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TED2010

Temple Grandin: The world needs all kinds of minds

テンプル・グランディン: 世界はあらゆる頭脳を必要としている

February 10, 2010

子供の頃に自閉症と診断されたテンプル・グランディンが、彼女の脳の働き方について話します。彼女の“絵で考える”能力が、一般的な脳が見落としがちな問題の解決に役立つと言います。世界は、自閉症の領域にあるとされる人たち-視覚型思考者、パターン型思考者、言語型思考者や全ての風変わりな天才達-を必要としていると訴えます。

Temple Grandin - Livestock handling designer, autism activist
Through groundbreaking research and the lens of her own autism, Temple Grandin brings startling insight into two worlds. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
I think I'll start out and just talk a little bit about
まず 自閉症とは何かを
00:15
what exactly autism is.
お話ししましょう
00:17
Autism is a very big continuum
自閉症とは 言語障害のある子供から
00:19
that goes from very severe -- the child remains non-verbal --
優秀な科学者や技術者までを含む
00:22
all the way up to brilliant scientists and engineers.
一つの大きな連続体です
00:25
And I actually feel at home here,
ここは居心地が良いですね
00:28
because there's a lot of autism genetics here.
自閉症の遺伝子ばかりですから
00:30
You wouldn't have any...
自覚はないでしょうが...
00:32
(Applause)
(拍手)
00:34
It's a continuum of traits.
ある特質の連続体なんです
00:38
When does a nerd turn into
オタクをアスペルガーから隔てる
00:40
Asperger, which is just mild autism?
境界線はどこにあるのでしょう?
00:43
I mean, Einstein and Mozart
アインシュタインやモーツァルト
00:45
and Tesla would all be probably diagnosed
ニコラ・テスラなど 今日であれば
00:48
as autistic spectrum today.
みな自閉症と見なされたでしょう
00:50
And one of the things that is really going to concern me is
私は自閉症の子供達を
00:52
getting these kids to be the ones that are going to invent
新エネルギーを発明するような人間に
00:55
the next energy things,
育てたいんですよ
00:58
you know, that Bill Gates talked about this morning.
今朝ちょうどビル・ゲイツが話しましたね
01:00
OK. Now, if you want to understand
さて 自閉症や動物を
01:04
autism, animals.
理解するために
01:06
And I want to talk to you now about different ways of thinking.
異なる思考法についてお話しします
01:08
You have to get away from verbal language.
言語からは離れてください
01:10
I think in pictures,
私は絵で考えます
01:13
I don't think in language.
言葉では考えません
01:15
Now, the thing about the autistic mind
自閉症の脳は
01:18
is it attends to details.
細部に注目します
01:20
OK, this is a test where you either have to
これは大きい文字か 小さい文字を
01:23
pick out the big letters, or pick out the little letters,
識別しなさいというテストです
01:25
and the autistic mind picks out the
自閉症の脳は 小さい文字を
01:27
little letters more quickly.
より早く認識します
01:29
And the thing is, the normal brain ignores the details.
通常の脳は 細部を無視するんですね
01:31
Well, if you're building a bridge, details are pretty important
橋を造るなら 詳細は大事です
01:35
because it will fall down if you ignore the details.
そうでないと 橋は壊れてしまう
01:37
And one of my big concerns with a lot of policy things today
今の世の中は概念的な方向に
01:40
is things are getting too abstract.
偏りすぎています
01:43
People are getting away from doing
実践するという事から
01:45
hands-on stuff.
遠ざかっています
01:47
I'm really concerned that a lot of the schools have taken out
体験型の授業の減少が
01:49
the hands-on classes,
とても気がかりです
01:51
because art, and classes like that,
私は美術のような科目に
01:53
those are the classes where I excelled.
秀でていましたからね
01:55
In my work with cattle,
牛に関しての話です
01:57
I noticed a lot of little things that most people don't notice
私は ほとんどの人が見落とす些細な点が
01:59
would make the cattle balk. Like, for example,
牛を尻込みさせる事に気づきました
02:02
this flag waving, right in front of the veterinary facility.
例えば この病院の正面にある たなびく旗です
02:04
This feed yard was going to tear down their whole veterinary facility;
この病院は全て取り壊されるところでした
02:07
all they needed to do was move the flag.
旗を移動するだけで済んだんです
02:10
Rapid movement, contrast.
せわしい動きが問題の原因でした
02:12
In the early '70s when I started, I got right down
この仕事を始めた頃 牛の通路にもぐり
02:15
in the chutes to see what cattle were seeing.
牛の視点に立ってみました
02:17
People thought that was crazy. A coat on a fence would make them balk,
おかしいと思われましたが フェンスにかかったコートや
02:19
shadows would make them balk, a hose on the floor ...
影や床のホースが牛を尻込みさせるんです
02:22
people weren't noticing these things --
誰も気にしていませんでした
02:25
a chain hanging down --
垂れ下がった鎖とか
02:27
and that's shown very, very nicely in the movie.
私の映画でよく描かれています
02:29
In fact, I loved the movie, how they
この映画は私の仕事をうまく
02:31
duplicated all my projects. That's the geek side.
再現していて好きですね ガリ勉の面です
02:33
My drawings got to star in the movie too.
私の描いた絵も主役をはっていますよ
02:35
And actually it's called "Temple Grandin,"
“Temple Grandin”という映画です
02:38
not "Thinking In Pictures."
私の著書の「絵で考える」ではないですよ
02:40
So, what is thinking in pictures? It's literally movies
絵で考えるという事は脳内で
02:42
in your head.
映画を観るようなものです
02:44
My mind works like Google for images.
私の脳はGoogle画像検索に近い
02:46
Now, when I was a young kid I didn't know my thinking was different.
子供の頃 自分の思考法は変わっていると知らず
02:48
I thought everybody thought in pictures.
みな絵で考えていると思っていました
02:51
And then when I did my book, "Thinking In Pictures,"
“Thinking in Pictures”という本を書くために
02:53
I start interviewing people about how they think.
人々に思考方法を尋ねました
02:55
And I was shocked to find out that
そこで 自分の考え方が
02:58
my thinking was quite different. Like if I say,
人と違うことを知り ショックを受けました
03:00
"Think about a church steeple"
「教会の尖塔について考えよう」と言えば
03:02
most people get this sort of generalized generic one.
大半の人は一般的なものを想像します
03:04
Now, maybe that's not true in this room,
この会場では違うかも知れませんが
03:06
but it's going to be true in a lot of different places.
他の多くの場所では真実です
03:08
I see only specific pictures.
私の場合はGoogle画像検索のように
03:12
They flash up into my memory, just like Google for pictures.
具体的な画像が次々と浮かんでくるんです
03:14
And in the movie, they've got a great scene in there
映画の中でも上手に描かれていて
03:18
where the word "shoe" is said, and a whole bunch of '50s and '60s shoes
「靴」という言葉が発せられると 50年代60年代の
03:20
pop into my imagination.
靴がたくさん 私の脳内に浮かぶんです
03:24
OK, there is my childhood church,
これは私が子供の頃の教会です
03:26
that's specific. There's some more, Fort Collins.
これくらい具体的です フォートコリンズや
03:28
OK, how about famous ones?
有名な教会なんかですね
03:31
And they just kind of come up, kind of like this.
こんな感じで次々と浮かび上がるんです
03:33
Just really quickly, like Google for pictures.
画像検索のごとく 即座に現れます
03:36
And they come up one at a time,
一枚ずつです
03:39
and then I think, "OK, well maybe we can have it snow,
そこに 雪を降らせてみたり
03:41
or we can have a thunderstorm,"
雷を加えてみたり
03:43
and I can hold it there and turn them into videos.
イメージを保持して 動画に出来るんです
03:45
Now, visual thinking was a tremendous asset
この視覚型思考は 家畜施設をデザインする上で
03:48
in my work designing cattle-handling facilities.
大変な利点となりました
03:51
And I've worked really hard on improving
牛が食肉処理場で少しでも
03:54
how cattle are treated at the slaughter plant.
苦しまないように努めました
03:56
I'm not going to go into any gucky slaughter slides.
ここで生々しい画像は出しませんが
03:58
I've got that stuff up on YouTube if you want to look at it.
ご興味があればYouTubeに上げてあります
04:01
But, one of the things that I was able to do in my design work
私がデザインする過程で出来た点は
04:03
is I could actually test run
その設備を自分の脳内で
04:07
a piece of equipment in my mind,
試運転出来たという事です
04:09
just like a virtual reality computer system.
コンピュータ内の仮想現実のようにです
04:11
And this is an aerial view
これは映画で使用された
04:14
of a recreation of one of my projects that was used in the movie.
私のプロジェクトの再現物の空中写真です
04:16
That was like just so super cool.
とても良くできてるんです
04:19
And there were a lot of kind of Asperger types
映画の大道具さんには 多くの
04:21
and autism types working out there on the movie set too.
アスペルガータイプや自閉症タイプがいましたからね
04:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:26
But one of the things that really worries me
私が気がかりなのは このタイプの
04:28
is: Where's the younger version of those kids going today?
若い子達が どこに行くのかという事です
04:30
They're not ending up in Silicon Valley, where they belong.
彼らが行くべき シリコンバレーには到達してないんです
04:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:37
(Applause)
(拍手)
04:40
Now, one of the things I learned very early on because I wasn't that social,
私は社会的ではなかったので 自分自身でなく
04:45
is I had to sell my work, and not myself.
自分の作品を売る必要があると 早い時点で学びました
04:48
And the way I sold livestock jobs
自分が描いた図面を見せて
04:52
is I showed off my drawings, I showed off pictures of things.
家畜施設の仕事を得ました
04:54
Another thing that helped me as a little kid
子供の頃役立った事がもう一つ
04:57
is, boy, in the '50s, you were taught manners.
50年代ではマナーを教わってたんですね
04:59
You were taught you can't pull the merchandise off the shelves
お店の棚にある商品を引きずり下ろして
05:01
in the store and throw it around.
放り投げてはいけないと教えられました
05:03
Now, when kids get to be in third or fourth grade,
さて この子達が3年生4年生になった頃
05:05
you might see that this kid's going to be a visual thinker,
将来は視覚で考えるようになると思うかも知れません
05:08
drawing in perspective. Now, I want to
遠近法で絵を描いたりしてね でも
05:11
emphasize that not every autistic kid
全ての自閉症の子供達が
05:13
is going to be a visual thinker.
視覚型思考を持つわけではありません
05:15
Now, I had this brain scan done several years ago,
これは数年前に撮った私の脳のスキャンです
05:17
and I used to joke around about having a
私の視覚野には極太の
05:21
gigantic Internet trunk line
インターネットの幹線が通っていると
05:23
going deep into my visual cortex.
冗談を言ったもんです
05:25
This is tensor imaging.
これはテンソル画像ですが
05:27
And my great big internet trunk line
私のこのインターネット幹線は
05:29
is twice as big as the control's.
比較対照の2倍あります
05:31
The red lines there are me,
赤い線が私ので
05:33
and the blue lines are the sex and age-matched control.
青い線が 同じ年齢、性別の被験者のものです
05:35
And there I got a gigantic one,
ご覧の通り私のは
05:39
and the control over there, the blue one,
非常に大きく 比較対照の
05:41
has got a really small one.
青い線はとても細いですよね
05:43
And some of the research now is showing
この連続体に属する人たちは実際に
05:47
is that people on the spectrum actually think with primary visual cortex.
一次視覚野を使って考えているという最近の研究もあります
05:49
Now, the thing is, the visual thinker's just one kind of mind.
視覚型思考も 脳のあり方の一つだということです
05:53
You see, the autistic mind tends to be a specialist mind --
自閉症の脳は 特定の行動に熱中しがちです
05:56
good at one thing, bad at something else.
ある事に秀でていて ある事に劣る
05:59
And where I was bad was algebra. And I was never allowed
私は代数が苦手でした 幾何学などの
06:03
to take geometry or trig.
クラスは許可されませんでした
06:05
Gigantic mistake: I'm finding a lot of kids who need to skip algebra,
大きな間違いです 代数が苦手であっても
06:07
go right to geometry and trig.
幾何学や三角法は学べるのです
06:10
Now, another kind of mind is the pattern thinker.
もう一つは パターン型思考です
06:12
More abstract. These are your engineers,
より抽象的で エンジニアや
06:15
your computer programmers.
プログラマに向いています
06:17
Now, this is pattern thinking. That praying mantis
これが例です このカマキリは
06:19
is made from a single sheet of paper --
一枚の紙から出来ています
06:21
no scotch tape, no cuts.
テープもハサミも使いません
06:23
And there in the background is the pattern for folding it.
背景にあるのが折り方です
06:25
Here are the types of thinking:
思考のタイプです
06:28
photo-realistic visual thinkers, like me;
私のような 写実的 視覚型思考者に
06:30
pattern thinkers, music and math minds.
パターン型思考者 音楽や数学の脳です
06:33
Some of these oftentimes have problems with reading.
読書が苦手だったりしますね
06:37
You also will see these kind of problems
失語症の子供達にも
06:39
with kids that are dyslexic.
このタイプがいます
06:41
You'll see these different kinds of minds.
このような 違うタイプの脳があり
06:44
And then there's a verbal mind, they know every fact about everything.
言語的な脳があります 物知りタイプです
06:46
Now, another thing is the sensory issues.
次に 知覚の問題です
06:49
I was really concerned about having to wear this gadget on my face.
私はこのヘッドセットを身につける事に抵抗がありました
06:51
And I came in half an hour beforehand
なので30分前にここに来て
06:55
so I could have it put on and kind of get used to it,
これに慣れるようにしました
06:58
and they got it bent so it's not hitting my chin.
顎に当たらないよう調整してもらいました
07:00
But sensory is an issue. Some kids are bothered by fluorescent lights;
知覚は問題になります 蛍光灯や
07:03
others have problems with sound sensitivity.
音に敏感な子供もいます
07:06
You know, it's going to be variable.
この辺は多種多様です
07:09
Now, visual thinking gave me a whole lot of insight
私の視覚型思考は 動物の気持ちを
07:12
into the animal mind.
知る上で大きな力となりました
07:16
Because think about it: An animal is a sensory-based thinker,
動物は知覚で考える生き物です
07:18
not verbal -- thinks in pictures,
言語ではありません 絵で考え
07:21
thinks in sounds, thinks in smells.
音で考え においで考えます
07:25
Think about how much information there is there on the local fire hydrant.
ただの消火栓にどれだけの情報があるか考えてみてください
07:28
He knows who's been there, when they were there.
犬であれば 誰が居たのか いつ居たのか
07:31
Are they friend or foe? Is there anybody he can go mate with?
敵か味方か 付き合える相手は居るのか
07:34
There's a ton of information on that fire hydrant.
その消火栓には膨大な情報があるんです
07:37
It's all very detailed information,
とても具体的な情報です
07:40
and, looking at these kind of details
これらの詳細を調べることが
07:44
gave me a lot of insight into animals.
動物を知る洞察力となりました
07:46
Now, the animal mind, and also my mind,
動物や私の脳は
07:48
puts sensory-based information
知覚で得た情報を
07:52
into categories.
カテゴリーに分別します
07:54
Man on a horse
馬に乗っている人
07:56
and a man on the ground --
地面に立っている人
07:58
that is viewed as two totally different things.
これらは全く別のものとして認識されます
08:00
You could have a horse that's been abused by a rider.
乗り手に虐待された馬がいたとします
08:02
They'll be absolutely fine with the veterinarian
この馬は獣医や蹄鉄工を
08:05
and with the horseshoer, but you can't ride him.
恐れる事はしませんが 乗馬はさせないでしょう
08:07
You have another horse, where maybe the horseshoer beat him up
蹄鉄工に虐待された馬がいたとします
08:10
and he'll be terrible for anything on the ground,
その馬は地面に落ちているものや
08:13
with the veterinarian, but a person can ride him.
獣医を恐れるようになりますが 乗る事はできます
08:15
Cattle are the same way.
牛たちも同様です
08:18
Man on a horse,
馬に乗っている人と立っている人
08:20
a man on foot -- they're two different things.
これらは別物なのです
08:22
You see, it's a different picture.
異なる「絵」なんですね
08:24
See, I want you to think about just how specific this is.
どれほど具体的か 考えてみてください
08:26
Now, this ability to put information into categories,
この「情報を分別する」事を
08:29
I find a lot of people are not very good at this.
苦手とする人が多いんです
08:33
When I'm out troubleshooting equipment
私が施設の設備などの
08:36
or problems with something in a plant,
問題解決しているとき
08:38
they don't seem to be able to figure out, "Do I have a training people issue?
彼らは把握できないんです 人の訓練の問題なのか
08:40
Or do I have something wrong with the equipment?"
その設備に問題があるのか
08:44
In other words, categorize equipment problem
設備の問題と人間の問題を
08:46
from a people problem.
分別する必要があるのです
08:48
I find a lot of people have difficulty doing that.
多くの人はこれが苦手なんです
08:50
Now, let's say I figure out it's an equipment problem.
これが設備の問題であったとしましょう
08:53
Is it a minor problem, with something simple I can fix?
自分で修理可能なレベルのものか?
08:56
Or is the whole design of the system wrong?
そもそもの設計が悪いのか?
08:58
People have a hard time figuring that out.
これが解けない人が多いんです
09:01
Let's just look at something like, you know,
別の問題を考えてみましょう
09:04
solving problems with making airlines safer.
飛行機をより安全にしたいとします
09:06
Yeah, I'm a million-mile flier.
私はミリオンマイルフライヤーです
09:08
I do lots and lots of flying,
飛行機にはしょっちゅう乗っています
09:10
and if I was at the FAA,
もし私が連邦航空局にいたら
09:12
what would I be doing a lot of direct observation of?
どこに注視するでしょうか?
09:15
It would be their airplane tails.
飛行機の尾部ですね
09:19
You know, five fatal wrecks in the last 20 years,
この20年間で5件の大事故が
09:21
the tail either came off or steering stuff inside the tail broke
尾部が外れたり 尾部にある操舵部の故障で
09:24
in some way.
起こっています
09:28
It's tails, pure and simple.
問題は尾部なんです 疑いありません
09:30
And when the pilots walk around the plane, guess what? They can't see
パイロットが飛行機の中を見て回っても
09:32
that stuff inside the tail.
尾部の中までは見えないんです
09:34
You know, now as I think about that,
私がこういう事を考えるとき
09:36
I'm pulling up all of that specific information.
全ての詳細な情報をたぐるんです
09:38
It's specific. See, my thinking's bottom-up.
具体的で基礎的な部分から検証します
09:41
I take all the little pieces and I put the pieces together like a puzzle.
細かなピースをかき集めて パズルのように組み立てます
09:44
Now, here is a horse that was deathly afraid
この馬は黒い帽子を
09:48
of black cowboy hats.
極端に恐れます
09:50
He'd been abused by somebody with a black cowboy hat.
黒い帽子をかぶった人に虐待されたんですね
09:52
White cowboy hats, that was absolutely fine.
白い帽子なら大丈夫なんです
09:54
Now, the thing is, the world is going to need
さて 重要なのは あらゆるタイプの頭脳が
09:57
all of the different kinds of minds
協力して働く事が
10:00
to work together.
今後 求められるでしょう
10:02
We've got to work on developing all these different kinds of minds.
これらの頭脳の発達に取り組まねばなりません
10:04
And one of the things that is driving me really crazy,
私をいらつかせる事の一つは
10:07
as I travel around and I do autism meetings,
私はあちこちで自閉症の会合に参加しますが
10:10
is I'm seeing a lot of smart, geeky, nerdy kids,
多くの天才予備軍に会います
10:12
and they just aren't very social,
ちょっと社会的でないだけです
10:15
and nobody's working on developing their interest
しかし誰一人 科学やなにかに
10:18
in something like science.
彼らの興味を向けようとはしないのです
10:20
And this brings up the whole thing of my science teacher.
ここで 私の科学の先生について話しましょう
10:22
My science teacher is shown absolutely beautifully in the movie.
その先生は映画の中で見事に描かれています
10:25
I was a goofball student. When I was in high school
高校ではダメ生徒扱いでした
10:28
I just didn't care at all about studying,
カーロック先生の科学の授業を受けるまでは
10:30
until I had Mr. Carlock's science class.
勉強を気にした事もありませんでした
10:33
He was now Dr. Carlock in the movie.
映画ではカーロック博士として出てきます
10:36
And he got me challenged
彼は私に目の錯覚を
10:39
to figure out an optical illusion room.
解き明かすよう仕向けたんです
10:42
This brings up the whole thing of you've got to show kids
子供達が興味をそそられるものを
10:45
interesting stuff.
提示してあげるという事です
10:47
You know, one of the things that I think maybe TED ought to do
TEDがやるべき事の一つは
10:49
is tell all the schools about all the great lectures that are on TED,
その素晴らしい講演について 学校に教える事です
10:52
and there's all kinds of great stuff on the Internet
ネット上には子供達の
10:55
to get these kids turned on.
目を開かせるものがたくさんあるんです
10:57
Because I'm seeing a lot of these geeky nerdy kids,
多くの天才予備軍を見てきましたが
10:59
and the teachers out in the Midwest, and the other parts of the country,
中西部や その他のあまり進んでいない地域では
11:02
when you get away from these tech areas,
教師が何をすべきか
11:05
they don't know what to do with these kids.
分かっていないんです
11:07
And they're not going down the right path.
そのせいで道を過ってしまう
11:09
The thing is, you can make a mind
より思慮深い 認識能力のある
11:11
to be more of a thinking and cognitive mind,
頭脳にすることも
11:13
or your mind can be wired to be more social.
より社会的な頭脳にすることも可能です
11:16
And what some of the research now has shown in autism
自閉症の脳の後頭部辺りには
11:19
is there may by extra wiring back here,
余剰な回路があるという研究があります
11:21
in the really brilliant mind, and we lose a few social circuits here.
天才を生む代わりに 社会性の回路を失うんです
11:23
It's kind of a trade-off between thinking and social.
思考能力と社会性のトレードオフですね
11:26
And then you can get into the point where it's so severe
これが極度に偏ると
11:30
you're going to have a person that's going to be non-verbal.
全く言語を使わなくなります
11:32
In the normal human mind
動物と異なり 人間の脳では
11:35
language covers up the visual thinking we share with animals.
言語が視覚型思考を覆い隠します
11:37
This is the work of Dr. Bruce Miller.
これはブルース・ミラー博士の研究ですが
11:40
And he studied Alzheimer's patients
彼は前頭側頭型認知症を患う
11:43
that had frontal temporal lobe dementia.
アルツハイマー患者を調査しました
11:46
And the dementia ate out the language parts of the brain,
この絵は 言語障害を負った
11:48
and then this artwork came out of somebody who used to install stereos in cars.
元自動車組立工が描いたものです
11:51
Now, Van Gogh doesn't know anything about physics,
ゴッホに物理学の知識は無かったでしょう
11:56
but I think it's very interesting
しかし興味深いのは
12:00
that there was some work done to show that
この絵の渦巻きは
12:02
this eddy pattern in this painting
乱気流の統計学的モデルに
12:04
followed a statistical model of turbulence,
沿っているという事です
12:06
which brings up the whole interesting idea
このような数学的パターンは
12:09
of maybe some of this mathematical patterns
私達の脳に入っていると想像すると
12:11
is in our own head.
とても興味深いですね
12:13
And the Wolfram stuff -- I was taking
私はWolframで得た情報や
12:15
notes and I was writing down all the
そこで検索するための単語なんかを
12:17
search words I could use,
常に書き留めています
12:19
because I think that's going to go on in my autism lectures.
自閉症の講義で必要になりますからね
12:21
We've got to show these kids interesting stuff.
興味深いものを見せるんです
12:25
And they've taken out the autoshop class
技術や図面設計や美術の授業は
12:27
and the drafting class and the art class.
科目から除かれてしまいました
12:29
I mean art was my best subject in school.
美術は私の得意科目でしたしね
12:31
We've got to think about all these different kinds of minds,
これらの頭脳を忘れてはいけません
12:34
and we've got to absolutely work with these kind of minds,
異なる頭脳と協力する必要があります
12:36
because we absolutely are going to need
将来 このようなタイプの人々を
12:39
these kind of people in the future.
必要とする時が必ず来ます
12:42
And let's talk about jobs.
仕事について話しましょう
12:45
OK, my science teacher got me studying
科学の先生に背中を押されるまで
12:47
because I was a goofball that didn't want to study.
私は勉強嫌いなダメ生徒でしたが
12:49
But you know what? I was getting work experience.
仕事の経験はあったんです
12:52
I'm seeing too many of these smart kids who haven't learned basic things,
時間を守るといった基本を
12:54
like how to be on time.
知らない子達がたくさんいます
12:56
I was taught that when I was eight years old.
私は8歳でそれを教えられました
12:58
You know, how to have table manners at granny's Sunday party.
祖母の家でテーブルマナーを学んだり
13:00
I was taught that when I was very, very young.
幼い頃に教えられたんです
13:03
And when I was 13, I had a job at a dressmaker's shop
13歳の時には洋服の仕立屋で
13:06
sewing clothes.
裁縫の仕事をしていました
13:09
I did internships in college,
大学ではインターンシップに参加し
13:11
I was building things,
いろいろ作りました
13:14
and I also had to learn how to do assignments.
課題のこなし方も学びました
13:17
You know, all I wanted to do was draw pictures of horses when I was little.
馬の絵ばかり描く私に 母は言ってくれました
13:20
My mother said, "Well let's do a picture of something else."
「他の絵も描いてみない?」と
13:24
They've got to learn how to do something else.
違う事のやり方を知る必要があります
13:26
Let's say the kid is fixated on Legos.
レゴに執着する子がいれば
13:28
Let's get him working on building different things.
他のものを組み立てるよう促すんです
13:30
The thing about the autistic mind
自閉症の脳は
13:33
is it tends to be fixated.
執着する傾向があります
13:35
Like if a kid loves racecars,
レーシングカーが好きなら
13:37
let's use racecars for math.
それを算数に使うんです
13:39
Let's figure out how long it takes a racecar to go a certain distance.
この距離を何分で走る?とか
13:41
In other words, use that fixation
子供のやる気を引き出すため
13:44
in order to motivate that kid, that's one of the things we need to do.
執着心を利用するんです
13:48
I really get fed up when they, you know, the teachers,
主にここから遠い地方の教師達が
13:51
especially when you get away from this part of the country,
彼らの扱い方を知らないので
13:54
they don't know what to do with these smart kids.
本当にうんざりしますよ
13:57
It just drives me crazy.
頭に来るんです
13:59
What can visual thinkers do when they grow up?
視覚型思考者の適職とは?
14:01
They can do graphic design, all kinds of stuff with computers,
グラフィックデザインにコンピューター全般
14:03
photography, industrial design.
写真や工業デザインなどです
14:06
The pattern thinkers, they're the ones that are going to be
パターン型思考者なら
14:11
your mathematicians, your software engineers,
数学者やソフトウェアエンジニア
14:13
your computer programmers, all of those kinds of jobs.
プログラマーなどですね
14:16
And then you've got the word minds. They make great journalists,
言語型思考者は優れたジャーナリストです
14:20
and they also make really, really good stage actors.
舞台俳優にも向いているんですよ
14:23
Because the thing about being autistic is,
なぜなら 自閉症の人は
14:26
I had to learn social skills like being in a play.
芝居を演じるように 社会性を身につけるからです
14:28
It's just kind of -- you just have to learn it.
学ぶほかないんですね
14:31
And we need to be working with these students.
私達も共に学ぶ必要があります
14:34
And this brings up mentors.
そこで指導者の話です
14:37
You know, my science teacher was not an accredited teacher.
私の科学の先生は非公認でした
14:39
He was a NASA space scientist.
NASAの科学者だったんです
14:42
Now, some states now are getting it to where
アメリカのいくつかの州では
14:44
if you have a degree in biology, or a degree in chemistry,
生物学や化学の学位があれば
14:46
you can come into the school and teach biology or chemistry.
学校に来て 教壇に立てるんです
14:48
We need to be doing that.
これをもっとやるべきです
14:51
Because what I'm observing is
この子らに相応しい先生達が
14:53
the good teachers, for a lot of these kids,
コミュニティー・カレッジには
14:55
are out in the community colleges,
たくさんいると感じています
14:57
but we need to be getting some of these good teachers into the high schools.
彼らを高校に招くべきです
14:59
Another thing that can be very, very, very successful is
別の可能性としては
15:02
there is a lot of people that may have retired
ソフトウェア産業からリタイアした人たちに
15:05
from working in the software industry, and they can teach your kid.
教えてもらう事です
15:08
And it doesn't matter if what they teach them is old,
教える内容が古くても構いません
15:11
because what you're doing is you're lighting the spark.
引き金となることが大切です
15:14
You're getting that kid turned on.
子供達のスイッチを入れるんです
15:17
And you get him turned on, then he'll learn all the new stuff.
新しい事は自ら学ぶでしょう
15:20
Mentors are just essential.
指導者は必要不可欠です
15:23
I cannot emphasize enough
私にとってカーロック先生の
15:25
what my science teacher did for me.
影響は はかり知れません
15:27
And we've got to mentor them, hire them.
彼らを雇う必要もあります
15:30
And if you bring them in for internships in your companies,
あなたの会社のインターンに
15:33
the thing about the autism, Asperger-y kind of mind,
自閉症の子が来たとしましょう
15:35
you've got to give them a specific task. Don't just say, "Design new software."
「何か作れ」ではなく 具体的な指示を出してください
15:38
You've got to tell them something a lot more specific:
より詳細な指示を出すんです
15:41
"Well, we're designing a software for a phone
「電話機のためのソフトで
15:43
and it has to do some specific thing.
この機能を持つ必要がある
15:46
And it can only use so much memory."
使えるメモリはこれだけだ」
15:48
That's the kind of specificity you need.
こういった詳細な指示です
15:50
Well, that's the end of my talk.
私の話はこれで終わりです
15:52
And I just want to thank everybody for coming.
ご静聴ありがとうございました
15:54
It was great to be here.
ここに立てて光栄です
15:56
(Applause)
(喝采)
15:58
Oh, you've got a question for me? OK.
質問があるんですか? いいですよ
16:10
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:13
Chris Anderson: Thank you so much for that.
クリス:本当にありがとうございました
16:14
You know, you once wrote, I like this quote,
私が好きな あなたの一節があります
16:18
"If by some magic, autism had been
「もしなにかの魔法で
16:20
eradicated from the face of the Earth,
自閉症が絶やされたら
16:22
then men would still be socializing in front of a wood fire
人類は今も洞窟の入り口で
16:25
at the entrance to a cave."
焚き火を囲んで 暮らしているだろう」
16:28
Temple Grandin: Because who do you think made the first stone spears?
テンプル:初めて石槍を作ったのは
16:30
The Asperger guy. And if you were to get rid of all the autism genetics
アスペルガーの人でしょう もし自閉症が無くなれば
16:32
there would be no more Silicon Valley,
シリコンバレーも終わるでしょうし
16:35
and the energy crisis would not be solved.
エネルギー問題も解決されないでしょう
16:37
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:39
CA: So, I want to ask you a couple other questions,
クリス:いくつかお聞きしたいのですが
16:42
and if any of these feel inappropriate,
もし不適切な質問があれば
16:44
it's okay just to say, "Next question."
「次の質問」と言ってください
16:46
But if there is someone here
もしここに 自閉症の子を
16:48
who has an autistic child,
持つ人や 自閉症の子を
16:50
or knows an autistic child
知っている人がいて
16:52
and feels kind of cut off from them,
彼らが心を開かないと感じていたら
16:54
what advice would you give them?
なんとアドバイスしますか?
16:57
TG: Well, first of all, you've got to look at age.
テンプル:まず 年齢が重要です
16:59
If you have a two, three or four year old
2~4歳の子で
17:01
you know, no speech, no social interaction,
何も話さず 社会性も無い場合
17:03
I can't emphasize enough:
今すぐに 最低週20時間の
17:05
Don't wait, you need at least 20 hours a week of one-to-one teaching.
マン・ツー・マンの指導を始める事です
17:07
You know, the thing is, autism comes in different degrees.
自閉症にも幅があります
17:11
There's going to be about half the people on the spectrum
その連続体の約半数は
17:14
that are not going to learn to talk, and they're not going to be working
話し方を覚えません シリコンバレーで
17:16
Silicon Valley, that would not be a reasonable thing for them to do.
働く事もないでしょう 単に向いていないんです
17:18
But then you get the smart, geeky kids
しかしもう一方は 軽い自閉症の
17:21
that have a touch of autism,
天才予備軍たちです
17:23
and that's where you've got to get them turned on
彼らに興味深いものを見せ
17:25
with doing interesting things.
スイッチを入れてあげるんです
17:27
I got social interaction through shared interest.
私は共通の趣味から社会性を学びました
17:29
I rode horses with other kids, I made model rockets with other kids,
他の子達と馬に乗り ロケットの模型を作り
17:32
did electronics lab with other kids,
電気実験をしたりしました
17:36
and in the '60s, it was gluing mirrors
60年代には スピーカーにゴム膜を張り
17:38
onto a rubber membrane on a speaker to make a light show.
鏡を糊付けし 派手な照明にしました
17:40
That was like, we considered that super cool.
超イケてると思いました
17:43
CA: Is it unrealistic for them
クリス:自閉症の親達が
17:46
to hope or think that that child
望むように 子供に自分を
17:48
loves them, as some might, as most, wish?
愛してもらう事は難しいのでしょうか?
17:50
TG: Well let me tell you, that child will be loyal,
テンプル:いえ 子供はとても忠実ですよ
17:53
and if your house is burning down, they're going to get you out of it.
もし火事にでもなれば 助けにくるはずです
17:55
CA: Wow. So, most people, if you ask them
クリス:それは驚きました さて
17:57
what are they most passionate about, they'd say things like,
人々に何に夢中かを尋ねると
18:00
"My kids" or "My lover."
「子供」や「恋人」と答えます
18:02
What are you most passionate about?
あなたが夢中なのは何ですか?
18:05
TG: I'm passionate about that the things I do
テンプル:自分の行動が
18:08
are going to make the world a better place.
世界を良くしているという事実です
18:10
When I have a mother of an autistic child say,
自閉症の子を持つ母親に
18:12
"My kid went to college because of your book,
「あなたのおかげで子供が大学に
18:14
or one of your lectures," that makes me happy.
進学したの」と言われると嬉しいです
18:16
You know, the slaughter plants, I've worked with them
80年代に私がいた
18:18
in the '80s; they were absolutely awful.
と畜場も酷いものでした
18:21
I developed a really simple scoring system for slaughter plants
そこでシンプルな評価システムを作りました
18:23
where you just measure outcomes: How many cattle fell down?
結果を測るだけです 何頭が転倒し
18:27
How many cattle got poked with the prodder?
何頭がつつかれ
18:29
How many cattle are mooing their heads off?
何頭が痛み悶えたか
18:31
And it's very, very simple.
非常に単純です
18:33
You directly observe a few simple things.
いくつか観察するだけです
18:35
It's worked really well. I get satisfaction out of
これが大変有効でした
18:37
seeing stuff that makes real change
実社会を変えているのを見ることに
18:39
in the real world. We need a lot more of that,
満足を覚えました 概念ばかりでなく
18:42
and a lot less abstract stuff.
もっとこういった事が必要です
18:44
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:46
CA: When we were talking on the phone, one of the things you said that
クリス:電話でお話したとき
18:53
really astonished me was you said one thing
サーバーファームに興味があると
18:55
you were passionate about was server farms. Tell me about that.
仰ってましたね それについてお聞かせください
18:57
TG: Well the reason why I got really excited when I read about that,
テンプル:サーバーファームを知って興奮しました
19:01
it contains knowledge.
知識の固まりなんですね
19:04
It's libraries.
図書館なんです
19:07
And to me, knowledge is something
私にとって知識は
19:09
that is extremely valuable. So, maybe, over 10 years ago
とても貴重です 10年以上前ですが
19:11
now our library got flooded.
近所の図書館が水害に遭ったんです
19:13
And this is before the Internet got really big.
インターネットが広まる前でした
19:15
And I was really upset about all the books being wrecked,
本がダメになってしまうと 動揺しました
19:17
because it was knowledge being destroyed.
それは知識の崩壊ですから
19:19
And server farms, or data centers
サーバーファームやデータセンターは
19:21
are great libraries of knowledge.
巨大な知識の図書館なんです
19:23
CA: Temple, can I just say it's an absolute delight to have you at TED.
クリス:あなたをTEDにお招きできて本当に光栄です
19:26
TG: Well thank you so much. Thank you.
テンプル:こちらこそ ありがとうございます
19:29
(Applause)
(喝采)
19:32
Translator:Satoru Arao
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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Temple Grandin - Livestock handling designer, autism activist
Through groundbreaking research and the lens of her own autism, Temple Grandin brings startling insight into two worlds.

Why you should listen

An expert on animal behavior, Temple Grandin has designed humane handling systems for half the cattle-processing facilities in the US, and consults with the meat industry to develop animal welfare guidelines. As PETA wrote when awarding her a 2004 Proggy: “Dr. Grandin's improvements to animal-handling systems found in slaughterhouses have decreased the amount of fear and pain that animals experience in their final hours, and she is widely considered the world's leading expert on the welfare of cattle and pigs.” In 2010, Time Magazine listed her as one of its most Important People of the Year. She is also a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Grandin’s books about her interior life as an autistic person have increased the world's understanding of the condition with personal immediacy -- and with import, as rates of autism diagnosis rise. She is revered by animal rights groups and members of autistic community, perhaps because in both regards she is a voice for those who are sometimes challenged to make themselves heard. 

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