10:50
TED Talks Live

Sal Khan: Let's teach for mastery -- not test scores

サルマン・カーン: 点数ではなく身に付けることを目指す教育

Filmed:

未完成の土台の上に家を建てようと思いますか? もちろんそんなことはしないでしょう。それならどうして教育においては、まだ基礎が出来ていないうちに先へと進めてしまうのでしょう? 難しい問題ですが、教育者のサルマン・カーンが、自分のペースで習得していくのを助けることで落ちこぼれつつある生徒を好学の士へと変えられるプランを話してくれます。

- Educator and social entrepreneur
In 2004, Sal Khan, a hedge fund analyst, began posting math tutorials on YouTube. Twelve years later, Khan Academy has more than 42 million registered users from 190 countries, with tutorials on subjects from basic math through economics, art history, computer science, health, medicine and more. Full bio

I'm here today to talk about
the two ideas that,
今日 お話しするのは
00:12
at least based on
my observations at Khan Academy,
カーン・アカデミーを
見守ってきた中で
00:15
are kind of the core,
or the key leverage points for learning.
私が学習の要だと思う
2つのもの ―
00:18
And it's the idea of mastery
習得について
00:22
and the idea of mindset.
そしてマインドセットについてです
00:24
I saw this in the early days
working with my cousins.
これは昔 従兄弟たちに
教えていて気付いたことですが
00:26
A lot of them were having trouble
with math at first,
子供達の多くが
数学で躓くようになるのは
00:28
because they had all of these gaps
accumulated in their learning.
学習過程で知識の穴が
蓄積されているためなんです
00:31
And because of that, at some point
they got to an algebra class
代数を学び始めたとき
00:34
and they might have been a little bit
shaky on some of the pre-algebra,
それ以前の知識に
怪しいところがあって
00:37
and because of that, they thought
they didn't have the math gene.
そのせいで自分には数学の才能が
ないんだと思い込みます
00:40
Or they'd get to a calculus class,
あるいは解析を学び始めたとき
00:44
and they'd be a little bit
shaky on the algebra.
その基礎になる代数に
怪しいところがあって躓きます
00:46
I saw it in the early days
数学のビデオをYouTubeに
アップするようになって
00:48
when I was uploading
some of those videos on YouTube,
それをまた目にしました
00:50
and I realized that people
who were not my cousins were watching.
まず気付いたのは 見ているのが
従兄弟達じゃないということでしたけど —
00:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:57
And at first, those comments
were just simple thank-yous.
当初のコメントは単に
「ありがとう」というものでしたが
00:59
I thought that was a pretty big deal.
これは大したことでした
01:03
I don't know how much time
you all spend on YouTube.
皆さんどれくらいYouTubeを
見ているか知りませんが
01:05
Most of the comments are not "Thank you."
「ありがとう」なんてコメントは
あまりお目にかからないはずです
01:07
(Laughter)
(笑)
01:09
They're a little edgier than that.
もっとトゲがあるのが普通です
01:11
But then the comments
got a little more intense,
コメント内容は その後
濃くなっていき
01:12
student after student saying
that they had grown up not liking math.
成長につれ数学が嫌いになった
という生徒が相次いで現れました
01:15
It was getting difficult as they got
into more advanced math topics.
先に進むにつれ
難しくなっていき
01:19
By the time they got to algebra,
代数を学ぶ頃には
ついていけなくなるくらい
01:22
they had so many gaps in their knowledge
they couldn't engage with it.
知識の穴が
大きくなっています
01:24
They thought they didn't
have the math gene.
それで自分は数学に
向いていないと思うのです
01:27
But when they were a bit older,
しかし少し年を経て
01:29
they took a little agency
and decided to engage.
主体的に勉強してみよう
という気になって
01:31
They found resources like Khan Academy
カーン・アカデミーの
ようなものを見つけ
01:33
and they were able to fill in those gaps
and master those concepts,
知識の穴を埋めて
概念を習得すると
01:35
and that reinforced their mindset
that it wasn't fixed;
別に才能の問題ではなく
01:38
that they actually were capable
of learning mathematics.
数学だって やればできるという
マインドセットが強化されます
01:41
And in a lot of ways, this is how
you would master a lot of things in life.
これが世の中で様々なことを
身に付ける方法なんです
01:44
It's the way you would
learn a martial art.
武道を身に付けるのも
同じです
01:49
In a martial art, you would
practice the white belt skills
まず白帯の技が
01:51
as long as necessary,
できるようになるまで
練習します
01:54
and only when you've mastered it
それができて初めて
01:56
you would move on to become a yellow belt.
黄帯の技へと進みます
01:57
It's the way you learn
a musical instrument:
楽器演奏を学ぶのも
同じです
01:59
you practice the basic piece
over and over again,
基本的な曲を
何度も繰り返し練習し
02:01
and only when you've mastered it,
それがマスターできて
初めて
02:04
you go on to the more advanced one.
もっと難しい曲へと
進みます
02:05
But what we point out --
しかしこれは従来的な
02:07
this is not the way a traditional
academic model is structured,
私たちの多くが受けてきた
02:08
the type of academic model
that most of us grew up in.
学校教育の
やり方ではありません
02:13
In a traditional academic model,
従来的な学校教育では
02:16
we group students together,
usually by age,
通常 年齢ごとに
生徒をひとまとめにし
02:18
and around middle school,
中学くらいになると
02:20
by age and perceived ability,
年齢と成績でまとめて
02:22
and we shepherd them all
together at the same pace.
全員同じペースで教えます
02:23
And what typically happens,
典型的には
02:27
let's say we're in a middle school
pre-algebra class,
たとえば中学の
代数基礎で
02:28
and the current unit is on exponents,
指数を習うという場合
02:30
the teacher will give
a lecture on exponents,
まず先生が授業で
指数を説明し
02:32
then we'll go home, do some homework.
家で宿題をやり
02:34
The next morning,
we'll review the homework,
翌朝 宿題の答え合わせをし
02:37
then another lecture, homework,
lecture, homework.
それから授業 宿題 授業 宿題と
繰り返して
02:39
That will continue for about
two or three weeks,
2、3週間後に
02:41
and then we get a test.
テストがあります
02:43
On that test, maybe I get a 75 percent,
テストでは
私が75%で
02:45
maybe you get a 90 percent,
彼は90%
02:48
maybe you get a 95 percent.
彼女は95%
という具合に
02:49
And even though the test identified
gaps in our knowledge,
知識の穴が
明らかになります
02:51
I didn't know 25 percent of the material.
私は25%
理解しておらず
02:54
Even the A student, what was
the five percent they didn't know?
Aを取った生徒でも
5%理解していないところがあります
02:56
Even though we've identified the gaps,
しかし知識に穴があると
分かっても
02:59
the whole class will then
move on to the next subject,
授業はそのまま
次の項目へと進みます
03:01
probably a more advanced subject
that's going to build on those gaps.
より高度な内容で
それが穴の上に積み上げられます
03:04
It might be logarithms
or negative exponents.
対数だったり
負の指数だったり
03:07
And that process continues,
and you immediately start to realize
それが続いていきます
03:10
how strange this is.
これがどんなに変なことか
お分かりになるでしょう
03:13
I didn't know 25 percent
of the more foundational thing,
基礎的なことの
25%が分からなかったのに
03:15
and now I'm being pushed
to the more advanced thing.
もっと高度な内容に
進ませられるんです
03:17
And this will continue for months, years,
all the way until at some point,
それが何ヶ月 何年と
続いていき
03:20
I might be in an algebra class
or trigonometry class
代数か三角関数か
どこかの時点で
03:24
and I hit a wall.
壁にぶつかります
03:26
And it's not because algebra
is fundamentally difficult
それは代数が
本質的に難しいからでも
03:27
or because the student isn't bright.
生徒の頭が
悪いからでもなく
03:30
It's because I'm seeing an equation
and they're dealing with exponents
30%理解していない
ところのある指数が
03:34
and that 30 percent
that I didn't know is showing up.
方程式の中に
出てくるためで
03:37
And then I start to disengage.
そうやって
取り残されていくんです
03:40
To appreciate how absurd that is,
これがどれほど馬鹿げているか
分かるように
03:44
imagine if we did other things
in our life that way.
別な領域になぞらえて
考えてみましょう
03:47
Say, home-building.
たとえば家の建築のような
03:51
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:52
So we bring in the contractor and say,
建築作業員を集めて言います
03:56
"We were told we have
two weeks to build a foundation.
「2週間で基礎を
作るようにとのことだ
04:00
Do what you can."
できるだけのことを
やってみよう」
04:02
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:04
So they do what they can.
それで
できることをやります
04:06
Maybe it rains.
雨が降るかもしれないし
04:08
Maybe some of the supplies don't show up.
必要な資材が
届かないかもしれません
04:09
And two weeks later,
the inspector comes, looks around,
2週間後に工事監督がやってきて
見て回ります
04:11
says, "OK, the concrete
is still wet right over there,
「あそこのコンクリートが
乾いてないし
04:15
that part's not quite up to code ...
この部分は
基準に合っていないな・・・
04:17
I'll give it an 80 percent."
80%の出来だ」
04:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:22
You say, "Great! That's a C.
Let's build the first floor."
「よし “C” だ
じゃあ1階部分に取りかかろうか」
04:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:26
Same thing.
同じようにして
04:27
We have two weeks, do what you can,
inspector shows up, it's a 75 percent.
2週間でやれるだけ
やることになり
04:28
Great, that's a D-plus.
工事監督がチェックし
「75%の出来」 「D+」となります
04:32
Second floor, third floor,
さらに2階 3階と進み
04:33
and all of a sudden,
while you're building the third floor,
3階に取り組んでいる最中に
04:34
the whole structure collapses.
建物全体が
突然崩れてしまいます
04:37
And if your reaction is the reaction
you typically have in education,
これに対して
学校教育における
04:38
or that a lot of folks have,
典型的な反応をするなら
04:42
you might say, maybe
we had a bad contractor,
業者が悪かったんだとか
04:43
or maybe we needed better inspection
or more frequent inspection.
もっと頻繁に 詳しく検査を
しなきゃいけないという話になります
04:45
But what was really broken
was the process.
しかし本当に問題があるのは
プロセスそのものなんです
04:48
We were artificially constraining
how long we had to something,
やるのにかける時間を
人為的に制限することで
04:51
pretty much ensuring a variable outcome,
結果に 出来・不出来を
出しています
04:54
and we took the trouble of inspecting
and identifying those gaps,
そして わざわざ検査の手間をかけて
欠陥を見つけたのに
04:56
but then we built right on top of it.
そのまま積み上げ続けています
05:00
So the idea of mastery learning
is to do the exact opposite.
「完全習得学習」では
これと正反対のやり方をします
05:01
Instead of artificially
constraining, fixing
従来式のように
05:04
when and how long you work on something,
学ぶ時期や期間を
人為的に固定して
05:07
pretty much ensuring
that variable outcome,
当然の結果として
05:09
the A, B, C, D, F --
優・良・可・不可と
05:11
do it the other way around.
バラツキを出すのとは逆に
05:13
What's variable is when and how long
学ぶ時期や期間は
05:15
a student actually has
to work on something,
生徒ごとに変えて
05:17
and what's fixed is that
they actually master the material.
実際に習得するという部分を
固定するのです
05:19
And it's important to realize
ここで重要なのは
05:23
that not only will this make the student
learn their exponents better,
指数などの概念を生徒が
良く学べるというだけでなく
05:25
but it'll reinforce
the right mindset muscles.
適切なマインドセットを
育めるということです
05:28
It makes them realize that if you got
20 percent wrong on something,
何かで20%間違えた
からといって
05:31
it doesn't mean that you have
a C branded in your DNA somehow.
別にDNAに “C” と
刻印されているわけではなく
05:34
It means that you should just
keep working on it.
ただ取り組み続ければいいんだ
05:38
You should have grit;
you should have perseverance;
やり抜く力
粘りが必要だ
05:40
you should take agency over your learning.
学習に主体的でなければ
ならないんだと分かります
05:43
Now, a lot of skeptics might say,
well, hey, this is all great,
懐疑的な人は
言うかもしれません
05:45
philosophically, this whole idea
of mastery-based learning
「そりゃ考えとしての
完全習得学習や
05:48
and its connection to mindset,
それによるマインドセット
生徒の主体性は
05:51
students taking agency
over their learning.
素晴らしいものだし
言っていることは分かるが
05:53
It makes a lot of sense,
but it seems impractical.
現実的じゃない
05:55
To actually do it, every student
would be on their own track.
実践しようものなら
生徒の進度がバラバラになって
05:58
It would have to be personalized,
生徒ごとにカスタマイズした
課程が必要になり
06:01
you'd have to have private tutors
and worksheets for every student.
個人教師や個別の練習問題が
必要になる」
06:03
And these aren't new ideas --
これは別に新しい考え
というわけではありません
06:06
there were experiments
in Winnetka, Illinois, 100 years ago,
100年前にイリノイ州ウィネトカで
行われた実験で
06:08
where they did mastery-based learning
and saw great results,
完全習得学習によって
素晴らしい成果が出ましたが
06:11
but they said it wouldn't scale
because it was logistically difficult.
運用が大変で
規模拡大は無理ということでした
06:13
The teacher had to give different
worksheets to every student,
教師は生徒それぞれに
異なる課題を出し
06:17
give on-demand assessments.
個別に評価しなければなりません
06:20
But now today, it's no longer impractical.
しかし今日では
非現実的なことではありません
06:21
We have the tools to do it.
そのための道具があります
06:23
Students see an explanation
at their own time and pace?
生徒のペースに合わせて
説明を与える必要がある?
06:25
There's on-demand video for that.
それならオンデマンド・
ビデオがあります
06:27
They need practice? They need feedback?
練習問題が必要?
フィードバックが必要?
06:29
There's adaptive exercises
readily available for students.
生徒に合わせた
適応型の練習問題があります
06:31
And when that happens,
all sorts of neat things happen.
そして完全習得学習を行うとき
沢山の素晴らしいことが起こります
06:36
One, the students can actually
master the concepts,
生徒が概念をすっかり
習得できるだけでなく
06:38
but they're also building
their growth mindset,
成長のマインドセット
06:41
they're building grit, perseverance,
やり抜く力
粘り強さを身に付け
06:43
they're taking agency over their learning.
学習に対して
主体的になります
06:45
And all sorts of beautiful things
can start to happen
また教室でも
06:47
in the actual classroom.
様々な素晴らしいことが
起き始めます
06:50
Instead of it being focused
on the lecture,
授業を聞くだけでなく
06:52
students can interact with each other.
教室の中に
交流が生まれます
06:54
They can get deeper mastery
over the material.
内容をより深く
習得できるようになります
06:55
They can go into simulations,
Socratic dialogue.
シミュレーションや
ソクラテス的対話ができます
06:58
To appreciate what we're talking about
これが どういうことであり
07:00
and the tragedy of lost potential here,
失われている可能性が
どれだけ悲劇的か分かるように
07:03
I'd like to give a little bit
of a thought experiment.
ちょっと思考実験をしてみましょう
07:07
If we were to go 400 years
into the past to Western Europe,
400年前の西欧に
行ったとします
07:10
which even then, was one of the more
literate parts of the planet,
当時でも地球上で最も
識字率が高かった地域で
07:16
you would see that about 15 percent
of the population knew how to read.
人口の15%くらいは
文字が読めたでしょう
07:19
And I suspect that if you asked someone
who did know how to read,
誰か字の読める人
07:23
say a member of the clergy,
聖職者のような人に
07:27
"What percentage of the population
do you think is even capable of reading?"
「字が読めるようになり得る人の割合は
どれくらいだろうか?」と聞いたら
07:29
They might say, "Well,
with a great education system,
「優れた教育システムがあれば
07:32
maybe 20 or 30 percent."
20〜30%の人が読めるように
なるかもしれない」と答えるでしょう
07:36
But if you fast forward to today,
しかし今日から見れば
07:39
we know that that prediction
would have been wildly pessimistic,
その答えが悲観的すぎるのが
分かります
07:41
that pretty close to 100 percent
of the population is capable of reading.
実際 ほぼ100%に近い人が
字を読めるようになります
07:44
But if I were to ask you
a similar question:
似た質問を考えてみましょう
07:48
"What percentage of the population
do you think is capable
「本当に微積分を
マスターできる人は
07:51
of truly mastering calculus,
どれくらいの割合だろうか?
07:55
or understanding organic chemistry,
あるいは有機化学を
理解できる人は?
07:57
or being able to contribute
to cancer research?"
あるいはガン研究に貢献
できる人は?」
08:00
A lot of you might say, "Well,
with a great education system,
多くの人は言うでしょう
「優れた教育システムがあれば
08:04
maybe 20, 30 percent."
20〜30%の人が
出来るようになるかもしれない」
08:07
But what if that estimate
しかし そのような
予想が単に
08:09
is just based on your own experience
in a non-mastery framework,
習得に基づかない
教育における経験
08:11
your own experience with yourself
or observing your peers,
みんな同じペースで
進ませられ
08:14
where you're being pushed
at this set pace through classes,
知識の穴が蓄積されていく教室で
自身が体験したことや
08:17
accumulating all these gaps?
周りの人を観察した結果から
来ているのだとしたら?
08:20
Even when you got that 95 percent,
Aを取って
95%できたとしても
08:21
what was that five percent you missed?
落とした5%は
何だったのか?
08:23
And it keeps accumulating --
you get to an advanced class,
穴は蓄積されていき
08:25
all of a sudden you hit a wall and say,
高度な内容に進んだとき
突然壁にぶつかって
08:27
"I'm not meant to be a cancer researcher;
「ガン研究なんて自分には無理だ」とか
08:29
not meant to be a physicist;
not meant to be a mathematician."
「物理学は向いてない」とか
「数学は向いてない」と思うんです
08:31
I suspect that that actually is the case,
それが実際に起きていることでは
と思いますが
08:34
but if you were allowed to be operating
in a mastery framework,
もし 完全習得の
枠組みでやっていけ
08:36
if you were allowed to really
take agency over your learning,
学習に対して
真に主体的になれ
08:40
and when you get something wrong,
間違いを歓迎し
08:43
embrace it -- view that failure
as a moment of learning --
できなかったことを
学びの機会ととらえるなら
08:45
that number, the percent
that could really master calculus
微積分をマスターしたり
08:48
or understand organic chemistry,
有機化学を理解したり
できる人の割合は
08:52
is actually a lot closer to 100 percent.
100%に近いものに
なるでしょう
08:54
And this isn't even just a "nice to have."
これは「あれば結構なもの」
ではありません
08:57
I think it's a social imperative.
社会的要請です
09:01
We're exiting what you could call
the industrial age
工業化時代と
呼ばれた時代は過ぎ
09:03
and we're going into
this information revolution.
情報革命の時代に
入っていきます
09:07
And it's clear that some
things are happening.
そこで起きつつある
ことがあります
09:11
In the industrial age,
society was a pyramid.
工業化時代には
社会はピラミッド型でした
09:13
At the base of the pyramid,
you needed human labor.
ピラミッドの底辺には
多くの労働者が必要です
09:15
In the middle of the pyramid,
you had an information processing,
ピラミッドの真ん中には
09:21
a bureaucracy class,
情報処理をする人や
官僚がいて
09:24
and at the top of the pyramid,
you had your owners of capital
頂点に資産家や
09:26
and your entrepreneurs
起業家や
09:29
and your creative class.
「創造的階級」 がいます
09:31
But we know what's happening already,
しかし情報革命が進む中で
09:33
as we go into this information revolution.
すでにご承知のとおり
09:35
The bottom of that pyramid,
automation, is going to take over.
ピラミッドの底辺で
仕事が機械に奪われていきます
09:37
Even that middle tier,
information processing,
真ん中の情報処理にしても
09:40
that's what computers are good at.
コンピューターの
得意とするところです
09:43
So as a society, we have a question:
社会として
問うべき質問があります
09:44
All this new productivity is happening
because of this technology,
テクノロジーが生産性を
劇的に変えるとき
09:46
but who participates in it?
そこに参加できるのは誰か?
09:49
Is it just going to be that very top
of the pyramid, in which case,
ピラミッドの頂点に
いる人たちだけでは?
09:51
what does everyone else do?
そうなったら
他の人たちは
09:54
How do they operate?
いったい
どうしたらいいのか?
09:55
Or do we do something
that's more aspirational?
あるいは 何かもっと
野心的なことをしては?
09:56
Do we actually attempt
to invert the pyramid,
ピラミッドをひっくり返して
09:59
where you have a large creative class,
創造的階級を
大多数にし
10:02
where almost everyone
can participate as an entrepreneur,
ほとんどの人が
起業や芸術や研究に
10:04
an artist, as a researcher?
携われるようにするとか?
10:08
And I don't think that this is utopian.
これは別に夢物語だとは
思いません
10:10
I really think that this
is all based on the idea
完全習得の考え方と
10:12
that if we let people
tap into their potential
学習に対して主体的に
なることによって
10:15
by mastering concepts,
人々の潜在能力が
10:17
by being able to exercise agency
over their learning,
発揮されるようになれば
10:19
that they can get there.
そこへ到ることが
できると思います
10:22
And when you think of it
as just a citizen of the world,
世界市民として
そのことを考えると
10:24
it's pretty exciting.
ワクワクします
10:28
I mean, think about
the type of equity we can we have,
そうやって可能になる
世界の公平さや
10:29
and the rate at which civilization
could even progress.
文明が進歩する速さを
考えてみてください
10:32
And so, I'm pretty optimistic about it.
私はそのことについて
楽観的です
10:36
I think it's going to be
a pretty exciting time to be alive.
生きているのが素晴らしい時代に
なると思います
10:38
Thank you.
どうもありがとう
10:42
(Applause)
(拍手)
10:43
Translated by Yasushi Aoki
Reviewed by Emi Kamiya

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About the Speaker:

Sal Khan - Educator and social entrepreneur
In 2004, Sal Khan, a hedge fund analyst, began posting math tutorials on YouTube. Twelve years later, Khan Academy has more than 42 million registered users from 190 countries, with tutorials on subjects from basic math through economics, art history, computer science, health, medicine and more.

Why you should listen

Salman "Sal" Khan is the founder and chief executive officer of Khan Academy, a not-for-profit with a mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.

Khan Academy started as a passion project in 2004. Khan's cousin was struggling with math, so he tutored her remotely and posted educational videos on YouTube. So many people watched the videos that eventually Khan quit his job at a hedge fund and pursued Khan Academy full time. Today Khan Academy has more than 100 employees in Mountain View, California. Khan Academy believes learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. Its resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, grammar, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance and history. Additionally, Khan Academy offers free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. More than 42 million registered users access Khan Academy in dozens of languages across 190 countries.

Khan has been profiled by "60 Minutes," featured on the cover of Forbes, and recognized as one of TIME’s "100 Most Influential People in the World." In his book, The One World Schoolhouse: Education Reimagined, Sal outlines his vision for the future of education.

Khan holds three degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard Business School.

More profile about the speaker
Sal Khan | Speaker | TED.com