19:12
TEDGlobal 2009

Rory Sutherland: Life lessons from an ad man

ロリー・サザーランド:広告マンの人生の教訓

Filmed:

宣伝広告は、製品そのものを変えるのでなく、私たちの見方を変えることで製品の価値を高めます。ロリー・サザーランドは「知覚価値を変えることで、私たちの思う『実際の価値』と同様の満足感を与えることができる」と大胆な主張をし、私たちの人生観に興味深い影響を与える結論を提示します。

- Advertising guru
Rory Sutherland stands at the center of an advertising revolution in brand identities, designing cutting-edge, interactive campaigns that blur the line between ad and entertainment. Full bio

This is my first time at TED. Normally, as an advertising man,
TEDでの講演は初めてです 広告マンなので
00:15
I actually speak at TED Evil, which is TED's secret sister
いつもはお金を儲ける側のTEDの秘密組織
00:18
that pays all the bills.
「悪のTED」で講演しています
00:21
It's held every two years in Burma.
2年に一度ミャンマーで開催され
00:24
And I particularly remember a really good speech
特に良かった演説は 金正日の
00:27
by Kim Jong Il on how to get teens smoking again.
「若者に喫煙を再開させる方法」です
00:30
(Laughter)
(笑)
00:33
But, actually, it's suddenly come to me after years working in the business,
広告業界で長年働き 気付いたのは
00:35
that what we create in advertising,
宣伝広告で作り上げる無形価値―
00:37
which is intangible value -- you might call it perceived value,
言い換えれば知覚価値
00:40
you might call it badge value, subjective value,
またはブランド価値 主観価値
00:42
intangible value of some kind --
こうした何かしらの無形価値が
00:45
gets rather a bad rap.
少々悪者扱いされていることです
00:47
If you think about it, if you want to live in a world in the future
モノが少ない環境で
00:49
where there are fewer material goods, you basically have two choices.
将来暮らすことを考えると 基本的に選択肢は2つあります
00:51
You can either live in a world which is poorer,
一般的に敬遠される
00:55
which people in general don't like.
貧困の中で暮らすか
00:57
Or you can live in a world where actually intangible value
無形価値が 価値全体の中で
00:59
constitutes a greater part of overall value,
大きな割合を占める世界で生活するか
01:02
that actually intangible value, in many ways
色々な意味で無形価値は
01:06
is a very, very fine substitute
労働力や限られた資源を
01:08
for using up labor or limited resources
使い尽くすより
01:10
in the creation of things.
ずっと良い選択です
01:13
Here is one example. This is a train which goes from London to Paris.
1つ例を― ロンドン発パリ行きの
01:15
The question was given to a bunch of engineers,
列車の旅を快適にする方法を
01:18
about 15 years ago, "How do we make the journey to Paris better?"
15年程前 大勢のエンジニアに問いかけたところ
01:20
And they came up with a very good engineering solution,
素晴らしい解決案が出ました
01:24
which was to spend six billion pounds
60億ポンドをかけ
01:26
building completely new tracks
全く新しい線路を
01:28
from London to the coast,
ロンドンから沿岸まで敷き
01:30
and knocking about 40 minutes off a three-and-half-hour journey time.
3時間半の旅を40分短くするものです
01:32
Now, call me Mister Picky. I'm just an ad man ...
私はただの広告マンですが
01:36
... but it strikes me as a slightly unimaginative way of improving a train journey
時間を短縮するだけとは 列車の旅を快適にする案として
01:38
merely to make it shorter.
あまり想像性がない・・・
01:42
Now what is the hedonic opportunity cost
では60億ポンドを線路以外に使ったら
01:44
on spending six billion pounds on those railway tracks?
どんな快適さが得られるか?
01:47
Here is my naive advertising man's suggestion.
これは広告マンの素朴な提案ですが
01:49
What you should in fact do is employ all of the world's top male
世界トップレベルの
01:52
and female supermodels,
男女のスーパーモデルを雇い
01:54
pay them to walk the length of the train, handing out free Chateau Petrus
旅の間ずっと高級ワインを振舞いながら車内を往復してもらうのは
01:56
for the entire duration of the journey.
どうでしょう
02:00
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:02
(Applause)
(拍手)
02:04
Now, you'll still have about three billion pounds left in change,
30億ポンドくらい余る上 乗客は
02:05
and people will ask for the trains to be slowed down.
列車をもっと遅くしてくれと言うでしょう
02:09
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:12
Now, here is another naive advertising man's question again.
ここでまた広告マンの素朴な疑問です
02:13
And this shows that engineers,
この話から エンジニアや
02:17
medical people, scientific people,
医療従事者 科学者たちは
02:19
have an obsession with solving the problems of reality,
現実問題の解決に執着する事がわかります
02:21
when actually most problems, once you reach a basic level of wealth
しかし実際 社会的な豊かさがある基準に達すると
02:24
in society, most problems are actually problems of perception.
ほとんどは認識の問題になります
02:27
So I'll ask you another question.
ここでもう1つ質問
02:30
What on earth is wrong with placebos?
プラシーボの一体何が悪いのか?
02:32
They seem fantastic to me. They cost very little to develop.
開発費用も少なく 良く思えます
02:34
They work extraordinarily well.
効果はバツグンです
02:36
They have no side effects,
例え副作用があったとしても
02:39
or if they do, they're imaginary, so you can safely ignore them.
気のせいなので安心して無視できます
02:41
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:43
So I was discussing this. And I actually went to the Marginal Revolution blog
これを タイラー・コーエンの
02:45
by Tyler Cowen. I don't know if anybody knows it.
ブログ「限界革命」で議論しました
02:47
Someone was actually suggesting that you can take this concept further,
ある人はなんとこの考えを更に発展させ
02:49
and actually produce placebo education.
プラシーボ教育を提案していました
02:52
The point is that education doesn't actually work by teaching you things.
何かを教わる事より 良い教育を受けていると感じる事が
02:54
It actually works by giving you the impression
効果を生むというのです
02:58
that you've had a very good education, which gives you an insane sense
つまり根拠のない自信に基づく
03:00
of unwarranted self-confidence,
うぬぼれに近い感覚が
03:02
which then makes you very, very successful in later life.
後に大きな成功を収める事に繋がる
03:04
So, welcome to Oxford, ladies and gentlemen.
というわけでオックスフォードへようこそ
03:07
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:10
(Applause)
(拍手)
03:12
But, actually, the point of placebo education is interesting.
でもプラシーボ教育の論点は興味深いものです
03:13
How many problems of life can be solved
感じ方に手を加えるだけで
03:16
actually by tinkering with perception,
人生のどれほどの問題が解決できるか?
03:18
rather than that tedious, hardworking and messy business
退屈で手間も面倒もかかる
03:20
of actually trying to change reality?
現実を変える作業よりずっといい
03:22
Here's a great example from history. I've heard this attributed to several other kings,
歴史に好例があります ある王が考えたもので
03:25
but doing a bit of historical research,
調べたところ それは
03:28
it seems to be Fredrick the Great.
プロイセンのフリードリヒ大帝でした
03:30
Fredrick the Great of Prussia was very, very keen
彼は ドイツの民衆に
03:32
for the Germans to adopt the potato and to eat it,
ジャガイモを大いに推奨していました
03:34
because he realized that if you had two sources of carbohydrate,
小麦とジャガイモの
03:37
wheat and potatoes, you get less price volatility in bread.
2つの炭水化物源があれば パンの価格変動が減少すると気づいたからです
03:39
And you get a far lower risk of famine,
飢餓のリスクも減少します
03:43
because you actually had two crops to fall back on, not one.
2つの穀物に頼れますから
03:45
The only problem is: potatoes, if you think about it, look pretty disgusting.
唯一の問題はジャガイモが まずそうだという事です
03:47
And also, 18th century Prussians ate very, very few vegetables --
18世紀 プロイセン人は滅多に野菜を食べませんでした
03:50
rather like contemporary Scottish people.
現在のスコットランド人と一緒です
03:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
03:56
So, actually, he tried making it compulsory.
大帝はジャガイモを強要しようとしました
03:58
The Prussian peasantry said,
プロイセンの農民たちは
04:01
"We can't even get the dogs to eat these damn things.
「こんなもの犬も食わない
04:03
They are absolutely disgusting and they're good for nothing."
マズいし何の役にも立たない」
04:05
There are even records of people being executed
ジャガイモ栽培を拒否して
04:07
for refusing to grow potatoes.
処刑された農民もいたようです
04:09
So he tried plan B.
大帝の次の案は
04:11
He tried the marketing solution, which is he declared the potato
ジャガイモを王室の野菜とし
04:13
as a royal vegetable, and none but the royal family could consume it.
王族しか食べられないという位置づけをすることでした
04:15
And he planted it in a royal potato patch,
ジャガイモを王家の畑で育て
04:18
with guards who had instructions
見張り番は 昼夜を問わず
04:20
to guard over it, night and day,
畑を守り しかし
04:22
but with secret instructions not to guard it very well.
見張りすぎぬよう命じられました
04:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:27
Now, 18th century peasants know that there is one
18世紀の農民たちにとって
04:28
pretty safe rule in life, which is if something is worth guarding,
間違いないルールと言えば
04:30
it's worth stealing.
「見張るのは盗む価値がある証拠」で
04:32
Before long, there was a massive underground
すぐにドイツで大規模な
04:34
potato-growing operation in Germany.
ジャガイモの闇栽培が始まります
04:36
What he'd effectively done is he'd re-branded the potato.
大帝はジャガイモのブランド再生をしたのです
04:38
It was an absolute masterpiece.
まさに最高傑作でした
04:42
I told this story and a gentleman from Turkey came up to me and said,
この話をすると あるトルコ人男性が
04:44
"Very, very good marketer, Fredrick the Great. But not a patch on Ataturk."
「素晴らしいマーケティングですが アタチュルクには及びませんね」と言いました
04:46
Ataturk, rather like Nicolas Sarkozy,
二コラ・サルコジのように アタチュルクは
04:50
was very keen to discourage the wearing of a veil,
ベールの着用を禁止し
04:52
in Turkey, to modernize it.
トルコを近代化させようとしました
04:54
Now, boring people would have just simply banned the veil.
芸がない人なら単にベールを禁止したところですが
04:56
But that would have ended up with a lot of awful kickback
それでは非常に多くの反発に遭い
04:59
and a hell of a lot of resistance.
大変な抵抗があったでしょう
05:01
Ataturk was a lateral thinker.
発想が自由なアタチュルクは
05:03
He made it compulsory for prostitutes to wear the veil.
売春婦にベールの着用を義務付けたのです
05:05
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:08
(Applause)
(拍手)
05:13
I can't verify that fully, but it does not matter.
これが本当かはさておき―
05:15
There is your environmental problem solved, by the way, guys:
環境問題もこれで解決です
05:17
All convicted child molesters
子どもへの性的虐待者は
05:19
have to drive a Porsche Cayenne.
ポルシェに乗らねばならない
05:21
(Laughter)
(笑)
05:23
What Ataturk realized actually is two very fundamental things.
アタチュルクは2つの根本的なことに気がつきました
05:28
Which is that, actually, first one,
第一に
05:31
all value is actually relative.
全ての価値は相対的であり
05:33
All value is perceived value.
知覚による価値であること
05:36
For those of you who don't speak Spanish, jugo de naranja -- it's actually the Spanish for "orange juice."
この看板の下はスペイン語表示です
05:38
Because actually it's not the dollar. It's actually the peso
ドル表示は実際ペソですが
05:40
in Buenos Aires. Very clever Buenos Aires street vendors
ブエノスアイレスの賢い露天商たちは
05:42
decided to practice price discrimination
英米人観光客に不利な
05:45
to the detriment of any passing gringo tourists.
価格差別をする事にしました
05:47
As an advertising man, I have to admire that.
広告マンとして称賛します
05:50
But the first thing is that all value is subjective.
この話が示すのは 全ての価値は主観的だという事です
05:52
Second point is that persuasion is often better than compulsion.
二点目は 義務付けより説得が効果的であること
05:56
These funny signs that flash your speed at you,
点滅式の速度表示器でも
05:59
some of the new ones, on the bottom right,
右下のような新しいタイプは
06:01
now actually show a smiley face or a frowny face,
笑顔としかめ面で
06:03
to act as an emotional trigger.
感情に訴えかけます
06:06
What's fascinating about these signs is they cost about 10 percent
この表示器の素晴らしい点は
06:08
of the running cost of a conventional speed camera,
維持費が速度違反カメラより10%安いのに
06:10
but they prevent twice as many accidents.
事故を2倍防止できることです
06:13
So, the bizarre thing, which is baffling
従来の古典派経済学者を
06:15
to conventional, classically trained economists,
困惑させるおかしな話は
06:17
is that a weird little smiley face
この変な笑顔の表示が
06:19
has a better effect on changing your behavior
皆さんの行動を変えるのに
06:21
than the threat of a £60 fine and three penalty points.
60ポンドの罰金と3点の罰則より効果がある事なのです
06:23
Tiny little behavioral economics detail:
行動経済学の話を少し―
06:28
in Italy, penalty points go backwards.
イタリアでは罰則は 減点方式で
06:30
You start with 12 and they take them away.
12点から引かれていきます
06:33
Because they found that loss aversion
損失回避の方が人の言動に
06:35
is a more powerful influence on people's behavior.
強い影響を与えるからです
06:37
In Britain we tend to feel, "Whoa! Got another three!"
イギリスでは「また3点もらっちゃった」が
06:39
Not so in Italy.
イタリアではそうはいかない
06:42
Another fantastic case of creating intangible value
無形価値が時価や物的価値の代わりになる
06:44
to replace actual or material value, which remember, is what,
素晴らしい例をもう1つ―
06:47
after all, the environmental movement needs to be about:
これは環境保護の目指すところです
06:50
This again is from Prussia, from, I think, about 1812, 1813.
これもプロイセンの話で1812か13年頃
06:52
The wealthy Prussians, to help in the war against the French,
フランスとの戦争を支援するために
06:55
were encouraged to give in all their jewelry.
裕福な者は宝飾品を献上し
06:58
And it was replaced with replica jewelry
代わりに鋳鉄製の複製品が
07:00
made of cast iron.
渡されました
07:03
Here's one: "Gold gab ich für Eisen, 1813."
この例では「金を捧げ 鉄を授かった」と彫られています
07:05
The interesting thing is that for 50 years hence,
興味深い事に その後50年間
07:09
the highest status jewelry you could wear in Prussia
プロイセンで地位を誇示できるのは
07:11
wasn't made of gold or diamonds.
金やダイヤではなく
07:13
It was made of cast iron.
鋳鉄製の宝飾品でした
07:15
Because actually, never mind the actual intrinsic value
金の宝飾品を所有する
07:17
of having gold jewelry. This actually
本質的な価値より これらには
07:19
had symbolic value, badge value.
象徴的 ブランド価値があり
07:21
It said that your family had made a great sacrifice in the past.
家族が過去に大きな犠牲を払った証拠なのです
07:23
So, the modern equivalent would of course be this.
現代ではこんな感じです
07:26
(Laughter)
(笑)
07:28
But, actually, there is a thing, just as there are Veblen goods,
しかし 高価でレアであるほど
07:29
where the value of the good depends on it being expensive and rare --
価値が上がる効果があるものもあれば
07:32
there are opposite kind of things
その逆に
07:35
where actually the value in them depends on them being
至る所にあり 階級がなく
07:37
ubiquitous, classless and minimalistic.
最小主義である事に 価値がある場合もあります
07:39
If you think about it, Shakerism was a proto-environmental movement.
よく考えると シェイカー教は環境保護の原型でした
07:42
Adam Smith talks about 18th century America,
アダム・スミスによれば 18世紀の米国では
07:45
where the prohibition against visible displays of wealth was so great,
富の誇示が厳しく禁じられていたため ニューイングランドの
07:47
it was almost a block in the economy in New England,
経済を妨げかねなかったといいます
07:51
because even wealthy farmers could find nothing to spend their money on
裕福な農民でも隣人の不満を招かない
07:53
without incurring the displeasure of their neighbors.
お金の使い道がなかったからです
07:56
It's perfectly possible to create these social pressures
社会的圧力を生み出し
07:59
which lead to more egalitarian societies.
もっと平等主義な社会にするのは全く可能です
08:01
What's also interesting, if you look at products
もう1つ興味深いのは
08:04
that have a high component
メッセージ価値とも言える
08:06
of what you might call messaging value,
無形価値を
08:08
a high component of intangible value, versus their intrinsic value:
本質的価値よりも持つ製品は多くの場合
08:10
They are often quite egalitarian.
かなり平等主義的であるという事です
08:13
In terms of dress, denim is perhaps the perfect example of something
象徴価値が物質価値に取って代わる良い例は
08:16
which replaces material value with symbolic value.
衣服で言うと おそらくデニムでしょう
08:19
Coca-Cola. A bunch of you may be a load of pinkos,
皆さんの多くは左翼的で
08:23
and you may not like the Coca-Cola company,
コカコーラ社を好きではないかもしれません
08:25
but it's worth remembering Andy Warhol's point about Coke.
しかしアンディ・ウォーホールの
08:27
What Warhol said about Coke is, he said,
コメントは念頭に置くべきです
08:29
"What I really like about Coca-Cola is the president of the United States
「アメリカ大統領もホームレスでも
08:31
can't get a better Coke than the bum on the corner of the street."
飲むコーラは同じというのがいいんだ」
08:33
Now, that is, actually, when you think about it -- we take it for granted --
当たり前と思うでしょうが
08:37
it's actually a remarkable achievement,
これほど民主的なものを
08:39
to produce something that's that democratic.
作ったのは素晴らしい功績です
08:41
Now, we basically have to change our views slightly.
ですから少し観点を変える必要があります
08:44
There is a basic view that real value involves making things,
本物の価値は製造 労働 工学を伴い
08:47
involves labor. It involves engineering.
有限の素材を使う事だという
08:50
It involves limited raw materials.
基本的な考えがあり
08:53
And that what we add on top is kind of false. It's a fake version.
付加価値等は見せかけでごまかしだと言います
08:56
And there is a reason for some suspicion and uncertainly about it.
疑うのももっともです
08:59
It patently veers toward propaganda.
明らかに宣伝に見えますから
09:02
However, what we do have now
しかし現在はメディアも多様化し
09:05
is a much more variegated media ecosystem
付加価値を付けるのも容易になり
09:07
in which to kind of create this kind of value, and it's much fairer.
もっと公平になりました
09:10
When I grew up, this was basically the media environment of my childhood
私の子ども時代のメディア環境を
09:13
as translated into food.
食べ物で表現してみました
09:15
You had a monopoly supplier. On the left,
左側は独占販売者で
09:17
you have Rupert Murdoch, or the BBC.
メディア王ルパート・マードックかBBCだけ
09:19
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:21
And on your right you have a dependent public
右側は与えられたもの何にでも感謝する
09:22
which is pathetically grateful for anything you give it.
メディア会社に頼る大衆です
09:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:27
Nowadays, the user is actually involved.
現在は利用者も参加しており
09:29
This is actually what's called, in the digital world, "user-generated content."
デジタル世界では「ユーザー作成型コンテンツ」
09:32
Although it's called agriculture in the world of food.
食の世界では「農業」と呼ばれます
09:35
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:37
This is actually called a mash-up,
これは「マッシュアップ」と呼ばれます
09:38
where you take content that someone else has produced
誰かのコンテンツで
09:40
and you do something new with it.
新たな事を行います
09:42
In the world of food we call it cooking.
食の世界では「調理」です
09:44
This is food 2.0,
これは「フード2.0」 他人と
09:47
which is food you produce for the purpose of sharing it with other people.
シェアするための食べ物です
09:49
This is mobile food. British are very good at that.
イギリス人が得意の「モバイルフード」
09:52
Fish and chips in newspaper, the Cornish Pasty,
フィッシュ&チップス包み ミートパイ
09:55
the pie, the sandwich.
サンドイッチ
09:57
We invented the whole lot of them.
私たちイギリス人が発明したものです
09:59
We're not very good at food in general. Italians do great food,
イタリアンはもっとおいしいけれど
10:01
but it's not very portable, generally.
携帯はできないでしょう
10:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:05
I only learned this the other day. The Earl of Sandwich didn't invent the sandwich.
ところでサンドイッチ伯爵が発明したのは
10:10
He actually invented the toasty. But then, the Earl of Toasty would be a ridiculous name.
実はトーストサンドイッチだそうだから
10:12
(Laughter)
トースト伯爵ですね(笑)
10:15
Finally, we have contextual communication.
状況に適した情報提供もあります
10:16
Now, the reason I show you Pernod -- it's only one example.
ペルノを例に挙げます
10:18
Every country has a contextual alcoholic drink. In France it's Pernod.
どの国にもその土地特有の飲料があり フランスはペルノです
10:20
It tastes great within the borders of that country,
国内で飲むとおいしいんですが
10:24
but absolute shite if you take it anywhere else.
他で飲むと全くマズイんです
10:26
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:29
Unicum in Hungary, for example.
ハンガリーのウニクムもそうです
10:31
The Greeks have actually managed to produce something called Retsina,
ギリシャ人はレツィーナを作りましたが
10:33
which even tastes shite when you're in Greece.
これはギリシャで飲んでもダメです
10:35
(Laughter)
(笑)
10:37
But so much communication now is contextual
でも現在の情報はカスタマイズされ
10:39
that the capacity for actually nudging people,
役に立つ情報を提供し
10:41
for giving them better information -- B.J. Fogg,
人に影響を与えることができます
10:43
at the University of Stanford, makes the point
スタンフォード大のB.J.フォッグ
10:45
that actually the mobile phone is --
携帯電話を
10:47
He's invented the phrase, "persuasive technologies."
「説得技術」と呼び
10:49
He believes the mobile phone, by being location-specific,
現在地や状況を踏まえ タイムリーな情報を
10:51
contextual, timely and immediate,
即時に提供するのは
10:54
is simply the greatest persuasive technology device ever invented.
史上最高の説得テクノロジーだと言います
10:56
Now, if we have all these tools at our disposal,
このようなツールが自由に使えるなら
10:59
we simply have to ask the question,
著名な技術者たちのように
11:01
and Thaler and Sunstein have, of how we can use these more intelligently.
もっと賢明な使い方を考えなくてはなりません
11:03
I'll give you one example.
例を1つ挙げます
11:06
If you had a large red button of this kind, on the wall of your home,
家の壁に大きな赤いボタンがあり
11:09
and every time you pressed it, it saved 50 dollars for you,
押すたびに50ドルが
11:11
put 50 dollars into your pension,
年金に入ったら
11:14
you would save a lot more.
もっとお金を貯められますよね
11:16
The reason is that the interface fundamentally determines
簡単にできるかが
11:18
the behavior. Okay?
基本的に行動を決定するわけです
11:20
Now, marketing has done a very, very good job of creating
広告は衝動買いの機会を作るのに
11:22
opportunities for impulse buying.
非常に貢献してきました
11:25
Yet we've never created the opportunity for impulse saving.
でも衝動貯金する機会は作られた事がありません
11:27
If you did this, more people would save more.
あれば 多くの人がもっと貯金できるでしょう
11:31
It's simply a question of changing the interface
人が決定を下すプロセスを
11:34
by which people make decisions,
変えるだけで
11:36
and the very nature of the decisions changes.
選択肢そのものも変わるでしょう
11:38
Obviously, I don't want people to do this,
広告マンとしては
11:40
because as an advertising man I tend to regard saving as just
貯金してほしくないですが
11:42
consumerism needlessly postponed.
消費を不必要に延期してるだけなので
11:44
(Laughter)
(笑)
11:46
But if anybody did want to do that,
でももし そうしたいのであれば
11:47
that's the kind of thing we need to be thinking about, actually:
人間の行動を変える基本的な
11:50
fundamental opportunities to change human behavior.
手段が必要ということです
11:53
Now, I've got an example here from Canada.
さて ここでカナダの例をあげます
11:55
There was a young intern at Ogilvy Canada
広告会社オグルヴィ・カナダのインターン
11:58
called Hunter Somerville,
ハンター・サマービルは
12:01
who was working in improv in Toronto,
トロントでコメディをしていましたが
12:03
and got a part-time job in advertising,
パートで広告の仕事に就き
12:05
and was given the job of advertising Shreddies.
シリアルの宣伝を担当することになりました
12:07
Now this is the most perfect case of creating
これは製品を一切変えずに
12:10
intangible, added value,
無形価値を創る
12:12
without changing the product in the slightest.
史上最高の実例です
12:14
Shreddies is a strange, square, whole-grain cereal,
シュレディーズは奇妙な四角い全粒粉シリアルで
12:17
only available in New Zealand, Canada and Britain.
ニュージーランドやカナダ イギリス つまり
12:20
It's Kraft's peculiar way of rewarding loyalty to the crown.
イギリス帝国に忠実な国でしか買えない
12:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:27
In working out how you could re-launch Shreddies,
シュレディーズのリニューアルにあたり
12:30
he came up with this.
彼はこれを思いつきました
12:33
Video: (Buzzer)
ビデオ:(ブザー音)
12:42
Man: Shreddies is supposed to be square.
男:シュレディーズは四角いはずなのに
12:48
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:51
Woman: Have any of these diamond shapes gone out?
このダイヤ型は出荷されてないでしょうね
12:52
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:55
Voiceover: New Diamond Shreddies cereal.
新ダイヤ型シュレディーズ
12:57
Same 100 percent whole-grain wheat in a delicious diamond shape.
同じ全粒粉100%の美味しいダイヤ型
12:59
(Applause)
(拍手)
13:02
Rory Sutherland: I'm not sure this isn't the most perfect example
これは無形価値創造の
13:06
of intangible value creation. All it requires is
完璧な例でしょう 知覚に必要な
13:08
photons, neurons, and a great idea to create this thing.
光子と脳細胞といいアイデアさえあればいいのです
13:10
I would say it's a work of genius.
まさに傑作と言えます
13:13
But, naturally, you can't do this kind of thing without a little bit of market research.
もちろん多少の市場調査は必要です
13:15
Man: So, Shreddies is actually producing a new product,
男:シュレディーズは新製品を開発中で
13:18
which is something very exciting for them.
社員一同張り切っています
13:21
So they are introducing new Diamond Shreddies.
新ダイヤ型シュレディーズです
13:24
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:27
So I just want to get your first impressions when you see that,
まず ダイヤ型が入った箱を
13:32
when you see the Diamond Shreddies box there.
見た第一印象を教えて下さい
13:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
13:37
Woman: Weren't they square?
女:前は四角じゃなかった?
13:38
Woman #2: I'm a little bit confused. Woman #3: They look like the squares to me.
2:どういうこと? 女3:四角に見えるけど
13:40
Man: They -- Yeah, it's all in the appearance.
男:見方の問題です
13:42
But it's kind of like flipping a six or a nine. Like a six,
6と9をひっくり返すようなものです
13:44
if you flip it over it looks like a nine.
ひっくり返せば9に見えますが
13:48
But a six is very different from a nine.
6は9とは大分違う
13:50
Woman # 3: Or an "M" and a "W". Man: An "M" and a "W", exactly.
女3:MとWみたいに 男:その通り
13:52
Man #2: [unclear]
男2:向きを変えただけみたいだけど
13:54
You just looked like you turned it on its end. But when you see it like that
この角度から見たら
13:56
it's more interesting looking.
もっとおもしろい形だね
13:59
Man: Just try both of them.
男:両方試食してください
14:01
Take a square one there, first.
まず四角の方を
14:03
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:06
Man: Which one did you prefer? Man #2: The first one.
男:どちらがいいですか? 男2:1つ目
14:18
Man: The first one?
最初の方ですか?
14:20
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:22
Rory Sutherland: Now, naturally, a debate raged.
こうなるともちろん議論が起こります
14:24
There were conservative elements in Canada, unsurprisingly,
当然ながら カナダの保守派は
14:28
who actually resented this intrusion.
この商品の「侵入」を拒否しました
14:31
So, eventually, the manufacturers actually
結果 メーカーは妥協案の
14:33
arrived at a compromise, which was the combo pack.
「コンボ・パック」にたどり着きました
14:35
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:38
(Applause)
(拍手)
14:40
(Laughter)
(笑)
14:49
If you think it's funny, bear in mind there is an organization called
これが面白いというなら
14:54
the American Institute of Wine Economics,
全米ワイン経済研究所の話もあります
14:57
which actually does extensive research into perception of things,
知覚について広く研究しており
15:00
and discovers that except for among
人口の5〜10%の
15:02
perhaps five or ten percent of the most knowledgeable people,
ワイン通以外
15:04
there is no correlation between quality and enjoyment
ワインの品質と美味しく感じることに
15:07
in wine,
相互関係はないと発見しました
15:09
except when you tell the people how expensive it is,
値段を教えた場合は例外です
15:11
in which case they tend to enjoy the more expensive stuff more.
人は高価なワインを好む傾向にあります
15:13
So drink your wine blind in the future.
ですからこれからは銘柄を隠して飲みましょう
15:16
But this is both hysterically funny --
これには笑ってしまいますが
15:19
but I think an important philosophical point,
大事な理性的観点でもあります
15:21
which is, going forward, we need more of this kind of value.
今後このような価値の必要性が増すということです
15:23
We need to spend more time appreciating what already exists,
既存のものをもっと高く評価することに専念し
15:26
and less time agonizing over what else we can do.
他に何ができるか悩まないことです
15:29
Two quotations to more or less end with.
2つの引用を述べて終わります
15:31
One of them is, "Poetry is when you make new things
1つ目は「詩とは 新しいものを身近にし
15:33
familiar and familiar things new."
身近なものを新しくすることだ」で
15:35
Which isn't a bad definition of what our job is,
私達のこれからの仕事のいい定義です
15:37
to help people appreciate what is unfamiliar, but also
なじみのないものを人々に紹介し
15:40
to gain a greater appreciation, and place a far higher value on
すでに存在するものの価値を高めて
15:42
those things which are already existing.
良さを認めてもらうのです
15:46
There is some evidence, by the way, that things like social networking help do that.
ソーシャルネットワーキングも役立ちます
15:48
Because they help people share news.
人々がニュースを共有できるからです
15:51
They give badge value to everyday little trivial activities.
日常の些細な活動に価値を与えるため
15:53
So they actually reduce the need for actually spending great money on display,
大金をかけて 誇示する必要がなくなり
15:57
and increase the kind of third-party
日常の小さなシンプルなことで 周りの人を
16:00
enjoyment you can get from the smallest, simplest things in life. Which is magic.
楽しませる事ができる まさにマジックです
16:02
The second one is the second G.K. Chesterton quote of this session,
2つ目はG.K.チェスタトンの名言で
16:06
which is, "We are perishing for want of wonder, not for want of wonders,"
「感嘆することが足りないのでなく 感嘆できないのだ」です
16:09
which I think for anybody involved in technology, is perfectly true.
技術に関与している人は納得するでしょう
16:12
And a final thing: When you place a value on things like health,
最後に一言: 健康や愛や
16:15
love, sex and other things,
セックスなどを重視し
16:17
and learn to place a material value
見えなくて無形だからと言うだけで
16:19
on what you've previously discounted
今まで考慮しなかったものに
16:21
for being merely intangible, a thing not seen,
物的価値を与えるようになれば
16:23
you realize you're much, much wealthier than you ever imagined.
想像つかないほど恵まれていると気づくでしょう
16:26
Thank you very much indeed.
ありがとうございました
16:29
(Applause)
(拍手)
16:31

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About the Speaker:

Rory Sutherland - Advertising guru
Rory Sutherland stands at the center of an advertising revolution in brand identities, designing cutting-edge, interactive campaigns that blur the line between ad and entertainment.

Why you should listen

From unlikely beginnings as a classics teacher to his current job as Vice Chairman of Ogilvy Group, Rory Sutherland has created his own brand of the Cinderella story. He joined Ogilvy & Mather's planning department in 1988, and became a junior copywriter, working on Microsoft's account in its pre-Windows days. An early fan of the Internet, he was among the first in the traditional ad world to see the potential in these relatively unknown technologies.

An immediate understanding of the possibilities of digital technology and the Internet powered Sutherland's meteoric rise. He continues to provide insight into advertising in the age of the Internet and social media through his blog at Campaign's Brand Republic site, his column "The Wiki Man" at The Spectator and his busy Twitter account.

More profile about the speaker
Rory Sutherland | Speaker | TED.com