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Stanley McChrystal: The military case for sharing knowledge

スタンリー・マッククリスタル: 軍隊において情報を共有することについて

March 20, 2014

スタンリー・マッククリスタル将軍が2003年にアルカイーダと対峙していた時、情報と秘密保護は軍事行動における生命線と考えられていました。しかし、従来とは異なる戦いを遂行するにつれて、彼は重要な情報を機密化する軍の文化は、誤った方向へと導き、時に理に反すると考え始めました。短いながらも力強いトークで、マッククリスタルは情報を積極的に共有することについて語ります。

Stanley McChrystal - Military leader
General Stanley McChrystal is the former commander of U.S. and International forces in Afghanistan. A four-star general, he is credited for creating a revolution in warfare that fuses intelligence and operations. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
When I was a young officer, they told me
自分が若き将校だった時
00:12
to follow my instincts,
直感に従え
00:14
to go with my gut,
根性を出せと教えられました
00:16
and what I've learned
しかし経験で学んだことは
00:18
is that often our instincts are wrong.
直感はあまり頼りにならないということです
00:20
In the summer of 2010,
2010年の夏のことでした
00:25
there was a massive leak of classified documents
大量の秘密文書が
00:28
that came out of the Pentagon.
米国防省から漏えいし
00:31
It shocked the world,
世界を驚かせました
00:34
it shook up the American government,
米国政府は震撼し
00:36
and it made people ask a lot of questions,
国民は次々と質問を投げかけました
00:38
because the sheer amount of information
なぜならば 大量の情報が流出し
00:40
that was let out, and the potential impacts,
著しい影響を及ぼす
00:43
were significant.
可能性があったからです
00:46
And one of the first questions we asked ourselves
最初に我々が思ったことは
00:49
was why would a young soldier have access
なぜ若い兵士が これ程の情報を
00:53
to that much information?
アクセスできるのだろうか?
00:55
Why would we let sensitive things
何でこのような機密情報を
00:58
be with a relatively young person?
比較的若い者が
知ることができるのだろうか?
01:01
In the summer of 2003, I was assigned to command
2003年の夏のこと
01:05
a special operations task force,
私はある特殊任務につきました
01:08
and that task force was spread across the Mideast
我々機密部隊はアルカーイダと戦うため
01:11
to fight al Qaeda.
中東に分散して配置されました
01:13
Our main effort was inside Iraq,
特にイラクに重点を置いていて
01:14
and our specified mission
我々の任務はイラクにいる
01:17
was to defeat al Qaeda in Iraq.
アルカーイダを撲滅することでした
01:19
For almost five years I stayed there,
5年間近くそこにとどまり
01:21
and we focused on fighting a war
戦い続けました
01:24
that was unconventional and it was difficult
この戦いは従来とは異なるもので
困難なものであり
01:26
and it was bloody
血が飛び交い
01:31
and it often claimed its highest price
罪のない人々が
01:33
among innocent people.
犠牲になることもよくありました
01:36
We did everything we could
アルカーイダや外人傭兵部隊による
01:39
to stop al Qaeda
自殺テロや暴力の―
01:42
and the foreign fighters that
came in as suicide bombers
増長を防ぐために
あらゆることを行いました
01:44
and as accelerants to the violence.
増長を防ぐために
あらゆることを行いました
01:47
We honed our combat skills,
我々は戦闘スキルを研き
01:52
we developed new equipment,
新型の装備を開発し
01:54
we parachuted, we helicoptered,
パラシュートやヘリ
01:57
we took small boats, we drove, and we walked
小型のボート、車、歩行と
あらゆる手段で進軍し
01:59
to objectives night after night to stop
来る夜も来る夜も
02:02
the killing that this network was putting forward.
テロ集団による殺戮を阻止するために
移動を続けました
02:05
We bled,
我々の中にも血を流し
02:10
we died,
命を落とすものもいました
02:13
and we killed to stop that organization
我々も相手を殺しました
02:14
from the violence that they were putting
テロ組織による暴力を阻止するためです
02:19
largely against the Iraqi people.
テロの犠牲者の多くはイラク人でした
02:21
Now, we did what we knew,
さて 我々はそう教えられてきたこと
02:25
how we had grown up, and
one of the things that we knew,
DNAに組み込まれていたともいえる
02:28
that was in our DNA, was secrecy.
秘密保護の精神に従って
行動してきました
02:31
It was security. It was protecting information.
それは安全保障や
情報の保護を意味しました
02:34
It was the idea that information was the lifeblood
情報こそが生死を分けるほど
重要であり
02:36
and it was what would protect and keep people safe.
これこそが人々を保護し
安全を保つことだと考えられていたのです
02:38
And we had a sense that,
組織の中で任務を遂行するあたって
02:42
as we operated within our organizations,
持ち合わせている常識でした
02:44
it was important to keep information
特にミサイル地下貯蔵庫においては
02:46
in the silos within the organizations,
組織内から情報が漏れないようにし
02:48
particularly only give information
必要性を示し得た隊員にのみ
02:50
to people had a demonstrated need to know.
情報を与えることが重要でした
02:53
But the question often came, who needed to know?
しかし こんな疑問が
時々脳裏をよぎります
02:57
Who needed, who had to have the information
誰が情報を必要としているのか
重要な任務の一部を達成するために
03:02
so that they could do the important
parts of the job that you needed?
誰が情報を得るべきなのか?
03:05
And in a tightly coupled world,
互いが密接に関連している世界では
03:08
that's very hard to predict.
その答えを見出すことは
とても難しいことです
03:10
It's very hard to know who needs to have information
誰が情報を得るべきであり
03:13
and who doesn't.
誰がそうではないのか
03:16
I used to deal with intelligence agencies,
私は諜報機関とよくやりあい
03:18
and I'd complain that they weren't
sharing enough intelligence,
秘密情報が十分に共有されてないと
文句を言うと
03:20
and with a straight face, they'd
look at me and they'd say,
彼らは真顔で私を見て
こう言ったものです
03:22
"What aren't you getting?" (Laughter)
そんな情報知らないぞ(笑)
03:24
I said, "If I knew that, we wouldn't have a problem."
私は言い返しました 「あの情報を私が
知っていたら問題が起こらなかったのに」
03:26
But what we found is we had to change.
でも我々は 改めるべきだと分かったのです
03:32
We had to change our culture about information.
情報に関する考え方を
変えるべきだと
03:33
We had to knock down walls. We had to share.
古い考えを打破し
情報を共有すべきだったのです
03:36
We had to change from who needs to know
知るべき人は誰かという考えから
03:38
to the fact that who doesn't know,
誰が知らないのかと
考えを改めるべきでした
03:41
and we need to tell, and tell
them as quickly as we can.
情報をもたない人に なるべく早く
情報を伝達すべきなのです
03:43
It was a significant culture shift for an organization
組織のDNAに組み込まれた―
03:46
that had secrecy in its DNA.
秘密主義を変えるという
カルチャーの大変革でした
03:49
We started by doing things, by building,
まず始めたことは建物の中で
03:55
not working in offices,
個部屋で働くことをやめ
03:57
knocking down walls, working in things we called
壁を取り払い
03:59
situation awareness rooms,
状況認識室という場所で働くことにしました
04:00
and in the summer of 2007,
2007年の夏のことです
04:03
something happened which demonstrated this.
こんな変化の兆しがありました
04:05
We captured the personnel records
イラクで戦う外人傭兵を
リクルートする人達の
04:07
for the people who were bringing foreign fighters
イラクで戦う外人傭兵を
リクルートする人達の
04:09
into Iraq.
個人情報を入手しました
04:11
And when we got the personnel records, typically,
このような個人情報は
通常 機密扱いにし
04:13
we would have hidden these,
このような個人情報は
通常 機密扱いにし
04:15
shared them with a few intelligence agencies,
限られた機関とだけ情報を共有し
04:16
and then try to operate with them.
任務を遂行しようとします
04:19
But as I was talking to my intelligence officer,
しかし私が諜報部の将校に
04:21
I said, "What do we do?"
「どうしましょうか」
04:23
And he said, "Well, you found them." Our command.
と尋ねたとき
「君が見つけ出したんだ」
04:23
"You can just declassify them."
「君が機密扱いを解いても構わないよ]
04:27
And I said, "Well, can we declassify them?
私は「機密扱いを解いていいのですか
04:29
What if the enemy finds out?"
もし敵が見つけたら?」
04:31
And he says, "They're their personnel records."
「彼ら自身の個人情報だろう」
04:32
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:34
So we did,
それで そうしました
04:36
and a lot of people got upset about that,
このようなやり方に
戸惑う人も多くいましたが
04:37
but as we passed that information around,
情報が伝わっていくにつれて
04:39
suddenly you find that information is only of value
そのような情報は
04:41
if you give it to people who have the ability
利用の仕方を知っている人にしか
04:44
to do something with it.
価値がないのだと直ぐに分かってきます
04:46
The fact that I know something has zero value
私自身が知っていても無価値で
04:48
if I'm not the person who can actually
役に立つことがなく
04:50
make something better because of it.
他の人なら有効に利用できることもあります
04:52
So as a consequence, what we did was
そこで我々は
04:54
we changed the idea of information,
情報に関する考えを改めました
04:55
instead of knowledge is power,
情報の秘匿が力になると
考えるのではなく
04:59
to one where sharing is power.
共有することが力になるのだと
05:01
It was the fundamental shift,
これは根本的な変革です
05:04
not new tactics, not new weapons,
新しい戦術、兵器、新しい何か―
05:06
not new anything else.
というものではありません
05:08
It was the idea that we were now part of a team
我々はチームの一員であるという考えてあり
05:09
in which information became the essential link
そこでは情報がチームを結びつける
05:12
between us, not a block between us.
根本的な要素であり 我々内部の
障壁となってはならないということです
05:14
And I want everybody to take a deep breath
みなさんに深く息を吸って
05:19
and let it out,
そして吐き出してほしいのです
05:22
because in your life, there's going to be information
人生において
あなたが望まないような
05:24
that leaks out you're not going to like.
情報が漏れることもあるでしょう
05:26
Somebody's going to get my college grades out,
誰かが私の大学での成績を
ばらすかもしれません
05:28
a that's going to be a disaster. (Laughter)
そうなったら災難です
(笑)
05:30
But it's going to be okay, and I will tell you that
でもそれでも構わないのです
正直言えば
05:34
I am more scared of the bureaucrat
私の個人情報が誰かに漏らされるより
05:38
that holds information in a desk drawer
情報を机の引き出しや
金庫にしまい込んでしまう
05:41
or in a safe than I am of someone who leaks,
官僚主義の方をもっと恐れています
05:43
because ultimately, we'll be better off if we share.
情報を共有した方が結局のところ
上手くいくからです
05:46
Thank you.
どうも有難うございました
05:49
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:51
Helen Walters: So I don't know if
you were here this morning,
あなたに今朝ここに来て頂けるか
05:57
if you were able to catch Rick Ledgett,
また今週の初め
エドワード・スノーデンに反論するために
05:59
the deputy director of the NSA
NSAの副長官リック・レジェットに
06:01
who was responding to Edward
Snowden's talk earlier this week.
お越し頂けるか定かではありませんでした
06:03
I just wonder, do you think the American government
あなたは合衆国政府が
06:06
should give Edward Snowden amnesty?
エドワード・スノーデンことを
許すべきだと思いますか?
06:09
Stanley McChrystal: I think that
Rick said something very important.
私はリックがとても重要なことを
述べていたと思います
06:11
We, most people, don't know all the facts.
我々国民は事実の全てを
知らされていません
06:14
I think there are two parts of this.
2つの側面があると思いますが
06:17
Edward Snowden shined a
light on an important need
エドワード・スノーデンは
国民が事実を知らなければならないことの
06:18
that people had to understand.
重要性について焦点をあてました
06:22
He also took a lot of documents that he didn't have
一方 彼は
彼自身がその重要性を判断できない
06:23
the knowledge to know the importance of,
文書をも大量に持ち出しました
06:26
so I think we need to learn the facts about this case
ですから 早急な判断を下すのではなく
06:29
before we make snap judgments
エドワード・スノーデンに関する
この出来事の事実を良く調べるべきです
06:31
about Edward Snowden.
エドワード・スノーデンに関する
この出来事の事実を良く調べるべきです
06:33
HW: Thank you so much. Thank you.
どうも有難うございました
06:35
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:37
Translator:Tomoyuki Suzuki
Reviewer:Tatsuru Ishikawa

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Stanley McChrystal - Military leader
General Stanley McChrystal is the former commander of U.S. and International forces in Afghanistan. A four-star general, he is credited for creating a revolution in warfare that fuses intelligence and operations.

Why you should listen

With a remarkable record of achievement, General Stanley McChrystal has been praised for creating a revolution in warfare that fused intelligence and operations. A four-star general, he is the former commander of U.S. and international forces in Afghanistan and the former leader of Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC), which oversees the military’s most sensitive forces. McChrystal’s leadership of JSOC is credited with the December 2003 capture of Saddam Hussein and the June 2006 location and killing of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq. McChrystal, a former Green Beret, is known for his candor.

After McChrystal graduated from West Point, he was commissioned as an infantry officer, and spent much of his career commanding special operations and airborne infantry units. During the Persian Gulf War, McChrystal served in a Joint Special Operations Task Force and later commanded the 75th Ranger Regiment. He completed year-long fellowships at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government in 1997 and in 2000 at the Council on Foreign Relations. In 2002, he was appointed chief of staff of military operations in Afghanistan. Two years later, McChrystal was selected to deliver nationally televised Pentagon briefings about military operations in Iraq. From 2003 to 2008, McChrystal commanded JSOC and was responsible for leading the nation’s deployed military counter-terrorism efforts around the globe. He assumed command of all International Forces in Afghanistan in June 2009. President Obama’s order for an additional 30,000 troops to Afghanistan was based on McChrystal’s assessment of the war there. McChrystal retired from the military in August 2010.

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