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TED2011

David Brooks: The social animal

デイヴィッド・ブルックス:社会的動物

March 1, 2011

ニューヨークタイムズのコラムニスト、デイヴィッド・ブルックスが彼の最新の著書の中から人間の本質へのこれまでにない洞察を、認知科学の面から紹介します。それは経済、政治そして私たち一人一人の自己認識に至るまで非常に応用範囲の広いものです。ユーモアをふんだんにまじえたトークで、彼は人間を理解する上で意識と無意識を切り離して考えることはできないと説明します。

David Brooks - Columnist
New York Times columnist David Brooks is the author of “Bobos in Paradise,” “On Paradise Drive,” "The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character and Achievement", and "The Road to Character." Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
When I got my current job, I was given a good piece of advice,
その昔 毎日政治家と話す機会があり
00:15
which was to interview three politicians every day.
大変勉強になりました
00:18
And from that much contact with politicians,
そうした経験を通して
00:21
I can tell you they're all emotional freaks of one sort or another.
感情面で変人だ と感じました
00:23
They have what I called "logorrhea dementia,"
おしゃべり症候群です
00:27
which is they talk so much they drive themselves insane.
しゃべり過ぎて 頭が変になってます
00:29
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:32
But what they do have is incredible social skills.
しかし彼らは本当に社交術に長けてます
00:34
When you meet them, they lock into you,
会ったとたんガチっとつかまえて
00:37
they look you in the eye,
目を見て話をして
00:39
they invade your personal space,
後頭部をさすりながら
00:41
they massage the back of your head.
心の隙間に入り込みます
00:43
I had dinner with a Republican senator several months ago
ある議員と夕食の機会がありまして
00:45
who kept his hand on my inner thigh
食事の間 ずっと私の内ももに
00:47
throughout the whole meal -- squeezing it.
手を入れてギューっとされましたよ
00:49
I once -- this was years ago --
かなり前ですが
00:52
I saw Ted Kennedy and Dan Quayle meet in the well of the Senate.
ある議員をみかけました
00:54
And they were friends, and they hugged each other
彼らは ハグをして
00:56
and they were laughing, and their faces were like this far apart.
笑いながら こんな近くで話すんです
00:58
And they were moving and grinding
お互いの両腕を上へ下へと
01:01
and moving their arms up and down each other.
さすり合うんです
01:03
And I was like, "Get a room. I don't want to see this."
「他でやってくれ!」
01:05
But they have those social skills.
とにかく社交術に長けてます
01:08
Another case:
ほかには
01:10
Last election cycle,
前回の選挙の時
01:12
I was following Mitt Romney around New Hampshire,
ミット・ロムニーを取材してました
01:14
and he was campaigning with his five perfect sons:
5人の息子と選挙を活動をしてました
01:16
Bip, Chip, Rip, Zip, Lip and Dip.
ビップ チップ リップとその他たくさん
01:19
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:21
And he's going into a diner.
ダイナーに入って
01:23
And he goes into the diner, introduces himself to a family
ある家族に自己紹介しました
01:25
and says, "What village are you from in New Hampshire?"
「どちらから?」と聞き
01:28
And then he describes the home he owned in their village.
「そこには自宅があるんですよ!」
01:30
And so he goes around the room,
店じゅうでそうやって
01:34
and then as he's leaving the diner,
ダイナーから出ていきました
01:37
he first-names almost everybody he's just met.
初対面の人たちをファーストネームで呼んでました
01:39
I was like, "Okay, that's social skill."
「これこそ社交術」
01:42
But the paradox is,
変なのは
01:44
when a lot of these people slip into the policy-making mode,
政策を作る段階になると
01:46
that social awareness vanishes
人間味がふっとんで
01:50
and they start talking like accountants.
急に会計士にみたいになることです
01:52
So in the course of my career,
キャリアを通じて
01:54
I have covered a series of failures.
いくつもの失敗を取材してきました
01:56
We sent economists in the Soviet Union
アメリカはソ連の民営化のため
01:58
with privatization plans when it broke up,
エコノミストを送り込み 失敗
02:00
and what they really lacked was social trust.
必要だったのは信頼関係でした
02:02
We invaded Iraq with a military
アメリカは文化的精神的な
02:05
oblivious to the cultural and psychological realities.
現実を無視してイラクに軍事介入
02:07
We had a financial regulatory regime
トレーダーは
02:10
based on the assumptions
バカはしないだろう
02:12
that traders were rational creatures
という前提の規制を
02:14
who wouldn't do anything stupid.
設けていました
02:16
For 30 years, I've been covering school reform
30年間 教育改革を取材してきました
02:18
and we've basically reorganized the bureaucratic boxes --
改革とは役所仕事の整理のことです
02:21
charters, private schools, vouchers --
許可制度 私立学校 証明書などなど
02:24
but we've had disappointing results year after year.
何年にも渡って結果は散々です
02:27
And the fact is, people learn from people they love.
私たちは好きな人から学びます
02:31
And if you're not talking about the individual relationship
先生と生徒のつながりに
02:34
between a teacher and a student,
触れていなければ 現実的な
02:36
you're not talking about that reality.
話をしていません
02:38
But that reality is expunged
こうした現実は政策を作る
02:40
from our policy-making process.
段階で消えてなくなります
02:42
And so that's led to a question for me:
一つの疑問は
02:44
Why are the most socially-attuned people on earth
人情味溢れる人たちが 政策を作る
02:47
completely dehumanized
段階に入ると なぜ
02:50
when they think about policy?
人間味がなくなるのか?
02:52
And I came to the conclusion,
私の結論はもっと
02:55
this is a symptom of a larger problem.
大きな問題のサインでした
02:57
That, for centuries, we've inherited a view of human nature
長年 人間の本質を捉えるとき
03:00
based on the notion
理性と感情という
03:03
that we're divided selves,
二つの領域が存在し
03:05
that reason is separated from the emotions
これらは切り離されていると考えられ
03:07
and that society progresses
社会は感情を抑制することで
03:10
to the extent that reason can suppress the passions.
発展してきたと考えられてきました
03:12
And it's led to a view of human nature
本質的に人間は理性的で
03:15
that we're rational individuals
目標に対し 一直線に
03:18
who respond in straightforward ways to incentives,
向かうものだと考えています
03:20
and it's led to ways of seeing the world
人間の行動を測る時
03:23
where people try to use the assumptions of physics
物理学の世界と同じような
03:26
to measure how human behavior is.
前提を持ち出します
03:29
And it's produced a great amputation,
こうして人間の本質の大前提が
03:34
a shallow view of human nature.
とても浅はかになりました
03:36
We're really good at talking about material things,
物質的なことはよく話せますが
03:39
but we're really bad at talking about emotions.
感情についてはまるっきりダメ
03:41
We're really good at talking about skills
スキルや安全
03:44
and safety and health;
健康については話せますが
03:46
we're really bad at talking about character.
人の性格については まるっきりダメです
03:48
Alasdair MacIntyre, the famous philosopher,
アラスデア・マッキンタイア曰く
03:51
said that, "We have the concepts of the ancient morality
「古代の倫理観や美徳 名誉や美点について
03:54
of virtue, honor, goodness,
知ってはいるが もはや
03:57
but we no longer have a system
それらと自分たちを結びつける
03:59
by which to connect them."
手立てを失ってしまった」
04:01
And so this has led to a shallow path in politics,
浅はかな政策をとるようになり
04:03
but also in a whole range of human endeavors.
人間の営み全体までも浅はかなものになりました
04:06
You can see it in the way we raise our young kids.
子育てでも明らかです
04:10
You go to an elementary school at three in the afternoon
午後3時に小学校に行くと重そうなバックパックを
04:13
and you watch the kids come out,
背負った子供たちが
04:16
and they're wearing these 80-pound backpacks.
飛び出してきます 風が吹けばまるで
04:18
If the wind blows them over, they're like beetles stuck there on the ground.
カブトムシが地面で踏ん張ってるよう
04:21
You see these cars that drive up --
お迎えの車はサーブか
04:25
usually it's Saabs and Audis and Volvos,
アウディ はたまたボルボです
04:27
because in certain neighborhoods it's socially acceptable to have a luxury car,
ある地域では高級車を乗りまわしてもOKですから
04:30
so long as it comes from a country hostile to U.S. foreign policy --
そのメーカーがアメリカの外交政策に反対してれば
04:33
that's fine.
まあいいでしょう
04:36
They get picked up by these creatures I've called uber-moms,
お迎えはスーパーママです
04:38
who are highly successful career women
キャリアで成功を収めた人たちで
04:41
who have taken time off to make sure all their kids get into Harvard.
子供をハーバードへ進学させようとしています
04:43
And you can usually tell the uber-moms
スーパーママは一目瞭然
04:46
because they actually weigh less than their own children.
だって子供よりも軽いんですから
04:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:50
So at the moment of conception,
妊娠してからすぐに
04:52
they're doing little butt exercises.
おしりの運動をして
04:54
Babies flop out,
赤ちゃんが生まれたとたん
04:56
they're flashing Mandarin flashcards at the things.
中国語のお勉強をはじめます
04:58
Driving them home, and they want them to be enlightened,
放課後は子供を啓蒙するため
05:01
so they take them to Ben & Jerry's ice cream company
独自の外交政策の
05:04
with its own foreign policy.
ベン & ジェリーアイスクリームへ
05:06
In one of my books,
このアイス屋が
05:08
I joke that Ben & Jerry's should make a pacifist toothpaste --
非暴力主義の歯磨き粉で大ヒット間違いなし
05:10
doesn't kill germs, just asks them to leave.
バイ菌を殺さず
05:12
It would be a big seller.
ただ どっかにいってもらうってね
05:14
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:16
And they go to Whole Foods to get their baby formula,
ホールフーズで粉ミルクのお買い物
05:18
and Whole Foods is one of those progressive grocery stores
ここは進んだ食料品店で
05:21
where all the cashiers look like they're on loan from Amnesty International.
従業員はまるで人権団体の職員みたい
05:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:26
They buy these seaweed-based snacks there
海藻のお菓子を買います
05:28
called Veggie Booty with Kale,
「ケール入りべジー・ブーティー」
05:30
which is for kids who come home and say,
子供たちは言います
05:32
"Mom, mom, I want a snack that'll help prevent colon-rectal cancer."
「ママ 大腸ガンに効くあのお菓子が食べたいよう」
05:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:37
And so the kids are raised in a certain way,
子供はそんな風に育てられ
05:39
jumping through achievement hoops of the things we can measure --
測れる程度の成功を次々と収めます
05:41
SAT prep, oboe, soccer practice.
テスト準備 オーボエ サッカーの練習
05:44
They get into competitive colleges, they get good jobs,
一流大学に入り 一流企業に就職して
05:47
and sometimes they make a success of themselves
何人かは上っ面での成功を
05:50
in a superficial manner, and they make a ton of money.
収めてがっぽり稼ぐ
05:52
And sometimes you can see them at vacation places
そんな彼らを時々
05:55
like Jackson Hole or Aspen.
リゾート地で見かけます
05:57
And they've become elegant and slender --
エレガントでスレンダー
05:59
they don't really have thighs;
太ももなんてないんです
06:01
they just have one elegant calve on top of another.
ふくらはぎの上にふくらはぎがのってるだけ
06:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:06
They have kids of their own,
親になり
06:08
and they've achieved a genetic miracle by marrying beautiful people,
美人と結婚して遺伝の奇跡を成し遂げます
06:10
so their grandmoms look like Gertrude Stein,
おばあちゃんはガートルード・スタインで
06:13
their daughters looks like Halle Berry -- I don't know how they've done that.
娘はまるでハル・ベリー ホントどうなってるんでしょう?
06:16
They get there and they realize
そうこうしているうちに
06:19
it's fashionable now to have dogs a third as tall as your ceiling heights.
でっかい犬を飼うのが流行なので
06:22
So they've got these furry 160-pound dogs --
70kgのまるで恐竜みたいな
06:26
all look like velociraptors,
ワンちゃんを飼います
06:29
all named after Jane Austen characters.
名前はジェーン・オースティンのキャラから
06:32
And then when they get old, they haven't really developed a philosophy of life,
歳をとっても人生の哲学もなく
06:35
but they've decided, "I've been successful at everything;
「こんなに多くのことで成功したんだから
06:38
I'm just not going to die."
このまま死ぬわけにはいかない」
06:40
And so they hire personal trainers;
パーソナルトレーナーを雇い
06:42
they're popping Cialis like breath mints.
精力剤をガボガボ飲む
06:45
You see them on the mountains up there.
雪山で見かけるでしょ
06:47
They're cross-country skiing up the mountain
厳しい表情で山を
06:49
with these grim expressions
せっせと登る彼らを
06:51
that make Dick Cheney look like Jerry Lewis.
あれじゃ ディック・チェイニーも顔負け
06:53
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:55
And as they whiz by you,
彼らが横を通り過ぎる時
06:57
it's like being passed by a little iron Raisinet
その様子はまるで
06:59
going up the hill.
鉄のレーズン
07:01
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:03
And so this is part of what life is,
とある人生をご紹介しました
07:05
but it's not all of what life is.
でも人生はこれだけじゃありません
07:08
And over the past few years,
過去数年にわたってより深く
07:11
I think we've been given a deeper view of human nature
人間の本質 私たちは一体何者なのか?
07:13
and a deeper view of who we are.
についてヒントを得てきました
07:17
And it's not based on theology or philosophy,
神学や哲学からではなく
07:19
it's in the study of the mind,
心についての研究から
07:21
across all these spheres of research,
神経科学 認知科学
07:23
from neuroscience to the cognitive scientists,
行動経済学 心理学 社会学
07:25
behavioral economists, psychologists,
さまざまな分野にわたる
07:27
sociology,
リサーチは
07:29
we're developing a revolution in consciousness.
意識革命をおこしてきました
07:31
And when you synthesize it all,
これらを統合したとき
07:34
it's giving us a new view of human nature.
新しい人間の本質が見えてきます
07:36
And far from being a coldly materialistic view of nature,
人間味があり 真新しく魅力的な
07:38
it's a new humanism, it's a new enchantment.
新しいヒューマニズム
07:41
And I think when you synthesize this research,
リサーチを統合するときに
07:44
you start with three key insights.
3つの洞察がキーとなります
07:46
The first insight is
最初の洞察は
07:48
that while the conscious mind writes the autobiography of our species,
人間のほとんどの行動は無意識が
07:50
the unconscious mind does most of the work.
導いているということです
07:53
And so one way to formulate that is
こういう言い方もできます
07:57
the human mind can take in millions of pieces of information a minute,
心は莫大な情報を一瞬で受け止めますが
07:59
of which it can be consciously aware of about 40.
意識できるのはわずかです その結果
08:02
And this leads to oddities.
おかしなことがおこります
08:05
One of my favorite is that people named Dennis
デニスという名前の人は
08:07
are disproportionately likely to become dentists,
なぜかデンティスト(歯医者)になりがち
08:09
people named Lawrence become lawyers,
ローレンスはローヤー(弁護士)に
08:12
because unconsciously we gravitate toward things
無意識に似ている音に
08:14
that sound familiar,
引き寄せられてるのです
08:16
which is why I named my daughter President of the United States Brooks.
なので 私の娘は「合衆国大統領ブルックス」
08:18
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:21
Another finding is that the unconscious,
もう一つの発見は無意識というのは
08:24
far from being dumb and sexualized,
バカで本能的なものではなく
08:27
is actually quite smart.
実際はかなり賢い
08:29
So one of the most cognitively demanding things we do is buy furniture.
家具の購入は本当に決断が要ります
08:31
It's really hard to imagine a sofa, how it's going to look in your house.
自宅にぴったりのソファ選びは難しい
08:34
And the way you should do that
こうするといいです
08:37
is study the furniture,
家具をよく見て
08:39
let it marinate in your mind, distract yourself,
心に留め 一度気分転換をします
08:41
and then a few days later, go with your gut,
数日後 直感で決めてしまうのです
08:43
because unconsciously you've figured it out.
無意識がはたらきます
08:45
The second insight
二つ目の洞察は
08:47
is that emotions are at the center of our thinking.
思考の中心に感情があるということです
08:49
People with strokes and lesions
感情を司る脳の部分に
08:52
in the emotion-processing parts of the brain
障害がある人が天才ということは
08:54
are not super smart,
まずありません
08:56
they're actually sometimes quite helpless.
お手上げ状態の場合もあります
08:58
And the "giant" in the field is in the room tonight
この分野の大御所である
09:00
and is speaking tomorrow morning -- Antonio Damasio.
アントニオ・ダマジオが会場にいます
09:02
And one of the things he's really shown us
彼が紹介するのは感情は
09:05
is that emotions are not separate from reason,
理由付けから切り離されたものではなく
09:07
but they are the foundation of reason
理由付けのベースとなるということです
09:10
because they tell us what to value.
感情こそが何が大事かを決めるのです
09:12
And so reading and educating your emotions
自身の感情を読み そして
09:14
is one of the central activities of wisdom.
育てていくことが 知識活動の核となります
09:16
Now I'm a middle-aged guy.
私は中年で感情について
09:19
I'm not exactly comfortable with emotions.
あまり得意でありません
09:21
One of my favorite brain stories described these middle-aged guys.
お気に入りの話に中年男性のグループが
09:23
They put them into a brain scan machine --
脳のスキャン装置にかけられる話があります
09:26
this is apocryphal by the way, but I don't care --
ホントかウソかは知りませんが
09:29
and they had them watch a horror movie,
まずホラー映画を見せられたあと
09:32
and then they had them describe their feelings toward their wives.
奥さんへの感情を話させます
09:35
And the brain scans were identical in both activities.
スキャン結果はどちらも同じでした
09:39
It was just sheer terror.
ホントどちらも恐ろしい
09:42
So me talking about emotion
私が感情について話すのは
09:44
is like Gandhi talking about gluttony,
ガンジーが大食いについて
09:46
but it is the central organizing process
話すのと同じです とにかく感情が
09:48
of the way we think.
私たちの思考の中心です
09:50
It tells us what to imprint.
心に刻むべきものを決定します
09:52
The brain is the record of the feelings of a life.
脳は感情の記録装置なのです
09:54
And the third insight
三番目の洞察は
09:56
is that we're not primarily self-contained individuals.
人間は元来 自己完結した存在ではなく
09:58
We're social animals, not rational animals.
社会的動物で合理的ではありません
10:02
We emerge out of relationships,
私たちの存在は人間関係から
10:05
and we are deeply interpenetrated, one with another.
浮き彫りになりお互いに深くつながっています
10:07
And so when we see another person,
他の人を見るとき
10:10
we reenact in our own minds
心の中で その人の心を
10:12
what we see in their minds.
再現しているのです
10:14
When we watch a car chase in a movie,
カーチェイスのシーンを見ると
10:16
it's almost as if we are subtly having a car chase.
カーチェイスをしているような気になり
10:18
When we watch pornography,
ポルノを見てると
10:21
it's a little like having sex,
セックスしているような
10:23
though probably not as good.
気になります
10:25
And we see this when lovers walk down the street,
同様に恋人たちを見るとき
10:27
when a crowd in Egypt or Tunisia
エジプトの暴徒を見るとき
10:30
gets caught up in an emotional contagion,
感情は伝染していくのです
10:32
the deep interpenetration.
こうした人間の本質を
10:34
And this revolution in who we are
語る上での画期的な見解は
10:36
gives us a different way of seeing, I think, politics,
政治を そしてより重要な人間の
10:39
a different way, most importantly,
資質への違った捉え方を
10:42
of seeing human capital.
与えてくれます
10:44
We are now children of the French Enlightenment.
私たちはフランス式啓蒙の申し子です
10:46
We believe that reason is the highest of the faculties.
理屈至上主義ともいえます
10:50
But I think this research shows
しかし このリサーチにより
10:53
that the British Enlightenment, or the Scottish Enlightenment,
デビッド・ヒュームやアダム・スミスのイギリス式啓蒙の方が
10:55
with David Hume, Adam Smith,
私たちの本質について
10:57
actually had a better handle on who we are --
より的を得ているといえるでしょう
10:59
that reason is often weak, our sentiments are strong,
理性はたびたび頼りにならない一方
11:02
and our sentiments are often trustworthy.
感情は揺るぎなく しばしば正しい
11:05
And this work corrects that bias in our culture,
この研究により私たちの文化にある
11:08
that dehumanizing bias.
バイアスを矯正し
11:11
It gives us a deeper sense
人生を成功させる上での
11:13
of what it actually takes
大事なことを
11:15
for us to thrive in this life.
与えてくれます
11:17
When we think about human capital
人間の資質を語る時
11:19
we think about the things we can measure easily --
簡単に測れるモノサシを使いがちです
11:21
things like grades, SAT's, degrees,
例えばSATや学位
11:24
the number of years in schooling.
勉強してきた年数など
11:27
What it really takes to do well, to lead a meaningful life,
しかし有意義な人生を送るために必要なことは
11:29
are things that are deeper,
もっと深くそして
11:32
things we don't really even have words for.
それを表す言葉がないようなものです
11:34
And so let me list just a couple of the things
それではいくつかリサーチでの
11:37
I think this research points us toward trying to understand.
発見を紹介していきましょう
11:39
The first gift, or talent, is mindsight --
まずは読心術です
11:43
the ability to enter into other people's minds
人の心を読み そこにあるものを
11:46
and learn what they have to offer.
吸収する能力 赤ちゃんは
11:50
Babies come with this ability.
生まれながら持っています
11:52
Meltzoff, who's at the University of Washington,
ワシントン大学のメルツォフの発見は
11:54
leaned over a baby who was 43 minutes old.
生まれたばかりの赤ちゃんに
11:56
He wagged his tongue at the baby.
しゃべりかけると赤ちゃんも
11:59
The baby wagged her tongue back.
しゃべり返すというものです
12:01
Babies are born to interpenetrate into Mom's mind
生まれながら おかあさんの心を読み
12:04
and to download what they find --
この世をどう読み解くかを
12:07
their models of how to understand reality.
取り入れる力があります
12:09
In the United States, 55 percent of babies
アメリカでは55%の赤ちゃんが
12:11
have a deep two-way conversation with Mom
おかあさんと会話をし
12:14
and they learn models to how to relate to other people.
他の人との関わり合い方を学ぶと言われています
12:16
And those people who have models of how to relate
この学習をした人は人生において とても
12:19
have a huge head start in life.
幸先の良いスタートを切っています
12:21
Scientists at the University of Minnesota did a study
ミネソタ大学の研究によると
12:23
in which they could predict
月齢18ヶ月の段階で
12:25
with 77 percent accuracy, at age 18 months,
母子の絆をベースにして
12:27
who was going to graduate from high school,
どの子が高校を卒業できるかが
12:30
based on who had good attachment with mom.
77%の確率で予測できるそうです
12:32
Twenty percent of kids do not have those relationships.
愛着の絆をもてなかった20%は
12:35
They are what we call avoidantly attached.
他の人と回避的な関係を持ちます
12:38
They have trouble relating to other people.
人間関係でトラブルを抱え
12:40
They go through life
ジグザグに進むヨットのように
12:42
like sailboats tacking into the wind --
人生をおくります
12:44
wanting to get close to people,
親密な関係を望む一方
12:46
but not really having the models of how to do that.
どうしたらいいかわからない
12:48
And so this is one skill
これは他者から知識を
12:51
of how to hoover up knowledge, one from another.
吸収するスキルです
12:53
A second skill is equal poise,
次はバランス感覚です
12:55
the ability to have the serenity
心の中のバイアスや
12:58
to read the biases and failures in your own mind.
欠点を認識し 平静を保つ能力です
13:00
So for example, we are overconfidence machines.
私たちは自信過剰です
13:03
Ninety-five percent of our professors report
95%の大学教授が平均より
13:06
that they are above-average teachers.
優れていると思い
13:09
Ninety-six percent of college students
96%パーセントの大学生が自分は
13:11
say they have above-average social skills.
社交性に優れていると思っています
13:13
Time magazine asked Americans, "Are you in the top one percent of earners?"
タイムの調査で「あなたはトップ1%の稼ぎ手ですか?」
13:16
Nineteen percent of Americans are in the top one percent of earners.
19%が「そうだ」との回答
13:19
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:22
This is a gender-linked trait, by the way.
この特徴は男女差があります
13:24
Men drown at twice the rate of women,
男性は女性よりも溺れる可能性が高い
13:26
because men think they can swim across that lake.
自分の能力を過信しがちだからです
13:28
But some people have the ability and awareness
一方 自分のバイアスや過信を認識する
13:31
of their own biases, their own overconfidence.
能力を備えている人もいます
13:34
They have epistemological modesty.
つつましさを備え
13:37
They are open-minded in the face of ambiguity.
不確かなことに直面しても柔軟に対応します
13:39
They are able to adjust strength of the conclusions
根拠の程度にあわせた
13:42
to the strength of their evidence.
結論を導くことができ
13:44
They are curious.
好奇心旺盛です
13:46
And these traits are often unrelated and uncorrelated with IQ.
これは通常IQとは関係ありません
13:48
The third trait is metis,
次の能力はメデス
13:51
what we might call street smarts -- it's a Greek word.
ストリート・スマートのことです
13:53
It's a sensitivity to the physical environment,
物理的な環境への感度
13:56
the ability to pick out patterns in an environment --
ある環境下での重要なポイントを
13:58
derive a gist.
見つける能力です
14:00
One of my colleagues at the Times
イラクに従軍する
14:02
did a great story about soldiers in Iraq
兵士についての記事によると
14:04
who could look down a street and detect somehow
彼らは通りを見渡し なぜか爆発物や
14:06
whether there was an IED, a landmine, in the street.
地雷があるか分かるといいます
14:09
They couldn't tell you how they did it,
どうしてかは本人も分からない
14:11
but they could feel cold, they felt a coldness,
ある種のヒヤリとする感じを受け
14:13
and they were more often right than wrong.
それは正しいことが多い
14:16
The third is what you might call sympathy,
次は協働です
14:19
the ability to work within groups.
集団の中で働く能力です
14:21
And that comes in tremendously handy,
集団は個人より賢いため
14:24
because groups are smarter than individuals.
とても役に立つ能力です
14:27
And face-to-face groups are much smarter
さらにグループの能力は
14:29
than groups that communicate electronically,
遠隔より対面のときに より発揮されます
14:31
because 90 percent of our communication is non-verbal.
コミュニケーションの大部分は言葉ではないからです
14:34
And the effectiveness of a group
効率性は 集団のIQにより
14:37
is not determined by the IQ of the group;
決定されるものではありません
14:39
it's determined by how well they communicate,
コミュニケーションの方法や会話の中で
14:42
how often they take turns in conversation.
どれだけ順番がまわってくるか によります
14:45
Then you could talk about a trait like blending.
次に融合の能力についてです
14:48
Any child can say, "I'm a tiger," pretend to be a tiger.
子供なら「僕はトラだぞっ」と言えます
14:51
It seems so elementary.
子供じみていますが
14:54
But in fact, it's phenomenally complicated
「自分」と「トラ」という
14:56
to take a concept "I" and a concept "tiger"
コンセプトを結びつけるのは
14:58
and blend them together.
非常に複雑です
15:00
But this is the source of innovation.
これがイノベーションにつながります
15:02
What Picasso did, for example,
ピカソがやってのけたのは
15:04
was take the concept "Western art"
西洋の芸術とアフリカの仮面を
15:06
and the concept "African masks"
概念のレベルで
15:08
and blend them together --
融合させたことです
15:10
not only the geometry,
それは単に 物理的な配置の
15:12
but the moral systems entailed in them.
問題でなく精神が伴います
15:14
And these are skills, again, we can't count and measure.
これらのスキルも 測ることはできません
15:16
And then the final thing I'll mention
最後に触れておきたいのは
15:18
is something you might call limerence.
いわゆる一体感です
15:20
And this is not an ability;
これは能力ではありません
15:22
it's a drive and a motivation.
意欲や原動力です
15:24
The conscious mind hungers for success and prestige.
意識レベルでは富や名声を求めますが
15:27
The unconscious mind hungers
無意識レベルで求めるのは
15:30
for those moments of transcendence,
肉体を超越した感覚です
15:32
when the skull line disappears
体の感覚がなくなり
15:34
and we are lost in a challenge or a task --
モノゴトに没頭する状態です
15:36
when a craftsman feels lost in his craft,
工芸家が自分の作品に没頭したり
15:39
when a naturalist feels at one with nature,
自然学者が自然と一体感を感じたり
15:42
when a believer feels at one with God's love.
信者が神と一体化を感じたり
15:45
That is what the unconscious mind hungers for.
それこそが無意識が求めていることなのです
15:48
And many of us feel it in love
私たちは恋愛時に
15:51
when lovers feel fused.
この一体感を感じます
15:53
And one of the most beautiful descriptions
このリサーチの中で出会った
15:55
I've come across in this research
精神の一体化についての
15:57
of how minds interpenetrate
最もすばらしい話は
16:00
was written by a great theorist and scientist
インディアナ大学の
16:02
named Douglas Hofstadter at the University of Indiana.
ダグラス・ホスフタッターのものです
16:04
He was married to a woman named Carol,
彼はキャロルと結婚し
16:07
and they had a wonderful relationship.
ステキな結婚生活を送っていました
16:09
When their kids were five and two,
ところが子供たちが5歳と2歳の時
16:11
Carol had a stroke and a brain tumor and died suddenly.
彼女は脳卒中を起こし 突然この世を去りました
16:13
And Hofstadter wrote a book
ホスフタッターの著書
16:17
called "I Am a Strange Loop."
「奇妙なループの私」では
16:19
In the course of that book, he describes a moment --
彼女がこの世を去って数ヶ月後の
16:21
just months after Carol has died --
ある瞬間について触れています
16:23
he comes across her picture on the mantel,
ベッドルームにある
16:26
or on a bureau in his bedroom.
彼女の写真をふと見たとき…
16:28
And here's what he wrote:
本文を引用します
16:30
"I looked at her face,
「彼女の顔を
16:32
and I looked so deeply
じっと見つめた時
16:34
that I felt I was behind her eyes.
彼女の中にいる自分を感じました
16:36
And all at once I found myself saying
私は涙を流しながら
16:38
as tears flowed,
気づいたのです
16:40
'That's me. That's me.'
キャロルは僕なんだ
16:42
And those simple words
彼女の生前に
16:44
brought back many thoughts that I had had before,
共有していた多くの思い
16:46
about the fusion of our souls
高いレベルで僕たちの
16:48
into one higher-level entity,
魂が一体化すること
16:50
about the fact that at the core of both our souls
僕たちの魂は子供の将来への
16:52
lay our identical hopes and dreams for our children,
希望と夢を共有していたこと
16:55
about the notion that those hopes
これらの希望はバラバラでも
16:59
were not separate or distinct hopes,
異なるものではなく
17:01
but were just one hope,
お互いがお互いであると示す
17:03
one clear thing that defined us both,
たった一つのものであり
17:05
that welded us into a unit --
僕たちを一体化させるもので
17:07
the kind of unit I had but dimly imagined
結婚し子供ができるまで
17:09
before being married and having children.
想像すらできなかったものでした
17:12
I realized that, though Carol had died,
キャロルはあの世へ旅立ちましたが
17:15
that core piece of her had not died at all,
彼女の精神は決して滅んでおらず
17:17
but had lived on very determinedly in my brain."
私の中にハッキリと息づいている」
17:20
The Greeks say we suffer our way to wisdom.
「苦しみの末 英知を授かる」といいます
17:24
Through his suffering, Hofstadter understood
彼は苦しみの末 いかに私たちが
17:27
how deeply interpenetrated we are.
深く繋っているかを理解したのです
17:29
Through the policy failures of the last 30 years,
長年にわたる政策の失敗で
17:32
we have come to acknowledge, I think,
私たちは気づきはじめています
17:35
how shallow our view of human nature has been.
人間の本質への見解がいかに浅はかだったかを
17:38
And now as we confront that shallowness
今 その浅はかさと人間の本質を
17:41
and the failures that derive from our inability
見誤ったことによる
17:44
to get the depths of who we are,
問題に直面しています
17:46
comes this revolution in consciousness --
こうして意識革新へとつながります
17:48
these people in so many fields
多分野で多くの人が
17:50
exploring the depth of our nature
人間の本質を探り
17:53
and coming away with this enchanted,
すばらしい新しい人間主義を
17:55
this new humanism.
追求しています
17:57
And when Freud discovered his sense of the unconscious,
フロイトが無意識の概念を発見した時
17:59
it had a vast effect on the climate of the times.
当時の考え方に多大な影響を与えました
18:01
Now we are discovering a more accurate vision
今 無意識 そして 深層心理について
18:04
of the unconscious, of who we are deep inside,
より正確に探ろうとしています
18:07
and it's going to have a wonderful and profound
それは 私たちの文化にすばらしく 深みのある
18:10
and humanizing effect on our culture.
人間的な影響を及ぼすでしょう
18:12
Thank you.
ありがとう
18:14
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:16
Translator:SHIGERU MASUKAWA
Reviewer:Takako Sato

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David Brooks - Columnist
New York Times columnist David Brooks is the author of “Bobos in Paradise,” “On Paradise Drive,” "The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character and Achievement", and "The Road to Character."

Why you should listen

Writer and thinker David Brooks has covered business, crime and politics (as well as subbing in as the Wall Street Journal's movie critic) over a long career in journalism. He's an Op-Ed columnist for The New York Times in a legendary run that started in September 2003.

His column looks deeply into the social currents that underpin American life. He's the author of Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got ThereOn Paradise Drive: How We Live Now (And Always Have) in the Future TenseThe Social Animal and The Road to Character

Brooks is a frequent analyst on NPR’s All Things Considered and a commentator on The Newshour with Jim Lehrer.

 

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