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TEDGlobal 2005

Charles Leadbeater: The era of open innovation

チャールズ・リードビーター:イノベーションについて

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チャールズ・リードビーターは、イノベーションがもはや専門家の仕事ではなくなっていること明らかにします。情熱を持った素人集団が新しいツールを駆使し、企業では作れない新製品や新しい枠組みを生み出しているのです。

- Innovation consultant
A researcher at the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the rise of "amateur innovation" -- great ideas from outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known. Full bio

What I'm going to do, in the spirit of collaborative creativity,
これからお話しする
00:25
is simply repeat many of the points
協働による創造的な発明というのは
00:28
that the three people before me have already made,
先の3人が話したものと同じものです
00:31
but do them --
でもこの意味
00:34
this is called "creative collaboration;"
創造的な協働とも呼ばれる
00:36
it's actually called "borrowing" --
この
00:38
but do it through a particular perspective,
創造的な発明の意義を
00:41
and that is to ask about the role of users and consumers
違った視点 つまり
00:43
in this emerging world of
ユーザーや消費者の
00:46
collaborative creativity
役割を見直すことで
00:48
that Jimmy and others have talked about.
明確にしたいと思います
00:50
Let me just ask you, to start with,
簡単な質問から始めましょう
00:53
this simple question:
マウンテンバイクは
00:55
who invented the mountain bike?
誰が発明したのでしょう?
00:57
Because traditional economic theory would say,
今までの経済理論なら
00:59
well, the mountain bike was probably invented by some big bike corporation
新規の事業を始める
01:02
that had a big R&D lab
大きな研究所を持った
01:05
where they were thinking up new projects,
大企業だと考えるでしょう
01:07
and it came out of there. It didn't come from there.
でも大企業ではないのです
01:09
Another answer might be, well, it came from a sort of lone genius
あるいは一人の天才が
01:12
working in his garage, who,
自分の車庫で
01:15
working away on different kinds of bikes, comes up
自転車部品を組み合わせ
01:17
with a bike out of thin air.
開発したと考えるでしょう
01:19
It didn't come from there. The mountain bike
実際にマウンテンバイクを
01:21
came from users, came from young users,
発明したのはカリフォルニアの若者達です
01:23
particularly a group in Northern California,
皆さんの兄さん達が
01:27
who were frustrated with traditional racing bikes,
乗っていたようなレース用の自転車には
01:29
which were those sort of bikes that Eddy Merckx rode,
派手過ぎて興味が湧かず
01:32
or your big brother, and they're very glamorous.
父親が使っている
01:35
But also frustrated with the bikes that your dad rode,
大きなハンドルの
01:37
which sort of had big handlebars like that, and they were too heavy.
重い自転車にも満足できなかった
01:40
So, they got the frames from these big bikes,
それで 大きな自転車からフレーム
01:43
put them together with the gears from the racing bikes,
レース用自転車からは変速機
01:45
got the brakes from motorcycles,
バイクからブレーキを持ってきて
01:48
and sort of mixed and matched various ingredients.
それらを組み合わせたのです
01:52
And for the first, I don't know, three to five years of their life,
これが”クランカー”と呼ばれる
01:54
mountain bikes were known as "clunkers."
最初のマウンテンバイクです
01:57
And they were just made in a community of bikers,
カリフォルニアの自転車仲間達が
01:59
mainly in Northern California.
発明した製品なのです
02:02
And then one of these companies that was importing parts
やがて 自転車部品の輸入業者が
02:04
for the clunkers decided to set up in business,
これを商品として売り出し
02:07
start selling them to other people,
ビジネスにしようと考えた
02:09
and gradually another company emerged out of that, Marin,
やがて他の会社も参入し
02:11
and it probably was, I don't know,
おそらく
02:14
10, maybe even 15, years,
10年か15年たって
02:16
before the big bike companies
自転車の大企業が
02:18
realized there was a market.
目をつけた
02:20
Thirty years later,
それから30年経った今では
02:22
mountain bike sales
マウンテンバイクの売上は
02:24
and mountain bike equipment
付属品も含めると
02:26
account for 65 percent of bike sales in America.
米国自転車市場の65%
02:28
That's 58 billion dollars.
580億ドルになります
02:30
This is a category entirely created by consumers
マウンテンバイクは消費者が発明したわけです
02:33
that would not have been created by the mainstream bike market
自転車業界の主流では
02:36
because they couldn't see the need,
このビジネスチャンスは見えなかったし
02:39
the opportunity;
新しい製品を発明する動機も
02:41
they didn't have the incentive to innovate.
なかったからです
02:43
The one thing I think I disagree with
ヨーカイ氏と私の考えが
02:46
about Yochai's presentation
違う点があります
02:48
is when he said the Internet causes
彼はインターネットによって
02:50
this distributive capacity for innovation to come alive.
多くの人が協働で発明できるように
02:52
It's when the Internet combines
なったと言いましたが
02:55
with these kinds of passionate pro-am consumers --
情熱と知識と意欲を持つプロ級の消費者が
02:58
who are knowledgeable; they've got the incentive to innovate;
道具を手に入れ インターネットによって
03:01
they've got the tools; they want to --
結びついた時に初めて
03:04
that you get this kind of explosion
協働による発明という
03:06
of creative collaboration.
新しい花が開いたのです
03:08
And out of that, you get the need for the kind of things
ジミーの言ったある種の新しい形態の組織
03:11
that Jimmy was talking about, which is our new kinds of organization,
あるいは組織化が
03:14
or a better way to put it:
必要になっています
03:17
how do we organize ourselves without organizations?
組織抜きで組織化できるでしょうか?
03:19
That's now possible; you don't need an organization to be organized,
今ではソフト開発など複雑な業務を
03:22
to achieve large and complex tasks,
協働で行う場合でも
03:26
like innovating new software programs.
必ずしも組織は必要ない
03:28
So this is a huge challenge
いかに創造性を高めるか
03:31
to the way we think creativity comes about.
を考える上でここが課題なのです
03:34
The traditional view, still enshrined
今までの考え方が消えたわけではなく
03:38
in much of the way that we think about creativity
会社や政府機関でも
03:40
-- in organizations, in government --
独創的な発明は
03:43
is that creativity is about special people:
野球帽を逆さに被って
03:45
wear baseball caps the wrong way round,
こうした会議に出てくるような
03:48
come to conferences like this, in special places,
ちょっと変な奴の仕事と考えている
03:50
elite universities, R&D labs in the forests, water,
有名大学とか森や水辺の研究所
03:53
maybe special rooms in companies painted funny colors,
奇抜な色の特別な部屋で
03:58
you know, bean bags, maybe the odd table-football table.
卓球台なんかもあるかもしれない
04:01
Special people, special places, think up special ideas,
変な人が妙な場所ですごい発明を考える
04:05
then you have a pipeline that takes the ideas
発明はパイプラインで運ばれ
04:08
down to the waiting consumers, who are passive.
消費者のもとに届けられる
04:10
They can say "yes" or "no" to the invention.
消費者の選択肢は受け取るかどうかだけ
04:14
That's the idea of creativity.
これが世間的な理解です
04:16
What's the policy recommendation out of that
この理解から生まれる方策は
04:18
if you're in government, or you're running a large company?
政府も大企業も同じで
04:20
More special people, more special places.
特殊な人や場所を確保すること
04:24
Build creative clusters in cities;
研究特区を創って
04:27
create more R&D parks, so on and so forth.
独創的な人たちを集める
04:29
Expand the pipeline down to the consumers.
消費者にはより多くの発明を届ける
04:32
Well this view, I think, is increasingly wrong.
この考えは益々間違ったものになっています
04:35
I think it's always been wrong,
いや 最初から違っていたのです
04:38
because I think always creativity has been highly collaborative,
創造的な発明は協働から生まれるのです
04:40
and it's probably been largely interactive.
そして対話が重要なのです
04:43
But it's increasingly wrong, and one of the reasons it's wrong
益々間違いになっている理由は
04:46
is that the ideas are flowing back up the pipeline.
アイデアが逆向きに流れているからです
04:49
The ideas are coming back from the consumers,
消費者が専門家以上に
04:52
and they're often ahead of the producers.
先進的なアイデアを生み出しています
04:54
Why is that?
それはなぜでしょうか?
04:57
Well, one issue
一つには
04:59
is that radical innovation,
多くの技術や人々に影響を与えるような
05:02
when you've got ideas that
先鋭的な発明では
05:04
affect a large number of technologies or people,
何に役立つのか分からない場合が
05:06
have a great deal of uncertainty attached to them.
少なくないからです
05:10
The payoffs to innovation are greatest
発明による報酬が最大になるのは
05:12
where the uncertainty is highest.
実は発明品の目的が見えない場合です
05:14
And when you get a radical innovation,
革新的なイノベーションが生まれた時
05:17
it's often very uncertain how it can be applied.
その発明が何に利用できるかわからない
05:19
The whole history of telephony
電話の歴史もその一つで
05:22
is a story of dealing with that uncertainty.
先が見えない中で進歩してきました
05:24
The very first landline telephones,
最初の有線電話は
05:28
the inventors thought
発明者には
05:30
that they would be used for people to listen in
ウエストエンドの劇場で
05:32
to live performances
ライブを聴くための
05:34
from West End theaters.
器具だった
05:36
When the mobile telephone companies invented SMS,
携帯電話会社がSMSを発明した時も
05:38
they had no idea what it was for;
何に使えるか分かってなかった
05:41
it was only when that technology got into the hands
この技術が利用者の手に渡り
05:43
of teenage users
10代の利用者が
05:45
that they invented the use.
使い方を発明したのです
05:47
So the more radical the innovation,
発明が革新的であるほど
05:49
the more the uncertainty,
確かな見通しはなく
05:52
the more you need innovation in use
使ってみなければ
05:54
to work out what a technology is for.
何の役に立つのか見えてこない
05:56
All of our patents, our entire approach
今までの特許や発明に関わる制度は
05:59
to patents and invention, is based on the idea
発明家は自分の発明の
06:02
that the inventor knows what the invention is for;
価値を知っている事が
06:05
we can say what it's for.
前提でした
06:08
More and more, the inventors of things
今や発明家は発明の価値が
06:10
will not be able to say that in advance.
前もって分からないのです
06:12
It will be worked out in use,
ユーザーと協働して
06:14
in collaboration with users.
発明品を利用しながら次第に見えてくる
06:16
We like to think that invention is
発明というものは
06:19
a sort of moment of creation:
誰かが瞬間に思いつくもの
06:21
there is a moment of birth when someone comes up with an idea.
と考えがちですが
06:24
The truth is that most creativity
実際はほとんどの発明は
06:27
is cumulative and collaborative;
蓄積と協働の結果です
06:30
like Wikipedia, it develops over a long period of time.
ウィキペディアも時間をかけて発展したものです
06:32
The second reason why users are more and more important
利用者が重要であるもう一つの理由は
06:37
is that they are the source of big, disruptive innovations.
利用者こそがすごい発明をすることです
06:40
If you want to find the big new ideas,
新しくすごいアイデアを見つけたければ
06:44
it's often difficult to find them in mainstream markets,
業界の主流や大企業で探しても
06:47
in big organizations.
無駄というものです
06:50
And just look inside large organizations
大きな組織を見ると
06:53
and you'll see why that is so.
その訳が分かります
06:55
So, you're in a big corporation.
貴方が大企業で働いているとしましょう
06:57
You're obviously keen to go up the corporate ladder.
出世の階段を上ろうとすれば
07:01
Do you go into your board and say,
役員会でこんな風に
07:04
"Look, I've got a fantastic idea
話せるでしょうか?
07:06
for an embryonic product
”すごいアイデアです
07:08
in a marginal market,
新規分野で新規顧客対象で-
07:10
with consumers we've never dealt with before,
利益も直ぐにはでませんが-
07:12
and I'm not sure it's going to have a big payoff, but it could be really, really big in the future?"
将来はきっと儲かる商品になります”
07:15
No, what you do, is you go in and you say,
いや こう言うしかないのです
07:18
"I've got a fantastic idea for an incremental innovation
”優れた改善案です-
07:21
to an existing product we sell through existing channels
既存商品と既存の販売網を使った-
07:24
to existing users, and I can guarantee
既存顧客向けのアイデアで-
07:27
you get this much return out of it over the next three years."
今後3年間の利益は間違いなく確保できます”
07:29
Big corporations have an in-built tendency
大企業ではこのように
07:33
to reinforce past success.
過去の成功に依存します
07:35
They've got so much sunk in it
保守性に浸かっているので
07:37
that it's very difficult for them to spot
新しい市場に飛び込めない
07:39
emerging new markets. Emerging new markets, then,
新しいマーケットは
07:42
are the breeding grounds for passionate users.
情熱を持つユーザーが開拓するのです
07:45
Best example:
好例を話しましょう
07:48
who in the music industry,
音楽業界の一体誰が
07:50
30 years ago, would have said,
30年前に思いついたでしょうか
07:52
"Yes, let's invent a musical form
”新しい音楽を創ろう-
07:55
which is all about dispossessed black men
抑圧された黒人がゲットーで-
07:58
in ghettos expressing their frustration
世の中への不満を音楽にして-
08:01
with the world through a form of music
表現するのだ-
08:03
that many people find initially quite difficult to listen to.
大衆には最初は受けないかもしれないが-
08:05
That sounds like a winner; we'll go with it."
いずれきっと売れる”
08:08
(Laughter).
(笑)
08:11
So what happens? Rap music is created by the users.
どうなりました? ユーザーがラップを作りました
08:12
They do it on their own tapes, with their own recording equipment;
自分達で歌を録音し
08:15
they distribute it themselves.
自分達で配った
08:18
30 years later,
30年後
08:19
rap music is the dominant musical form of popular culture --
ラップはポピュラー音楽の主流になった
08:21
would never have come from the big companies.
大企業からは生まれなかった
08:24
Had to start -- this is the third point --
3つ目のポイントはプロ級の素人と
08:26
with these pro-ams.
始めることです
08:29
This is the phrase that I've used in
ロンドンの"DEMOS"という
08:31
some stuff which I've done
シンクタンクで仲間との
08:33
with a think tank in London called Demos,
合言葉でした
08:35
where we've been looking at these people who are amateurs --
素人ではあるけれど
08:37
i.e., they do it for the love of it --
それが好きな人たち
08:40
but they want to do it to very high standards.
高い技術水準を求め
08:43
And across a whole range of fields --
どんな分野でもよいですが
08:45
from software, astronomy,
ソフトウェアや天文学
08:47
natural sciences,
自然科学
08:51
vast areas of leisure and culture
幅広い分野の娯楽や文化
08:53
like kite-surfing, so on and so forth --
凧サーフィンなどなど
08:55
you find people who want to do things because they love it,
好きな事を好きだからやりたいという人がいます
08:58
but they want to do these things to very high standards.
しかも高いレベルでしようとするのです
09:02
They work at their leisure, if you like.
暇な時にその気になればやる
09:05
They take their leisure very seriously:
趣味だが真剣に取り組む
09:07
they acquire skills; they invest time;
技術を習得し時間を注ぎ込み
09:09
they use technology that's getting cheaper -- it's not just the Internet:
安く手に入る技術を利用し インターネットの他
09:12
cameras, design technology,
カメラやデザイン技術
09:15
leisure technology, surfboards, so on and so forth.
サーフボードなどなど
09:18
Largely through globalization,
グローバル化によって
09:21
a lot of this equipment has got a lot cheaper.
多くの器具がすいぶん安くなった
09:23
More knowledgeable consumers, more educated,
知識も豊かで教育のある消費者が
09:26
more able to connect with one another,
お互いにつながり
09:29
more able to do things together.
一緒に活動できる
09:31
Consumption, in that sense, is an expression
消費が創造性を
09:33
of their productive potential.
表現する手段なのです
09:35
Why, we found, people were interested in this,
こうした創造的な消費に興味を持つのは
09:37
is that at work they don't feel very expressed.
仕事では自分を表現できないからです
09:41
They don't feel as if they're doing something that really matters to them,
意味のある仕事をしている実感がないから
09:44
so they pick up these kinds of activities.
何か別の活動をやりたくなる
09:47
This has huge organizational implications
人の人生に大きな影響を与える
09:50
for very large areas of life.
組織的にも大きな課題です
09:52
Take astronomy as an example,
天文学を例に考えてみましょう
09:54
which Yochai has already mentioned.
ヨーカイ氏が言ったとおり
09:57
Twenty years ago, 30 years ago,
20年前か30年前には
10:00
only big professional astronomers
専門的な天文学者しか
10:02
with very big telescopes could see far into space.
大きな望遠鏡で宇宙を見れなかった
10:05
And there's a big telescope in Northern England called Jodrell Bank,
英国北部のジョドレルバンク望遠鏡は
10:09
and when I was a kid, it was amazing,
子供の時に驚いたのですが
10:12
because the moon shots would take off, and this thing would move on rails.
月ロケットが発射される時に鉄道で運ぶほど
10:14
And it was huge -- it was absolutely enormous.
とても巨大なものだった
10:17
Now, six
今では6人の素人天文家が
10:20
amateur astronomers, working with the Internet,
インターネットを利用して
10:23
with Dobsonian digital telescopes --
ドブソニアン望遠鏡で
10:25
which are pretty much open source --
それは無料で誰でも利用できるのですが
10:27
with some light sensors
この10年で開発された
10:30
developed over the last 10 years, the Internet --
簡単なセンサーを使い
10:32
they can do what Jodrell Bank could only do 30 years ago.
30年前のジョドレルバンクと同じことができる
10:34
So here in astronomy, you have this vast explosion
天文学ではユーザーという創造的な担い手が
10:38
of new productive resources.
急速に増えています
10:41
The users can be producers.
消費者が製作者にもなれるのです
10:43
What does this mean, then, for our
これは組織的な視点に
10:46
organizational landscape?
どんな意味をもたらすでしょう?
10:48
Well, just imagine a world,
それでは世界を2つのグループに
10:50
for the moment, divided into two camps.
分けて考えて見ましょう
10:52
Over here, you've got the old, traditional corporate model:
一つは古い伝統的な組織モデル
10:56
special people, special places;
特別な人々 特別な場所
10:59
patent it, push it down the pipeline
特許をとって 受身の消費者に
11:01
to largely waiting, passive consumers.
商品を一方的に流す
11:03
Over here, let's imagine we've got
もう一方はウィキペディアや
11:06
Wikipedia, Linux, and beyond -- open source.
リナックスなどのオープンソースをイメージして下さい
11:08
This is open; this is closed.
こちらはオープンでこちらは閉じている
11:12
This is new; this is traditional.
新しいのと旧来のもの
11:14
Well, the first thing you can say, I think with certainty,
確かに言えることの一つは
11:16
is what Yochai has said already --
ヨーカイ氏が言ったように
11:19
is there is a great big struggle
この2つの組織形態の間で
11:21
between those two organizational forms.
抗争が起こっている
11:23
These people over there will do everything they can
こちらは存在が脅かされていますから
11:25
to stop these kinds of organizations succeeding,
そっちのグループが成功しないよう
11:28
because they're threatened by them.
出来る事は何でもやる
11:31
And so the debates about
著作権やデジタル著作権の議論は
11:33
copyright, digital rights, so on and so forth --
こうした新しいグループを鎮圧するための
11:36
these are all about trying to stifle, in my view,
悪戦苦闘だと
11:40
these kinds of organizations.
私は見ています
11:43
What we're seeing is a complete corruption
特許とか著作権というのは
11:45
of the idea of patents and copyright.
全く腐敗しています
11:48
Meant to be a way to incentivize invention,
発明を促すのではなく
11:50
meant to be a way to orchestrate the dissemination of knowledge,
知識の普及を組織化するのでもなく
11:54
they are increasingly being used by large companies
大企業はこうした制度で
11:57
to create thickets of patents
特許という障壁を巡らし
12:00
to prevent innovation taking place.
発明を邪魔しています
12:02
Let me just give you two examples.
二つの例をお見せしよう
12:04
The first is: imagine yourself going to a venture capitalist
貴方がベンチャーを立ち上げたとします
12:07
and saying, "I've got a fantastic idea.
”素晴らしいアイデアがあるんだ-
12:10
I've invented this brilliant new program
全くすごいプログラムを発明した-
12:12
that is much, much better than Microsoft Outlook."
Microsoft Outlookよりずっといいものだ”
12:15
Which venture capitalist in their right mind is going to give you any money to set up a venture
一体誰が Microsoft Outlookと競争するような
12:19
competing with Microsoft, with Microsoft Outlook? No one.
貴方の事業に資金を出すでしょうか。
12:23
That is why the competition with Microsoft is bound to come --
これがマイクロソフトと競争できるのは
12:26
will only come --
オープンソース型の事業
12:29
from an open-source kind of project.
だけである理由です
12:31
So, there is a huge competitive argument
実際、大きな論争になっているのは
12:33
about sustaining the capacity
オープンソースや消費者主導の発明が
12:35
for open-source and consumer-driven innovation,
維持発展できるかどうかです
12:37
because it's one of the greatest
これらが独占を打ち負かす
12:40
competitive levers against monopoly.
唯一の競争相手だからです
12:42
There'll be huge professional arguments as well.
専門家からの反撃も強くなるでしょう
12:45
Because the professionals, over here
こちらの閉じた世界の専門家には
12:48
in these closed organizations --
学者であれプログラマーであれ
12:50
they might be academics; they might be programmers;
医者であれジャーナリストであれ
12:52
they might be doctors; they might be journalists --
私も以前はジャーナリストでしたが
12:54
my former profession --
”そっちの素人の意見を信用するな”
12:57
say, "No, no -- you can't trust these people over here."
と言うのです
12:59
When I started in journalism --
私が20年前に
13:03
Financial Times, 20 years ago --
ファイナンシャルタイムスの記者になった頃
13:05
it was very, very exciting
誰かが記事を読んでいると
13:09
to see someone reading the newspaper.
とてもドキドキしたものです
13:11
And you'd kind of look over their shoulder on the Tube
地下鉄で肩越しに
13:13
to see if they were reading your article.
自分の記事を読んでいないか覗いて見る
13:15
Usually they were reading the share prices,
たいていは株価しか読まないし
13:18
and the bit of the paper with your article on
私の記事の載った新聞紙が
13:20
was on the floor, or something like that,
床の上に落ちていたりすると
13:22
and you know, "For heaven's sake, what are they doing!
”一体なんて馬鹿な奴らだ-
13:24
They're not reading my brilliant article!"
俺のすばらしい記事を読まずに”と叫んでしまう
13:26
And we allowed users, readers,
読者の参画を認めるのは
13:29
two places where they could contribute to the paper:
2箇所だけ
13:32
the letters page, where they could write a letter in,
一つは投稿の読者ページだけど
13:34
and we would condescend to them, cut it in half,
原稿を半分に縮めて
13:37
and print it three days later.
3日後に掲載する
13:39
Or the op-ed page, where if they knew the editor --
もう一つが論説欄
13:41
had been to school with him, slept with his wife --
編集者の奥さんと寝た事があれば
13:43
they could write an article for the op-ed page.
原稿を載せてもらえるかもしれない
13:45
Those were the two places.
この二箇所しかなかった
13:48
Shock, horror: now, the readers want to be writers and publishers.
恐ろしい事に今では読者が記者や出版者になりたがる
13:50
That's not their role; they're supposed to read what we write.
俺たちの記事だけ読んでればよいのに
13:54
But they don't want to be journalists. The journalists think
でも別にジャーナリストになりたいわけではない
13:57
that the bloggers want to be journalists;
ジャーナリスト自身はよく分かっていないようだが
13:59
they don't want to be journalists; they just want to have a voice.
ブロガーはただ発信したいのです
14:01
They want to, as Jimmy said, they want to have a dialogue, a conversation.
ジミーが言ったようにただ議論や会話がしたい
14:03
They want to be part of that flow of information.
情報のやりとりに加わりたいのです
14:06
What's happening there is that the whole domain
つまり創造の担い手が
14:10
of creativity is expanding.
増えているのです
14:12
So, there's going to be a tremendous struggle.
これは大きな抗争なのです
14:14
But, also, there's going to be tremendous movement
しかし別のオープン側から
14:17
from the open to the closed.
閉じた側への大きな動きもあります
14:20
What you'll see, I think, is two things that are critical,
オープン側の将来にとって
14:23
and these, I think, are two challenges
二つの決定的な
14:26
for the open movement.
課題があります
14:28
The first is:
一つは
14:30
can we really survive on volunteers?
ボランティアに依存していけるかという課題
14:32
If this is so critical,
もしこの動きが重要ならば
14:35
do we not need it funded, organized, supported
資金を流し組織化する仕組みをきっちりと
14:37
in much more structured ways?
支援する必要があるのではないですか?
14:40
I think the idea of creating the Red Cross
赤十字社を設立するのは
14:42
for information and knowledge is a fantastic idea,
素晴らしいアイデアですが
14:44
but can we really organize that, just on volunteers?
ボランティアだけで組織できるでしょうか
14:47
What kind of changes do we need in public policy
公共政策や資金の流れを
14:51
and funding to make that possible?
どうすればよいのか?
14:53
What's the role of the BBC,
例えばBBCは
14:55
for instance, in that world?
どんな役割を担えるか?
14:57
What should be the role of public policy?
公共政策の役割は何か?
14:59
And finally, what I think you will see
最後に知って欲しい事は
15:01
is the intelligent, closed organizations
こっちの閉じた側もオープンな側に
15:04
moving increasingly in the open direction.
動きつつある事です
15:07
So it's not going to be a contest between two camps,
つまり単に二つのグループの争いではなく
15:10
but, in between them, you'll find all sorts of interesting places
この二つのグループの間に我々の将来が
15:13
that people will occupy.
あるのかもしれないのです
15:16
New organizational models coming about,
新しい組織モデルがこの2つを混在させて
15:18
mixing closed and open in tricky ways.
生まれてくるでしょう
15:21
It won't be so clear-cut; it won't be Microsoft versus Linux --
マイクロソフトとリナックスのように白か黒かではない
15:24
there'll be all sorts of things in between.
その中間の灰色の世界
15:28
And those organizational models, it turns out,
この灰色の組織モデルは
15:30
are incredibly powerful,
とてもパワフルなのです
15:32
and the people who can understand them
これを理解した人が
15:34
will be very, very successful.
大成功するでしょう
15:36
Let me just give you one final example
最後に具体例を一つ
15:38
of what that means.
紹介しましょう
15:41
I was in Shanghai,
上海に行っていました
15:43
in an office block
5年前は水田だったオフィス街で
15:45
built on what was a rice paddy five years ago --
この10年の間に建てられた
15:47
one of the 2,500 skyscrapers
2500の高層ビルの一つで
15:50
they've built in Shanghai in the last 10 years.
ティモシー チェンという青年と
15:53
And I was having dinner with this guy called Timothy Chan.
食事をして来ました
15:56
Timothy Chan set up an Internet business
ティモシーは2000年に
15:59
in 2000.
インターネットビジネスを始めました
16:01
Didn't go into the Internet, kept his money,
コンピュータゲームに専念することを決め
16:03
decided to go into computer games.
ネットから離れることにしました
16:06
He runs a company called Shanda,
彼は"盛大"という名の中国最大の
16:08
which is the largest computer games company in China.
コンピュータゲーム企業を経営しています
16:11
Nine thousand servers all over China,
9000のサーバーを中国全土に備え
16:15
has 250 million subscribers.
加入者は2億5千万人いて
16:18
At any one time, there are four million people playing one of his games.
常時4百万人がゲームで遊んでいます
16:22
How many people does he employ
このサービスを提供する
16:27
to service that population?
スタッフはわずか500人です
16:29
500 people.
一体どうやって
16:32
Well, how can he service
2.5億人に対して
16:34
250 million people from 500 employees?
500人で対応できるのか?
16:36
Because basically, he doesn't service them.
サービスは提供しないのです
16:39
He gives them a platform;
規則や道具といった
16:41
he gives them some rules; he gives them the tools
プラットフォームを用意し
16:43
and then he kind of orchestrates the conversation;
ユーザーとの対話を組織化し
16:46
he orchestrates the action.
アクションを組織化します
16:49
But actually, a lot of the content
ゲーム自体はユーザーが
16:51
is created by the users themselves.
自分たちで作るのです
16:53
And it creates a kind of stickiness
それがある種の一体感を
16:56
between the community and the company
会社との間に生みだすのです
16:58
which is really, really powerful.
この効果は絶大です
17:00
The best measure of that: so you go into one of his games,
こういうことです ゲームを始めると
17:02
you create a character
自分で登場人物を作り
17:05
that you develop in the course of the game.
ゲームを通して成長させます
17:07
If, for some reason, your credit card bounces,
クレジットカードが不渡りになるとか
17:09
or there's some other problem,
何か問題があると
17:12
you lose your character.
登場人物は消えます
17:14
You've got two options.
二つの選択肢があります
17:16
One option: you can create a new character,
一つは登場人物を一から創り直す
17:18
right from scratch, but with none of the history of your player.
でもこれまでの歴史は消えてします
17:21
That costs about 100 dollars.
これは100ドルです
17:24
Or you can get on a plane, fly to Shanghai,
もう一つは飛行機で上海に飛んで
17:26
queue up outside Shanda's offices --
盛大の事務所に並び再登録する
17:29
cost probably 600, 700 dollars --
600-700ドルかかるが登場人物の
17:32
and reclaim your character, get your history back.
歴史をとり戻すことが出来る
17:36
Every morning, there are 600 people queuing
毎朝この事務所の外には
17:39
outside their offices
登場人物の再登録のために
17:41
to reclaim these characters. (Laughter)
600人も並んでいます
17:43
So this is about companies built on communities,
ユーザーが共有できる
17:45
that provide communities with tools,
道具や場所を提供することで
17:48
resources, platforms in which they can share.
成り立つ会社の例です
17:51
He's not open source,
オープンソースではないですが
17:53
but it's very, very powerful.
とても強力です
17:55
So here is one of the challenges, I think,
政府の仕事に関わる者は
17:57
for people like me, who
大きな課題を
18:00
do a lot of work with government.
抱えています
18:02
If you're a games company,
ゲームの会社の場合
18:05
and you've got a million players in your game,
百万人がゲームで遊ぶとして
18:08
you only need one percent of them
その内の1%がアイデアを提供する
18:11
to be co-developers, contributing ideas,
開発者になれば
18:14
and you've got a development workforce
1万人の人手が
18:16
of 10,000 people.
確保できるわけです
18:18
Imagine you could take all the children
同様に英国の教育の場合
18:21
in education in Britain, and one percent of them
生徒の1%が教育の提供側に
18:24
were co-developers of education.
協力するなら
18:27
What would that do to the resources available
教育を支える人材が
18:29
to the education system?
十分に確保できます
18:31
Or if you got one percent of the patients in the NHS
国民保険を利用する患者の1%が
18:33
to, in some sense, be co-producers of health.
保健サービスに関われるかもしれません
18:36
The reason why --
経費の削減圧力の中で
18:39
despite all the efforts to cut it down,
こうした利用者を巻き込んだモデルが
18:41
to constrain it, to hold it back --
力強く立ち上がりつつあるのは
18:44
why these open models will still start emerging
このモデルがサービスを
18:46
with tremendous force,
提供する側の人材を
18:49
is that they multiply our productive resources.
何倍にも増やすからです
18:51
And one of the reasons they do that
それができるのは
18:53
is that they turn users into producers,
利用者が製造し
18:55
consumers into designers.
消費者が計画するからです
18:57
Thank you very much.
以上です ありがとう
18:59
Translated by Hiroyuki Mori
Reviewed by Jun Sasaki

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About the speaker:

Charles Leadbeater - Innovation consultant
A researcher at the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the rise of "amateur innovation" -- great ideas from outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known.

Why you should listen

Charles Leadbeater's theories on innovation have compelled some of the world's largest organizations to rethink their strategies. A financial journalist turned innovation consultant (for clients ranging from the British government to Microsoft), Leadbeater noticed the rise of "pro-ams" -- passionate amateurs who act like professionals, making breakthrough discoveries in many fields, from software to astronomy to kite-surfing. His 2004 essay "The Pro-Am Revolution" -- which The New York Times called one of the year's biggest global ideas -- highlighted the rise of this new breed of amateur.

Prominent examples range from the mountain bike to the open-source operating system Linux, from Wikipedia to the Jubilee 2000 campaign, which helped persuade Western nations to cancel more than $30 billion in third-world debt. In his upcoming book, We-Think, Leadbeater explores how this emerging culture of mass creativity and participation could reshape companies and governments. A business reporter by training, he was previously an editor for the Financial Times, and later, The Independent, where, with Helen Fielding, he developed the "Bridget Jones' Diary" column. Currently, he is researching for Atlas of Ideas, a program that is mapping changes in the global geography of science and innovation.

More profile about the speaker
Charles Leadbeater | Speaker | TED.com