18:55
TED2016

Tshering Tobgay: This country isn't just carbon neutral -- it's carbon negative

Filmed:

Deep in the Himalayas, on the border between China and India, lies the Kingdom of Bhutan, which has pledged to remain carbon neutral for all time. In this illuminating talk, Bhutan's Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay shares his country's mission to put happiness before economic growth and set a world standard for environmental preservation.

- Prime Minister of Bhutan
Acting on his mandate to move Bhutan into the 21st century, Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay is transforming his nation -- while maintaining its “Gross National Happiness.” Full bio

In case you are wondering,
00:13
no, I'm not wearing a dress,
00:15
and no, I'm not saying
what I'm wearing underneath.
00:18
(Laughter)
00:22
This is a gho.
00:25
This is my national dress.
00:27
This is how all men dress in Bhutan.
00:30
That is how our women dress.
00:34
Like our women,
00:38
we men get to wear pretty bright colors,
00:40
but unlike our women,
00:44
we get to show off our legs.
00:47
(Laughter)
00:48
Our national dress is unique,
00:50
but this is not the only thing
that's unique about my country.
00:52
Our promise to remain
carbon neutral is also unique,
00:56
and this is what I'd like
to speak about today,
00:59
our promise to remain carbon neutral.
01:01
But before I proceed,
I should set you the context.
01:04
I should tell you our story.
01:08
Bhutan is a small country
in the Himalayas.
01:11
We've been called Shangri-La,
01:16
even the last Shangri-La.
01:18
But let me tell you right off the bat,
we are not Shangri-La.
01:21
My country is not one big monastery
01:24
populated with happy monks.
01:27
(Laughter)
01:28
The reality is that
there are barely 700,000 of us
01:30
sandwiched between two
of the most populated countries on earth,
01:36
China and India.
01:41
The reality is that we are a small,
underdeveloped country
01:44
doing our best to survive.
01:48
But we are doing OK. We are surviving.
01:51
In fact, we are thriving,
01:55
and the reason we are thriving
is because we've been blessed
01:58
with extraordinary kings.
02:02
Our enlightened monarchs
have worked tirelessly
02:05
to develop our country,
02:08
balancing economic growth carefully
02:10
with social development,
environmental sustainability
02:13
and cultural preservation,
02:16
all within the framework
of good governance.
02:18
We call this holistic approach
to development
02:22
"Gross National Happiness," or GNH.
02:25
Back in the 1970s,
02:29
our fourth king famously
pronounced that for Bhutan,
02:31
Gross National Happiness is more important
than Gross National Product.
02:35
(Applause)
02:39
Ever since,
02:44
all development in Bhutan
is driven by GNH,
02:46
a pioneering vision
that aims to improve the happiness
02:51
and well-being of our people.
02:55
But that's easier said than done,
02:58
especially when you are one
of the smallest economies in the world.
03:00
Our entire GDP is less
than two billion dollars.
03:05
I know that some of you here
are worth more --
03:09
(Laughter)
03:12
individually
03:13
than the entire economy of my country.
03:15
So our economy is small,
03:20
but here is where it gets interesting.
03:22
Education is completely free.
03:26
All citizens are guaranteed
free school education,
03:28
and those that work hard
are given free college education.
03:31
Healthcare is also completely free.
03:34
Medical consultation,
medical treatment, medicines:
03:36
they are all provided by the state.
03:40
We manage this
03:43
because we use our limited
resources very carefully,
03:45
and because we stay faithful
to the core mission of GNH,
03:49
which is development with values.
03:55
Our economy is small,
and we must strengthen it.
03:59
Economic growth is important,
04:02
but that economic growth must not come
from undermining our unique culture
04:04
or our pristine environment.
04:09
Today, our culture is flourishing.
04:14
We continue to celebrate
our art and architecture,
04:17
food and festivals,
04:20
monks and monasteries.
04:23
And yes, we celebrate
our national dress, too.
04:26
This is why I can wear my gho with pride.
04:32
Here's a fun fact:
04:37
you're looking
at the world's biggest pocket.
04:39
(Laughter)
04:42
It starts here,
04:45
goes around the back,
04:47
and comes out from inside here.
04:49
In this pocket
04:52
we store all manner of personal goods
04:53
from phones and wallets
04:56
to iPads, office files and books.
05:00
(Laughter)
05:03
(Applause)
05:04
But sometimes --
05:06
sometimes even precious cargo.
05:08
So our culture is flourishing,
05:14
but so is our environment.
05:16
72 percent of my country
is under forest cover.
05:19
Our constitution demands
that a minimum of 60 percent
05:23
of Bhutan's total land
shall remain under forest cover
05:28
for all time.
05:32
(Applause)
05:33
Our constitution,
05:39
this constitution,
05:41
imposes forest cover on us.
05:44
Incidentally, our king
used this constitution
05:47
to impose democracy on us.
05:52
You see, we the people
didn't want democracy.
05:54
We didn't ask for it, we didn't demand it,
05:57
and we certainly didn't fight for it.
06:00
Instead, our king imposed democracy on us
06:03
by insisting that he include it
in the constitution.
06:08
But he went further.
06:12
He included provisions in the constitution
06:14
that empower the people
to impeach their kings,
06:18
and included provisions in here
that require all our kings to retire
06:22
at the age of 65.
06:27
(Applause)
06:30
Fact is, we already have
a king in retirement:
06:31
our previous king, the Great Fourth,
06:36
retired 10 years ago
06:40
at the peak of his popularity.
06:42
He was all of 51 years at that time.
06:45
So as I was saying,
06:51
72 percent of our country
is under forest cover,
06:53
and all that forest is pristine.
06:56
That's why we are one of the few remaining
06:59
global biodiversity hotspots in the world,
07:02
and that's why we are
a carbon neutral country.
07:05
In a world that is threatened
with climate change,
07:08
we are a carbon neutral country.
07:10
Turns out, it's a big deal.
07:15
Of the 200-odd countries
in the world today,
07:17
it looks like we are the only one
07:20
that's carbon neutral.
07:22
Actually, that's not quite accurate.
07:25
Bhutan is not carbon neutral.
07:29
Bhutan is carbon negative.
07:31
Our entire country generates
2.2 million tons of carbon dioxide,
07:35
but our forests, they sequester
more than three times that amount,
07:42
so we are a net carbon sink
07:47
for more than four million tons
of carbon dioxide each year.
07:49
But that's not all.
07:55
(Applause)
07:56
We export most
of the renewable electricity
07:58
we generate from our fast-flowing rivers.
08:01
So today, the clean energy that we export
08:05
offsets about six million tons
of carbon dioxide in our neighborhood.
08:08
By 2020, we'll be exporting
enough electricity
08:14
to offset 17 million tons
of carbon dioxide.
08:18
And if we were to harness
even half our hydropower potential,
08:22
and that's exactly what we are working at,
08:25
the clean, green energy that we export
08:29
would offset something like
50 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.
08:31
That is more CO2 than what the entire city
of New York generates in one year.
08:38
So inside our country,
we are a net carbon sink.
08:45
Outside, we are offsetting carbon.
08:48
And this is important stuff.
08:50
You see, the world is getting warmer,
08:53
and climate change is a reality.
08:55
Climate change is affecting my country.
08:59
Our glaciers are melting,
09:02
causing flash floods and landslides,
09:04
which in turn are causing disaster
and widespread destruction in our country.
09:06
I was at that lake recently.
09:13
It's stunning.
09:15
That's how it looked 10 years ago,
09:18
and that's how it looked 20 years ago.
09:21
Just 20 years ago, that lake didn't exist.
09:24
It was a solid glacier.
09:27
A few years ago, a similar lake
09:31
breached its dams
09:34
and wreaked havoc in the valleys below.
09:37
That destruction
was caused by one glacier lake.
09:42
We have 2,700 of them to contend with.
09:45
The point is this:
09:50
my country and my people have done nothing
09:52
to contribute to global warming,
09:56
but we are already bearing the brunt
of its consequences.
09:59
And for a small, poor country,
one that is landlocked and mountainous,
10:05
it is very difficult.
10:09
But we are not going to sit
on our hands doing nothing.
10:12
We will fight climate change.
10:14
That's why we have promised
to remain carbon neutral.
10:16
We first made this promise in 2009
10:22
during COP 15 in Copenhagen,
10:26
but nobody noticed.
10:30
Governments were so busy
arguing with one another
10:32
and blaming each other
for causing climate change,
10:35
that when a small country
raised our hands and announced,
10:38
"We promise to remain
carbon neutral for all time,"
10:42
nobody heard us.
10:45
Nobody cared.
10:47
Last December in Paris,
10:51
at COP 21, we reiterated our promise
10:54
to remain carbon neutral
for all time to come.
10:57
This time, we were heard.
11:01
We were noticed, and everybody cared.
11:03
What was different in Paris
was that governments came round together
11:09
to accept the realities of climate change,
11:14
and were willing to come together
and act together and work together.
11:16
All countries, from the very small
to the very large,
11:21
committed to reduce
the greenhouse gas emissions.
11:25
The UN Framework Convention
on Climate Change
11:30
says that if these so-called
intended commitments are kept,
11:33
we'd be closer
to containing global warming
11:39
by two degrees Celsius.
11:41
By the way,
11:46
I've requested the TED organizers here
11:48
to turn up the heat in here
by two degrees,
11:51
so if some of you
are feeling warmer than usual,
11:56
you know who to blame.
11:59
It's crucial that all of us
keep our commitments.
12:03
As far as Bhutan is concerned,
12:07
we will keep our promise
to remain carbon neutral.
12:09
Here are some of the ways we are doing it.
12:13
We are providing free electricity
to our rural farmers.
12:16
The idea is that, with free electricity,
they will no longer have to use firewood
12:20
to cook their food.
12:26
We are investing in sustainable transport
12:28
and subsidizing the purchase
of electric vehicles.
12:31
Similarly, we are subsidizing
the cost of LED lights,
12:34
and our entire government
is trying to go paperless.
12:39
We are cleaning up our entire country
through Clean Bhutan, a national program,
12:43
and we are planting trees
throughout our country
12:47
through Green Bhutan,
12:51
another national program.
12:53
But it is our protected areas
12:56
that are at the core
of our carbon neutral strategy.
12:58
Our protected areas are our carbon sink.
13:02
They are our lungs.
13:05
Today, more than half
our country is protected,
13:08
as national parks, nature reserves
13:12
and wildlife sanctuaries.
13:14
But the beauty is that we've connected
them all with one another
13:17
through a network of biological corridors.
13:21
Now, what this means
13:26
is that our animals are free
to roam throughout our country.
13:27
Take this tiger, for example.
13:33
It was spotted
at 250 meters above sea level
13:35
in the hot, subtropical jungles.
13:38
Two years later, that same tiger
13:42
was spotted near 4,000 meters
13:45
in our cold alpine mountains.
13:48
Isn't that awesome?
13:51
(Applause)
13:53
We must keep it that way.
13:57
We must keep our parks awesome.
14:00
So every year, we set aside resources
to prevent poaching, hunting,
14:03
mining and pollution in our parks,
14:08
and resources to help communities
who live in those parks
14:10
manage their forests,
14:16
adapt to climate change,
14:17
and lead better lives while continuing
to live in harmony with Mother Nature.
14:19
But that is expensive.
14:24
Over the next few years,
our small economy won't have the resources
14:26
to cover all the costs that are required
to protect our environment.
14:32
In fact, when we run the numbers,
14:37
it looks like it'll take us
at least 15 years
14:39
before we can fully finance
all our conservation efforts.
14:41
But neither Bhutan,
14:47
nor the world
14:49
can afford to spend 15 years
going backwards.
14:51
This is why His Majesty the King
14:56
started Bhutan For Life.
14:59
Bhutan For Life gives us the time we need.
15:02
It gives us breathing room.
15:04
It is essentially a funding mechanism
15:07
to look after our parks,
15:09
to protect our parks,
15:11
until our government
can take over on our own fully.
15:13
The idea is to raise a transition fund
15:17
from individual donors,
corporations and institutions,
15:21
but the deal is closed only
after predetermined conditions are met
15:25
and all funds committed.
15:30
So multiparty, single closing:
15:32
an idea we borrowed from Wall Street.
15:36
This means that individual donors
can commit without having to worry
15:39
that they'll be left
supporting an underfunded plan.
15:44
It's something like a Kickstarter project,
15:49
only with a 15-year time horizon
15:51
and millions of tons
of carbon dioxide at stake.
15:54
Once the deal is closed,
15:58
we use the transition fund
to protect our parks,
16:01
giving our government time
to increase our own funding gradually
16:05
until the end of the 15-year period.
16:10
After that, our government
guarantees full funding forever.
16:12
We are almost there.
16:20
We expect to close later this year.
16:21
Naturally, I'm pretty excited.
16:24
(Applause)
16:26
The World Wildlife Fund
is our principle partner in this journey,
16:32
and I want to give them a big shoutout
16:38
for the excellent work
they are doing in Bhutan
16:41
and across the world.
16:44
(Applause)
16:45
Whew, it is getting warm in here.
16:49
I thank you for listening to our story,
17:04
a story of how we are keeping
our promise to remain carbon neutral,
17:07
a story of how we are keeping
our country pristine,
17:11
for ourselves, our children,
17:16
for your children and for the world.
17:18
But we are not here
to tell stories, are we?
17:22
We are here to dream together.
17:25
So in closing, I'd like to share
one more dream that I have.
17:29
What if we could mobilize
our leadership and our resources,
17:34
our influence and our passion,
17:37
to replicate the Bhutan For Life idea
to other countries
17:40
so that they too
17:43
can conserve their
protected areas for all time.
17:46
After all, there are many other countries
who face the same issues that we face.
17:50
They too have natural resources
17:53
that can help win the world's fight
for sustainability,
17:56
only they may not have the ability
to invest in them now.
18:00
So what if we set up Earth For Life,
18:03
a global fund, to kickstart
the Bhutan For Life throughout the world?
18:06
I invite you to help me,
18:12
to carry this dream beyond our borders
18:14
to all those who care
about our planet's future.
18:17
After all, we're here to dream together,
18:22
to work together,
18:27
to fight climate change together,
to protect our planet together.
18:28
Because the reality is
18:33
we are in it together.
18:36
Some of us might dress differently,
18:38
but we are in it together.
18:41
Thank you very much,
18:43
and kadrin chhe la. Thank you.
18:45
(Applause)
18:47
Thank you, thank you, thank you.
18:48

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About the Speaker:

Tshering Tobgay - Prime Minister of Bhutan
Acting on his mandate to move Bhutan into the 21st century, Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay is transforming his nation -- while maintaining its “Gross National Happiness.”

Why you should listen

Tshering Tobgay went from civil servant to politician to prime minister -- all the while maintaining his star social media profile in one of Asia’s most progressive emerging states. As the second democratically elected Prime Minister of Bhutan, Tobgay continues to emphasize his country’s core value of happiness.

Bhutan's acclaimed "Gross National Happiness" index prioritizes well-being over financial growth. But Tobgay also seeks to solve Bhutan's great challenges: unemployment, poverty, gaps in education and infrastructure. WIth a foundation of optimism, his administration and the country's young democracy hope to become a paragon of stability in the developing world.

More profile about the speaker
Tshering Tobgay | Speaker | TED.com