしょう?
02:42
You will never get there.
目的地へ到着する事はありません
02:45
And that's exactly the same problem
それと全く同じ問題が
02:47
for chemotherapy and pancreatic cancer.
膵臓がん治療の化学療法にあるのです
02:49
The drugs navigate
throughout all of your body.
薬は体中を巡り
02:53
They will reach healthy organs,
健康な臓器は
02:55
resulting in high toxic effect
for the patients overall,
毒性の高い作用を受けるというのに
02:58
but very little will go to the tumor.
腫瘍そのものには薬は
ほとんど届くことがなく
03:02
Therefore, the efficacy is very limited.
薬の効果はとても
限られたものになります
03:04
To me, it seems very counterintuitive
to have a whole-body treatment
特定の臓器を標的にする為には
03:08
to target a specific organ.
全身療法は直観的にも
賛成できるものではありません
03:13
However, in the last 40 years,
しかしながら過去40年間
03:15
a lot of money, research
and effort have gone towards
多額の費用、多くの研究
多大なる努力が 膵臓がん治療の為
03:18
finding new, powerful drugs
to treat pancreatic cancer,
新しい強力な薬の開発に
向けられてきましたが
03:22
but nothing has been done
in changing the way
薬の投与方法については
03:26
we deliver them to the patient.
何1つ変わっていません
03:29
So after two pieces of bad news,
このような2つの問題が
あるにも拘らず
03:32
I'm going to give you
good news, hopefully.
吉報もあります
03:34
With a collaborator at MIT
MITとボストンの
03:37
and the Massachusetts
General Hospital in Boston,
マサセッチュー総合病院の
共同研究者と共に
03:39
we have revolutionized
the way we treat cancer
癌治療法に革命を起こし
03:42
by making localized
drug delivery a reality.
薬の局所投与が現実となりました
03:45
We are basically parachuting you
on top of your destination,
簡単に言うと あなたは 目的地に
パラシュートで降ろされ
03:48
avoiding your having to drive
all around the highway.
高速道路を通り抜けなくてもいい
というようなものです
03:52
We have embedded the drug
into devices that look like this one.
この様なものを開発し
これに薬を埋め込みました
03:55
They are flexible enough
that they can be folded
これは十分な
柔軟性があるので 畳んで
04:01
to fit into the catheter,
カテーテルの中に入れられます
04:06
so the doctor can implant it
directly on top of the tumor
そうして腫瘍の上に これを直接
04:08
with minimally invasive surgery.
侵襲性が最小限の手術で移植します
04:12
But they are solid enough
that once they are positioned
このデバイスは
十分な硬さがあるので
04:14
on top of the tumor,
一旦 腫瘍の上に落ち着くと
04:18
they will act as a cage.
腫瘍を閉じ込める働きをして
04:20
They will actually
physically prevent the tumor
物理的に癌が他の臓器に
04:21
from entering other organs,
移らないようにし
04:25
controlling the metastasis.
癌の転移を防ぎます
04:26
The devices are also biodegradable.
また このデバイスは生分解するので
04:30
That means that once in the body,
一旦身体に入ると
04:32
they start dissolving,
分解し始め 溶解し
04:34
delivering the drug only locally,
slowly and more effectively
中の薬がゆっくりと標的の箇所に
効果的に投与されていきます
04:36
than what is done with the current
whole-body treatment.
既存の全身療法では
あり得ない事です
04:41
In pre-clinical study,
we have demonstrated
前臨床試験で
04:45
that this localized approach
この局所アプローチが
04:48
is able to improve by 12 times
the response to treatment.
治療効果を
12倍向上させられると実証されました
04:50
So we took a drug that is already known
既存の薬を使い
04:54
and by just delivering it locally
where it's needed the most,
それを 最も必要な箇所に投与することで
04:57
we allow a response
that is 12 times more powerful,
既存の治療の12倍強力な効果を示し
05:01
reducing the systemic toxic effect.
全身的な副作用を減らします
05:05
We are working relentlessly to bring
this technology to the next level.
この技術を次のレベルへと持って行く為
我々は絶えず研究を続けています
05:09
We are finalizing the pre-clinical testing
今 前臨床試験の最終段階で
05:13
and the animal model required
prior to asking the FDA for approval
動物実験をしています
05:16
for clinical trials.
FDAへ治験許可申請の前に
通らなくてはならない段階です
05:20
Currently, the majority of patients
will die from pancreatic cancer.
現在 膵臓がん患者の大多数が
命を落としています
05:22
We are hoping that one day,
いつか我々は
05:28
we can reduce their pain,
extend their life
膵臓がん患者の苦痛を減らし
寿命を伸ばし
05:29
and potentially make pancreatic cancer
膵臓がんが
治せる病気になることを
05:33
a curable disease.
願っています
05:36
By rethinking the way we deliver the drug,
薬の投与方法を考え直すことで
05:38
we don't only make it
more powerful and less toxic,
我々は薬の効用を 毒性の低い
強力なものにするだけでなく
05:41
we are also opening the door
to finding new innovative solutions
膵臓がんであろうと なかろうと
他のほとんどの不可能な問題にも
05:44
for almost all other impossible problems
新しい革新的な解決への
扉を開いているのです
05:49
in pancreatic cancer patients and beyond.
新しい革新的な解決への
扉を開いているのです
05:52
Thank you very much.
ありがとうございました
05:55
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:56
Translated by Reiko Bovee
Reviewed by Shoko Takaki

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About the Speaker:

Laura Indolfi - Biomedical entrepreneur
Laura Indolfi is revolutionizing cancer treatment with new technologies including implantable devices for delivering drugs locally to the site of a tumor.

Why you should listen

Laura Indolfi is a biomedical entrepreneur, CEO and co-founder of PanTher Therapeutics, an early stage spin-out from MIT and MGH that provides superior technologies for revolutionizing the treatment of locally advanced inoperable solid tumors. Prior to this she served as an entrepreneur-in-residence at the MGH Cancer Center and as a research associate in the Harvard-MIT Institute for Medical Engineering and Science. She was selected as a TED Fellow in 2016.

Indolfi has broad professional experiences and interests ranging from biomedical engineering to entrepreneurship and outreaching initiative to promoting science. Her scientific expertise covers a broad range of therapeutic areas (cardio, cancer, inflammation, regenerative medicine) and approaches (drug delivery, cell therapy, implanted devices). Together with her strong technical background, Laura has hands-on business and managerial know-how developed during her biomedical business training at Sloan and Harvard Business Schools and with several consulting firms. She strongly believes in the power of outreach initiatives to promote research awareness and foster the public audience's discovery of the beauty of science. In 2014 the line of clothes Cytocouture, created in collaboration with Colombian designer Carlos Villamil and inspired by her cell-therapy research, won the global competition Descience.

Indolfi holds a MS/BS degree in materials science and engineering and a PhD in biomaterials from the University of Naples Federico II in Italy. Upon graduation, she joined the Harvard-MIT Division of health, science and technology, working on several projects spanning from devices for local drug delivery to tissue engineering approaches for cell therapies.

More profile about the speaker
Laura Indolfi | Speaker | TED.com