10:47
TEDxSummit

Rives: Reinventing the encyclopedia game

リーヴス 「現代版百科事典遊び」

Filmed:

ブリタニカ百科事典の書籍版発行終了の報に触発され、実演詩人のリーヴスが子供の頃の遊びをよみがえらせます。ドーハでのTEDxSummitにおいて語られた、人類の知識の断片を巡る成り行き任せで時に周到な、魅惑に満ちた旅です。地球の中心から最も遠い点であるチンボラーゾから、宇宙に始めて飛び立ったチンパンジーのハムまで登場します。

- Performance poet, multimedia artist
Performance artist and storyteller Rives has been called "the first 2.0 poet," using images, video and technology to bring his words to life. Full bio

So, last month, the Encyclopaedia Britannica announced
先月 ブリタニカ百科事典の
00:16
that it is going out of print
書籍版の発行が終わり
00:19
after 244 years, which made me nostalgic,
244年の歴史に幕を閉じると聞き
00:21
because I remember playing a game with the colossal encyclopedia set in my hometown library
図書館で 百科事典を使って遊んだ
ある “ゲーム” を懐かしく
00:25
back when I was a kid,
思い出しました
00:31
maybe 12 years old.
12才の頃の話です
00:32
And I wondered if I could update that game,
そのゲームを
00:33
not just for modern methods,
新しいやり方で
00:36
but for the modern me.
成長した自分向けに
00:38
So I tried.
試してみました
00:40
I went to an online encyclopedia,
オンラインの百科事典
00:41
Wikipedia, and I entered the term "Earth."
ウィキペディアで
“地球” と入力します
00:42
You can start anywhere, this time I chose Earth.
今回は地球ですが
何でもいいですよ
00:45
And the first rule of the game is pretty simple.
ゲームの1つ目のルールは
00:47
You just have to read the article
まず 記事を読むことです
00:50
until you find something you don't know,
知らなかった事を発見するまで読む
00:51
and preferably something your dad doesn't even know.
できれば お父さんでも知らない事柄にします
00:54
And in this case, I quickly found this:
今回 すぐに見付けたのは ー
00:57
The furthest point from the center of the Earth
地球の中心から最も遠い地点が
01:00
is not the tip of Mount Everest, like I might have thought,
エベレスト山の頂上ではなく
01:02
it's the tip of this mountain: Mount Chimborazo in Ecuador.
エクアドルのチンボラーゾ山の頂上だ という事
01:05
The Earth spins, of course, as it travels around the sun,
地球は回転しながら 太陽をまわるので
01:08
so the Earth bulges a little bit around the middle,
真ん中辺りが少し膨らみます
01:12
like some Earthlings.
一部地球人のように—
01:14
And even though Mount Chimborazo isn't the tallest mountain in the Andes,
アンデス山脈の中でさえ
最高峰ではないですが
01:15
it's one degree away from the equator,
赤道から緯度で1度
01:20
it's riding that bulge, and so the summit of Chimborazo
地球の膨らみの上にある
チンボラーゾは
01:21
is the farthest point on Earth from the center of the Earth.
中心から最も遠いのです
01:24
And it is really fun to say.
発音がとても心地良いので
01:28
So I immediately decided,
突然ながら 決めました
01:31
this is going to be the name of the game,
これをゲームの名前にします
01:32
or my new exclamation.
感嘆詞にしても良いですね
01:33
You can use it at TED.
TEDでも使って下さい
01:35
Chimborazo, right?
チンボラーゾです
01:36
It's like "eureka" and "bingo" had a baby.
“ユリイカ” と “ビンゴ” の子供です
01:37
I didn't know that;
「知らなかったよ!
01:39
that's pretty cool.
そいつは良いね!
01:41
Chimborazo!
チンボラーゾ!! 」
01:42
So the next rule of the game is also pretty simple.
2つ目のルールも簡単です
01:44
You just have to find another term and look that up.
他の言葉を見つけ 調べるだけです
01:48
Now in the old days, that meant getting out a volume
昔ならば
百科事典の別の巻にいって
01:50
and browsing through it alphabetically,
ページをめくっていました
01:53
maybe getting sidetracked,
途中の脱線も
01:54
that was fun.
また楽しい
01:55
Nowadays there are hundreds of links to choose from.
今なら リンクが山ほどあって
01:56
I can go literally anywhere in the world,
文字通り世界中に飛べます
01:59
I think since I was already in Ecuador,
“エクアドル” は見たことがあるので
02:01
I just decided to click on the word "tropical."
“熱帯” をクリックすると
02:02
That took me to this wet and warm band of the tropics
地球を囲む
暑くて湿気った気候帯の
02:05
that encircles the Earth.
項目に飛びます
02:10
Now that's the Tropic of Cancer in the north
北端が北回帰線で
02:11
and the Tropic of Capricorn in the south,
南端が南回帰線だぐらいしか
02:14
that much I knew,
南端が南回帰線だぐらいしか
02:15
but I was surprised to learn this little fact:
知らなかった私が
驚いたのは
02:16
Those are not cartographers' lines,
回帰線が 緯度や ー
02:18
like latitude or the borders between nations,
国境といった 製図上の線でなくて
02:21
they are astronomical phenomena caused by the Earth's tilt,
地球の傾きで決まっていて
02:24
and they change.
さらには年々変化して
02:27
They move; they go up, they go down.
上や下に移り変わる事です
02:29
In fact, for years, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
実際の所 近年は 回帰線は
02:31
have been steadily drifting towards the equator
赤道方向に 年に15mほど
02:34
at the rate of about 15 meters per year,
動き続けています
02:37
and nobody told me that.
誰も教えてくれなかった
02:40
I didn't know it.
全く知りませんでした
02:41
Chimborazo!
チンボラーゾ!
02:42
So to keep the game going, I just have to find another term and look that one up.
続けましょう
新しい言葉を探します
02:43
Since I'm already in the tropics, I chose "Tropical rainforest."
今 “熱帯” を見ているので
“熱帯雨林” を選びましょう
02:49
Famous for its diversity, human diversity.
多様性 特に人種的多様性で知られています
02:53
There are still dozens and dozens of uncontacted tribes living on this planet.
まだ多数の未接触部族が
地球上にいて
02:55
They're all over the globe, but virtually all of them live in tropical rainforests.
全て熱帯雨林にいるわけです
03:00
This is the only place you can go nowadays and not get "friended."
今や “友達申請” されずに済む
地上で唯一の場所ですね
03:05
The link that I clicked on here was exotic in the beginning and then absolutely mysterious at the very end.
この項目は エキゾチックに始まり
神秘的に終わります
03:10
It mentioned leopards and ring-tailed coatis and poison dart frogs and boa constrictors and then
ヒョウやアカハナグマ
ヤドクガエル アカオボア そして
03:19
coleoptera,
“鞘翅目” の事が載っていて
03:25
which turn out to be beetles.
“鞘翅目” とは甲虫類の事で
03:27
Now I clicked on this on purpose,
私とは違って
間違ってここに来た人には
03:31
but if I'd somehow gotten here by mistake,
音楽なら “ビートルズ” へ
03:33
it does remind me, for the band, see "The Beatles,"
車は “ワーゲンのビートル” へ
03:34
for the car see "Volkswagon Beetle,"
導いてくれます
03:37
but I am here for beetle beetles.
私は “甲虫類のビートル” を見に来ました
03:38
This is the most successful order on the planet by far.
この種は地球上で
圧倒的に数が多く
03:41
Something between 20 and 25 percent of all life forms on the planet,
植物を含めた
地球の全生物の20〜25%は
03:45
including plants, are beetles.
甲虫類なのです
03:49
That means the next time you are in the grocery store,
つまり 今度
食料でも買いに行って
03:51
take a look at the four people ahead of you in line.
レジに4人並んでいたら
03:53
Statistically, one of you is a beetle.
統計的には
その内の1人は甲虫類です
03:55
And if it is you, you are astonishingly well adapted.
もしそれが あなたなら
驚くほどよく適応していますね
03:58
There are scavenger beetles that pick the skin and flesh off of bones in museums.
骨格標本作りに使われる
腐肉食のカツオブシムシや
04:04
There are predator beetles, that attack other insects
他の虫を攻撃して
捕食する種類もいますが
04:09
and still look pretty cute to us.
まだまだ かわいらしく見えます
04:12
There are beetles that roll little balls of dung
幼虫のために動物のフンを転がして
04:14
great distances across the desert floor to feed to their hatchlings.
砂漠を越える種類までいます
04:17
This reminded the ancient Egyptians of their god Khepri,
このフンコロガシは 古代エジプトでは
04:21
who renews the ball of the sun every morning,
ケプリ神という 太陽をころがして
04:24
which is how that dung-rolling scarab
毎朝 作り替える神につながり
04:28
became that sacred scarab on the breastplate of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun.
ツタンカーメンの胸当てにも
彫刻されています
04:30
Beetles, I was reminded, have the most romantic flirtation in the animal kingdom.
甲虫類には 最もロマンチックに
愛を語る種類もいる
04:35
Fireflies are not flies, fireflies are beetles.
ホタルです
甲虫類で 鞘翅目です
04:41
Fireflies are coleoptera, and coleoptera communicate in other ways as well.
鞘翅目には他にも
コミュニケーション方法があって
04:44
Like my next link:
次のリンクですね
04:49
The chemical language of pheromones.
化学的言語である “フェロモン” です
04:50
Now the pheromone page took me to a video of a sea urchin having sex.
この項目から
ウニの性行動の映像にたどり着きました
04:53
Yeah.
やるねぇ
04:59
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:03
And the link to aphrodisiac.
次は “媚薬” へのリンクです
05:06
Now that's something that increases sexual desire,
性的欲望をかき立てる
05:08
possibly chocolate.
といえば チョコレートでしょう
05:10
There is a compound in chocolate called phenethylamine
チョコレートに含まれる
“フェネチルアミン” が
05:12
that might be an aphrodisiac.
媚薬らしいのですが
05:15
But as the article mentions,
記事によれば
05:17
because of enzyme breakdown,
口から摂取しても
05:19
it's unlikely that phenethylamine will reach your brain if taken orally.
酵素で分解されてしまうので
脳には届かないようです
05:20
So those of you who only eat your chocolate, you might have to experiment.
なのでチョコを食べてばかりいる人は
実験してみるといいかも
05:24
The link I clicked on here,
次にクリックしたリンクは
05:28
"sympathetic magic," mostly because I understand what both of those words mean.
“共感呪術” です
それぞれの言葉は知っていても
05:31
But not when they're together like that.
くっつけると分からない
05:37
I do like sympathy. I do like magic.
共感も好きだし
呪術も好きですよ
05:39
So when I click on "sympathetic magic,"
“共感呪術” をクリックすると
05:42
I get sympathetic magic and voodoo dolls.
“共感呪術” と “ブードゥー人形” が出ました
05:43
This is the boy in me getting lucky again.
子供の頃のツキが戻ってきましたね
05:48
Sympathetic magic is imitation.
共感呪術は模型を使います
05:50
If you imitate something, maybe you can have an effect on it.
何かの模型を作れば
それに影響を与えられる
05:52
That's the idea behind voodoo dolls, and possibly also cave paintings.
これがブードゥー人形の成り立ちですが
“洞窟絵画” も同じです
05:55
The link to cave paintings takes me to some of the oldest art known to humankind.
“洞窟絵画” へのリンクは
人類最古の芸術へと導いてくれます
05:59
I would love to see Google maps inside some of these caves.
グーグルマップで洞窟の中を
見られたら良いんですけどね
06:04
We've got tens-of-thousands-years-old artwork.
何万年も前の芸術です
06:06
Common themes around the globe include large wild animals and tracings of human hands,
世界中で共通する題材として
大型の野生動物と 人の手形があって
06:10
usually the left hand.
手形は だいたいが左手ですね
06:15
We have been a dominantly right-handed tribe for millenia,
何千年にわたって
右利き優勢の種だったわけです
06:17
so even though I don't know why a paleolithic person would trace his hand
だから 昔の人が手形をトレースしたり
絵の具を吹き付けたりした ー
06:22
or blow pigment on it from a tube,
“理由”はわかりませんが
06:27
I can easily picture how he did it.
“方法”は簡単に想像出来ますね
06:29
And I really don't think it's that different form our own little dominant hand avatar
そして これはパソコンで使われる
マウスカーソルとそっくりです
06:32
right there that I'm going to use now to click on the term for "hand,"
今まさに “手” の項目を
クリックしつつあるやつです
06:36
go to the page for "hand," where I found the most fun and possibly embarrassing bit of trivia
“手” の項目では面白いけれど
戸惑ってしまう事を見つけました
06:39
I've found in a long time. It's simply this:
この年になるまで知りませんでしたが
06:46
The back of the hand is formally called the opisthenar.
手の甲の事を正式には
“opisthenar” と呼ぶのです
06:48
Now that's embarrassing, because up until now,
これには面食らいました
というのも 今まで
06:52
every time I've said, "I know it like the back of my hand,"
“手の甲のように知っているよ”
という言葉を
06:56
I've really been saying, "I'm totally familiar with that,
“隅から隅まで知っているよ”
という意味で使っていましたが
06:59
I just don't know it's freaking name, right?"
実際はその正式名すら
知らなかったのですよ
07:01
And the link I clicked on here,
次にクリックするのは
07:04
well, lemurs, monkeys and chimpanzees have the little opisthenar.
キツネザルやチンパンジーなども
“opisthenar” を持っていますね
07:07
I click on chimpanzee, and I get our closest genetic relative.
“チンパンジー” にしましょう
ヒトに最も近い種ですね
07:12
Pan troglodytes, the name we give him, means "cave dweller."
パン・トログロディテスという学名は
“洞窟の住人” の意味ですが
07:16
He doesn't.
洞窟には住んでいません
07:20
He lives in rainforests and savannas.
熱帯雨林やサバンナに居住しています
07:21
It's just that we're always thinking of this guy as lagging behind us,
人間はチンパンジーが
自分達より遅れていると思っていますね
07:23
evolutionarily or somehow uncannily creeping up on us,
進化の上で 不気味に 後から
ヒトに迫っていると
07:26
and in some cases, he gets places before us.
でもときには
人間の先を行く場合があります
07:29
Like my next link, the almost irresistible link, Ham the Astrochimp.
どうしてもクリックしてしまうリンク
“宇宙チンパンジー・ハム”
07:33
I click on him, and I really thought he was going to bring me full circle twice, in fact.
このリンクをクリックしたことで
二つの輪が閉じました
07:38
He's born in Cameroon,
ハムはカメルーン生まれで
07:42
which is smack in the middle of my tropics map,
先ほど見た “熱帯” のど真ん中ですね
07:44
and more specifically his skeleton wound up in the Smithsonian museum getting picked clean by beetles.
最後はスミソニアン博物館で骨格標本になり
カツオブシムシに綺麗にされた
07:47
In between those two landmarks in Ham's life,
この2つの出来事の間に
07:54
he flew into space.
ハムは宇宙に行きました
07:57
He experienced weightlessness and re-entry
無重力体験をし 地球に再突入
07:59
months before the first human being to do it,
人類初の宇宙飛行はその数ヶ月後
08:02
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.
ソ連の宇宙飛行士
“ユーリ・ガガーリン” ですね
08:05
When I click on Yuri Gagarin's page,
“ガガーリン” の項目をクリックしましょう
08:08
I get this guy who was surprisingly short in stature,
驚くほど 小さな体に
とてつもない 勇気を秘めた
08:10
huge in heroism.
彼がガガーリンです
08:13
Top estimates, Soviet estimates, put this guy at 1.65 meters,
ソ連で最高の評価を下された
この165cmにも満たない男
08:14
that is less than five and a half feet tall max,
つまり5フィート半もないわけですが
08:19
possibly because he was malnourished as a child.
これはたぶん 彼が子供の頃
栄養失調気味だったからで
08:22
Germans occupied Russia.
ナチスがロシアを占領した時
08:25
A Nazi officer took over the Gagarin household,
ガガーリンの家も ナチの将校に占拠され
08:27
and he and his family built and lived in a mud hut.
一家は泥で作ったあばら屋に住んでいました
08:30
Years later, the boy from that cramped mud hut
狭苦しい泥の家で育った少年は
08:33
would grow up to be the man in that cramped capsule
何年も後に 狭いカプセルの中の男になったのです
08:37
on the tip of a rocket
ロケットの先端のカプセルです
08:40
who volunteered to be launched into outer space,
宇宙に飛び出す事を志願して
08:42
the first one of any of us to really physically leave this planet.
本当の意味で始めて 物理的に
地球から離れた人物となったのです
08:45
And he didn't just leave it,
単に地球から離れただけではありません
08:50
he circled it once.
地球を一周したのです
08:51
Fifty years later, as a tribute,
50年周年を記念して
08:53
the International Space Station, which is still up there tonight,
国際宇宙ステーションが
まだその辺を飛んでいるやつですが
08:56
synced its orbit with Gagarin's orbit,
その軌道をガガーリンの軌道と一致させました
09:00
at the exact same time of day,
日付と時間まで正確に
09:04
and filmed it,
そして映像に残しました
09:05
so you can go online and you can watch over 100 minutes
ネットで
その100分以上にわたる
09:06
of what must have been an absolutely mesmerizing ride,
とてつもない魅惑と寂しさに満ちた飛行の
09:10
possibly a lonely one,
映像を見られます
09:13
the first person to ever see such a thing.
この光景を始めて観た人物の視点です
09:15
And then when you've had your fill of that,
それを堪能したら
09:17
you can click on one more link.
もうひとつだけ
リンクをクリックして
09:18
You can come back to Earth.
“地球” の項目に戻ります
09:21
You return to where you started.
始まりの場所に戻ってきました
09:22
You can finish your game.
これでゲームはお終いですが
09:24
You just need to find one more fact that you didn't know.
最後にもう1つだけ
新しい発見を探して下さい
09:27
And for me, I quickly landed on this one:
私の場合は
すぐに見つかりました
09:30
The Earth has a tolerance of about .17 percent from the reference spheroid,
地球は 完全な球体と比べて
0.17%の誤差があって
09:33
which is less than the .22 percent allowed in billiard balls.
これはビリヤードの球に認められる
0.22%の誤差よりも小さいのです
09:38
This is the kind of fact I would have loved as a boy.
こういう種類の話が
子供の頃の私は大好きでした
09:42
I found it myself.
自分で見つけた事実です
09:44
It's got some math that I can do.
私でも出来る計算で求められます
09:45
I'm pretty sure my dad doesn't know it.
私の父もこんな事は
絶対に知らないでしょう
09:48
What this means is that if you could shrink the Earth to the size of a billiard ball,
つまり もし地球を
ビリヤードの球の大きさに縮めたら
09:50
if you could take planet Earth, with all its mountain tops and caves
地球上の 山や洞窟
09:55
and rainforests, astronauts and uncontacted tribes and chimpanzees, voodoo dolls,
熱帯雨林 宇宙飛行士 未接触部族
チンパンジー ブードゥー人形
10:01
fireflies, chocolate, sea creatures making love in the deep blue sea,
蛍 チョコレート 深海で性行動をとる
海洋生物 全部ひっくるめて
10:06
you just shrink that to the size of a billiard ball,
地球をビリヤードの球のサイズまで縮めたら
10:11
it would be as smooth as a billiard ball,
それはビリヤードの球と同じくらい
滑らかな球体になるのです
10:15
presumably a billiard ball with a slight bulge around the middle.
ほんの少し真ん中がでっぱったやつですね
10:19
That's pretty cool.
「最高じゃないか
10:23
I didn't know that.
知らなかったよ
10:26
Chimborazo!
チンボラーゾ!!」
10:28
Thank you.
ありがとう!
10:30
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:31
Translated by TSUKAWAKI KAZU 塚脇 和
Reviewed by Yasushi Aoki

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About the Speaker:

Rives - Performance poet, multimedia artist
Performance artist and storyteller Rives has been called "the first 2.0 poet," using images, video and technology to bring his words to life.

Why you should listen

Part poet, part storyteller, part philosopher, Rives is the co-host of TEDActive as well as a frequent TED speaker. On stage, his poems burst in many directions, exposing multiple layers and unexpected treats: childhood memories, grown-up humor, notions of love and lust, of what is lost forever and of what's still out there waiting to unfold. Chimborazo.

A regular on HBO's Def Poetry Jam, Rives also starred alongside model Bar Refaeli in the 2008 Bravo special Ironic Iconic America, touring the United States on a "roller coaster ride through the eye-popping panorama of American pop culture." Flat pages can't contain his storytelling, even when paper is his medium. The pop-up books he creates for children unfold with surprise: The Christmas Pop-Up Present expands to reveal moving parts, hidden areas and miniature booklets inside. 

His latest project—the Museum of Four in the Morning—is an ode to a time that may well be part of a global conspiracy. In a good way.  

More profile about the speaker
Rives | Speaker | TED.com