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TED2002

Arthur Ganson: Moving sculpture

アーサー・ガンソンは動く彫刻を作ります

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彫刻家でエンジニアのアーサー・ガンソンが彼の作品について語ります—深い哲学的な思想を探求し、しかも見るのがとても楽しい動く芸術です。

- Sculptor
Arthur Ganson's kinetic metal sculptures mix high art with gearhead humor. He's also the inventor of the kids' construction toy Toobers & Zots. Full bio

A few words about how I got started,
どうやってこれを始めたかですが
00:18
and it has a lot to do with happiness, actually.
それは「幸せ」に大いに関係があります
00:20
When I was a very young child, I was extremely introverted
私は子供の頃、とても内向的で
00:24
and very much to myself.
一人で行動しました
00:27
And, kind of as a way of surviving,
それでまあサバイバル技術として
00:30
I would go into my own very personal space,
とても個人的な場所へ入っては
00:33
and I would make things.
ものを作っていました
00:36
I would make things for people
他の人のためにものを作ること
00:38
as a way of, you know, giving, showing them my love.
それが、彼らへの愛情表現でした
00:40
I would go into these private places,
自分の場所にこもり
00:44
and I would put my ideas and my passions into objects --
アイデアと情熱を注ぎ込んで
00:47
and sort of learning how to speak with my hands.
自分の手で物語れるようになりました
00:51
So, the whole activity of working with my hands and creating objects
だから、私の手と物作りは
00:54
is very much connected with not only the idea realm,
アイデアの領域だけでなく
00:58
but also with very much the feeling realm.
感情の領域とも繋がっているのです
01:03
And the ideas are very disparate.
そしてアイデアはものすごくばらばらです
01:07
I'm going to show you many different kinds of pieces,
これからいろいろなものをお見せしますが
01:11
and there's no real connection between one or the other,
お互いにこれといった繋がりはありません
01:14
except that they sort of come out of my brain,
それらがみんな私の頭脳の産物で
01:17
and they're all different sort of thoughts that are triggered
生活をながめたり、自然やものを見たり、それらの
01:19
by looking at life, and seeing nature and seeing objects,
ものに対する偶然の楽しい考えなどに
01:23
and just having kind of playful random thoughts about things.
触発されたものです
01:27
When I was a child, I started to explore motion.
私は子供の頃に「動き」を探求し始めました
01:31
I fell in love with the way things moved,
ものが動くのに心惹かれ
01:39
so I started to explore motion by making little flipbooks.
パラパラマンガを作ることから始めました
01:41
And this is one that I did, probably like when I was around seventh grade,
これはわたしがたぶん7年生のときに作ったものですが
01:46
and I remember when I was doing this,
これを作っている時
01:50
I was thinking about that little rock there,
そこには小さな岩があって
01:53
and the pathway of the vehicles as they would fly through the air,
自動車の通る道があって、空に飛び上がって
01:56
and how the characters --
で、キャラクターが
02:01
(Laughter) --
(笑)
02:03
would come shooting out of the car,
車から飛び出してしまって
02:04
so, on my mind, I was thinking about the trajectory of the vehicles.
私は自動車の飛んでいく軌跡を考えていたんでしょう
02:06
And of course, when you're a little kid, there's always destruction.
そしてもちろん、子供の頃は、つねに「破壊」があります
02:13
So, it has to end with this --
なので、これもこんな風に終わって
02:16
(Laughter) --
(笑)
02:18
gratuitous violence.
謂れのない暴力
02:19
(Laughter)
(笑)
02:21
So that was how I first started to explore the way things moved,
まあこうやって私は「動き」を探求し
02:23
and expressed it.
表現し始めたわけです
02:29
Now, when I went to college,
それで大学に進むと
02:31
I found myself making fairly complicated, fragile machines.
かなり複雑で繊細な機械を作るようになりました
02:33
And this really came about
これは、実は様々な
02:40
from having many different kinds of interests.
興味によるものでした
02:43
When I was in high school, I loved to program computers,
高校生の頃、私はコンピュータプログラミングが大好きで
02:46
so I sort of liked the logical flow of events.
イベントの論理的な流れが好きでした
02:49
I was also very interested in perhaps going into surgery
それに、外科医かなにかになることに非常に興味が
02:54
and becoming a surgeon,
ありました
02:59
because it meant working with my hands
非常に集中したやり方で
03:01
in a very focused, intense way.
手作業をするからです
03:03
So, I started taking art courses,
それで、芸術の授業を受けるようになり
03:06
and I found a way to make sculpture
彫刻を作るようになり
03:08
that brought together my love for being very precise with my hands,
それが、手を使って非常に正確に作業することと
03:11
with coming up with different kinds of logical flows of energy through a system.
システムを経由したいろいろな種類の論理的なエネルギーの流れを結びつけました
03:15
And also, working with wire -- everything that I did
そして、針金を使うことで―行うこと全てで
03:25
was both a visual and a mechanical engineering decision
ビジュアルおよび工学的な決断が同時に
03:31
at the same time.
なされるのです
03:37
So, I was able to sort of exercise all of that.
それらを全て実行できるのです
03:39
Now, this kind of machine is as close as I can get to painting.
この手の機械は絵を描くのにとても似ていて
03:41
And it's full of many little trivial end points,
たくさんのささいな最終産物に満ちています
03:47
like there's a little foot here that just drags around in circles
たとえばここに小さな足がありますが、単に円を描いて動いているだけで
03:52
and it doesn't really mean anything.
別に何の意味もありません
03:57
It's really just for the sort of joy of its own triviality.
そういうささいなものがある、というためだけの喜びです
03:59
The connection I have with engineering
私の工学との関わりは
04:05
is the same as any other engineer, in that I love to solve problems.
他の誰の場合とでも同じで、問題を解決するのが好き、ということです
04:08
I love to figure things out,
私は解決策を見つけるのが好きですが
04:13
but the end result of what I'm doing is really completely ambiguous.
その結果は、実に全くあいまいなものです
04:15
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:21
That's pretty ambiguous.
まったくあいまいです
04:23
(Laughter)
(笑)
04:25
The next piece that is going to come up
次に現れる作品は
04:27
is an example of a kind of machine that is fairly complex.
非常に複雑なものの例です
04:32
I gave myself the problem.
問題を解決するのが好きなので
04:42
Since I'm always liking to solve problems,
自分に課題を与えたのです
04:44
I gave myself the problem of turning a crank in one direction,
クランクを一方方向に回して
04:46
and solving all of the mechanical problems
この小さな男性が前後に行ったり来たりする
04:50
for getting this little man to walk back and forth.
ためのメカニズムを全部創り出してみたのです
04:53
So, when I started this, I didn't have an overall plan for the machine,
これを始めたときは、まだ機械全体のプランはなくて
04:57
but I did have a sense of the gesture,
動作の感じと、形の感じと
05:02
and a sense of the shape and how it would occupy space.
どれくらいの大きさになるかはわかっていました
05:05
And then it was a matter of starting from one point
あとは一ヶ所から初めて
05:09
and sort of building to that final point.
最後まで作っていくだけです
05:12
That little gear there switches back and forth to change direction.
あそこの小さなギアが方向を前後に変えるのです
05:16
And that's a little found object.
これはどこかで拾ったモノです
05:21
So a lot of the pieces that I've made,
私が作るいろ多くの作品で
05:25
they involve found objects.
どこかで拾ったものが使われています
05:28
And it really -- it's almost like doing visual puns all the time.
いつも視覚的なだじゃれをやっているようなものです
05:32
When I see objects, I imagine them in motion.
モノを見ると、動きを想像します
05:40
I imagine what can be said with them.
そこで、なにか言える事を想像します
05:43
This next one here, "Machine with Wishbone,"
次の作品は、叉骨のある作品で
05:45
it came about from playing with this wishbone after dinner.
食後にこの骨で遊んでいる時に思いつきました
05:49
You know, they say, never play with your food --
食事中に遊んではいけないと言われますが
05:56
but I always play with things.
私はいつもモノで遊んでいます
05:58
So, I had this wishbone, and I thought,
で、この叉骨をみつけて、考えました
06:00
it's kind of like a cowboy who's been on his horse for too long.
馬に長く乗りすぎたカウボーイみたいだな、と
06:02
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:05
And I started to make him walk across the table,
それでその骨をテーブルで歩かせていて
06:06
and I thought, "Oh, I can make a little machine that will do that."
思ったのです 「これを歩かせる機械が出来るじゃないか」と
06:09
So, I made this device, linked it up, and the wishbone walks.
それでこの機械を作り、繋ぎ合わせて、叉骨が歩くわけです
06:14
And because the wishbone is bone -- it's animal --
そして、叉骨は骨だから―動物です―
06:20
it's sort of a point where I think we can enter into it.
我々はそれにのめり込めるのだろうと思います
06:23
And that's the whole piece.
これが全体像です
06:29
(Laughter)
(笑)
06:31
That's about that big.
(これくらいの大きさです)
06:32
(Applause)
(拍手)
06:35
This kind of work is also very much like puppetry,
こういう作品はまるで人形使いのようです
06:40
where the found object is, in a sense, the puppet,
拾ったのが、一種の操り人形で
06:45
and I'm the puppeteer at first, because I'm playing with an object.
私が人形使い 最初は私がモノと遊んでいるが
06:49
But then I make the machine, which is sort of the stand-in for me,
そのうち機械を作り、それが私の代わりにあやつる
06:54
and it is able to achieve the action that I want.
その機械は私の望む動作を出来るのです
06:58
The next piece I'll show you is a much more conceptual thought,
次はずっとコンセプチュアルなもので、
07:03
and it's a little piece called "Cory's Yellow Chair."
「コリーの黄色い椅子」という小品です
07:10
I had this image in my mind, when I saw my son's little chair,
これを思いついたのは、息子の小さい椅子を見た時で、
07:14
and I saw it explode up and out.
それが爆発するように見えたのです
07:19
And --
それで
07:24
so the way I saw this in my mind at first,
最初にそれをイメージした時は
07:28
was that the pieces would explode up and out with infinite speed,
無限のスピードで爆発していって
07:31
and the pieces would move far out,
部品はずっと遠くまで行って
07:35
and then they would begin to be pulled back
それから重力で戻るように
07:37
with a kind of a gravitational feel,
引き戻されて
07:39
to the point where they would approach infinite speed back to the center.
元の場所に無限の速度で中心に戻ってくるような感じでした
07:41
And they would coalesce for just a moment,
部品は短時間だけ合体し
07:45
so you could perceive that there was a chair there.
椅子がそこにあったのだ、とわかります
07:48
For me, it's kind of a feeling about the fleetingness of the present moment,
私には、これは現在という瞬間のはかなさを示しているようで
07:51
and I wanted to express that.
それを表現したかったのです
07:57
Now, the machine is -- in this case, it's a real approximation of that,
機械の方は、その現象の近似のようなもので
07:59
because obviously you can't move physical matter
もちろん物質を無限に速い速度で動かし
08:04
infinitely with infinite speed and have it stop instantaneously.
突然止めることはできないわけですから
08:07
This whole thing is about four feet wide,
これ全体は幅が120cmくらいで
08:11
and the chair itself is only about a few inches.
椅子自体は数インチくらいです
08:15
(Applause)
(拍手)
08:18
Now, this is a funny sort of conceptual thing,
これは、ちょっと可笑しいコンセプチュアルなもので
08:23
and yesterday we were talking about Danny Hillis' "10,000 Year Clock."
昨日我々はダニー・ヒリズの「10000年時計」の話をしていました
08:26
So, we have a motor here on the left,
これはモーターが左にあって
08:31
and it goes through a gear train.
ギヤトレインを動かします
08:33
There are 12 pairs of 50:1 reductions,
50:1の12組のギヤがあるんですが
08:36
so that means that the final speed of that gear on the end
終端のギヤの速度は非常に遅くて
08:41
is so slow that it would take two trillion years to turn once.
一回回るのに二兆年かかります
08:46
So I've invented it in concrete, because it doesn't really matter.
それで私はこれをコンクリートの中に作りました 何だって良いのですから
08:50
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:53
Because it could run all the time.
いつでも回っていられるのですから
08:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
08:56
Now, a completely different thought.
さて、また全然違ったものを―
08:57
I'm always imagining myself in different situations.
私はいつも違った状況の自分を考えています
09:01
I'm imagining myself as a machine.
私は自分が機械になった場合を想像します
09:05
What would I love?
私は何が好きか?
09:07
I would love to be bathed in oil.
オイルに浸かっているのが好きだと思います
09:09
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:11
So, this machine does nothing but just bathe itself in oil.
で、この機械がするのは、自分でオイルを浴びることだけです
09:12
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:17
(Applause)
(拍手)
09:19
And it's really, just sort of --
本当にそれだけの―
09:23
for me, it was just really about the lusciousness of oil.
それはもう本当にオイルにうっとりとするだけでしょう
09:26
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:29
And then, I got a call from a friend
その頃、私は友達から電話をもらいました
09:30
who wanted to have a show of erotic art,
エロチックなアートショーをしたい、と
09:33
and I didn't have any pieces.
私はそういうものを持っていませんでした
09:36
But when she suggested to be in the show, this piece came to mind.
しかし彼女が展覧会に出してほしいというので、これを思いつきました
09:38
So, it's sort of related, but you can see it's much more overtly erotic.
まあ関連性はありますが、もっとずっとエロチックですよね
09:42
And this one I call "Machine with Grease."
「グリースつきの機械」と呼んでいます
09:48
It's just continually ejaculating, and it's --
ずーっと射精しているのです それで―
09:51
(Laughter) --
(笑)
09:53
this is a happy machine, I'll tell you.
幸せな機械ですよね
09:54
(Laughter)
(笑)
09:57
It's definitely happy.
絶対幸せだ
09:58
From an engineering point of view,
工学的見地からは
10:02
this is just a little four-bar linkage.
これは単なる4本棒のリンケージで
10:05
And then again, this is a found object, a little fan that I found.
これもまた拾ったものなんですが、私が見つけた小さな扇子です
10:07
And I thought, what about the gesture of opening the fan,
そして思うのです この扇の開き方はどうだ、
10:12
and how simply could I state something.
こんなに簡単にものが言えるとはどうだ、と
10:15
And, in a case like this, I'm trying to make something which is clear
こう言う場合は、私は何かをクリアに表そうとしますが、
10:18
but also not suggestive of any particular kind of animal or plant.
しかし一方では何かの動物や木に見えないようにしています
10:26
For me, the process is very important,
私にとって「手順」はとても重要です
10:33
because I'm inventing machines,
なぜなら私は機械を発明すると同時に
10:38
but I'm also inventing tools to make machines,
機械を作る道具も発明し
10:40
and the whole thing is all sort of wrapped up from the beginning.
始めから全てに没頭しているからです
10:43
So this is a little wire-bending tool.
これは小型の針金曲げツールです
10:46
After many years of bending gears with a pair of pliers,
長年ペンチで針金を曲げて歯車にして来たあとで
10:49
I made that tool, and then I made this other tool
このツールを作り、それから別の
10:52
for sort of centering gears very quickly --
とても短時間に歯車の中心を出すツールも作り
10:55
sort of developing my own little world of technology.
自分だけの技術の世界を創り出しました
10:59
My life completely changed when I found a spot welder.
スポット溶接機を発見してからは人生が全く変わりました
11:02
(Laughter)
(笑)
11:08
And that was that tool.
これがその道具です
11:09
It completely changed what I could do.
出来ることが全く変わりました
11:11
Now here, I'm going to do a very poor job of silver soldering.
へたくそな銀半田づけをこれからやるところですが
11:13
This is not the way they teach you to silver solder when you're in school.
学校ではこんな銀半田は教えてくれません
11:18
I just like, throw it in.
このやり方が好きなんです ちょこっとつける
11:23
I mean, real jewelers put little bits of solder in.
実際の宝石工は半田をほんの少ししか使いません
11:25
So, that's a finished gear.
これが出来上がった歯車です
11:28
When I moved to Boston,
ボストンへ引っ越した時は
11:32
I joined a group called the World Sculpture Racing Society.
世界彫刻レース協会に加入しました
11:34
(Laughter)
(笑)
11:39
And the idea, their premise was that we wanted to show
彼らの想定では、我々は路上で
11:40
pieces of sculpture on the street,
彫刻を見せたがっていて
11:47
and there'd be no subjective decision about what was the best.
誰が一番かという主観的な決定はないだろうということでした
11:49
It would be -- whatever came across the finish line first would be the winner.
最初にゴールラインを通過したのが勝者だからです
11:53
(Laughter)
(笑)
11:55
So I made -- this is my first racing sculpture,
それで私は―これが最初に作ったレース用彫刻ですが
11:56
and I thought, "Oh, I'm going to make a cart,
それで思ったのです 「そうか、手押し車を作って
12:00
and I'm going to have it --
それで、自分の手書文字で
12:02
I'm going to have my hand writing 'faster,'
「もっと速く」と書ける
12:04
so as I run down the street, the cart's going to talk to me
それで通りを走っていると、手押し車が私に向かって
12:06
and it's going to go, 'Faster, faster!' "
「もっと、もっと速く!」と言うんだ
12:10
So, that's what it does.
で、これができたわけです
12:13
(Laughter)
(笑)
12:15
But then in the end, what I decided
しかし結局私は
12:16
was every time you finish writing the word,
単語を一つ書き終わると
12:21
I would stop and I would give the card to somebody on the side of the road.
私は止まってそのカードを通りの誰かにあげることにしました
12:24
So I would never win the race because I'm always stopping.
だから、いつも立ち止まっているのでレースに勝てないのです
12:28
But I had a lot of fun.
でもとても面白かったです
12:31
(Applause)
(拍手)
12:33
Now, I only have two and a half minutes -- I'm going to play this.
さて残りが2分半しかないですね―これで遊んでみましょう
12:39
This is a piece that, for me, is in some ways
これは私にとっては、ある意味で
12:43
the most complete kind of piece.
最も完成された作品です
12:49
Because when I was a kid, I also played a lot of guitar.
なぜなら私は子どもの時にたくさんギターを弾いたからです
12:51
And when I had this thought,
この考えが浮かんだ時
12:53
I was imagining that I would make --
私は全てが機械仕掛けの劇をすることを考えていました
12:57
I would have a whole machine theater evening,
そこでは、私と、あなたには聴衆がいて
12:59
where I would -- you would have an audience,
カーテンが上がり、あなたはステージ上の
13:02
the curtain would open, and you'd be entertained by machines on stage.
機械で楽しむことができる
13:04
So, I imagined a very simple gestural dance
それで私は、機械と椅子との
13:08
that would be between a machine and just a very simple chair, and ...
とてもシンプルなジェスチャーダンスを想像し…
13:11
When I'm making these pieces, I'm always trying to find a point
この作品を作るとき、私はいつも
13:27
where I'm saying something very clearly and it's very simple,
何かとてもクリアでとてもシンプルなこと、
13:31
but also at the same time it's very ambiguous.
しかし同時にとてもあいまいなものを語るポイントを探そうとしました
13:42
And I think there's a point between simplicity and ambiguity
私は、シンプルさとあいまいさの間には
13:45
which can allow a viewer to perhaps take something from it.
観察者がなにかを見つけられるポイントがあると思うのです
13:50
And that leads me to the thought that all of these pieces
そしてそう考えると、こういう作品はすべて
13:59
start off in my own mind, in my heart,
私一人の心から、ハートから生まれ
14:03
and I do my best at finding ways to express them with materials,
私はそれを形にする方法を一生懸命探し
14:07
and it always feels really crude.
それはいつも本当に無骨に感じられます
14:14
It's always a struggle,
常に闘いであり
14:16
but somehow I manage to sort of get this thought
でもなんとかうまい具合にそれを
14:19
out into an object, and then it's there, OK.
形にし、出来上がり、オーケー
14:23
It means nothing at all.
それだけのことです
14:27
The object itself just means nothing.
その物体そのものは何も意味しない
14:29
Once it's perceived, and someone brings it into their own mind,
いったんそれが認識され、誰かの心の中に入ると
14:31
then there's a cycle that has been completed.
それでサイクルが完結するのです
14:36
And to me, that's the most important thing
そして私にはそれが一番大事なことです
14:41
because, ever since being a kid, I've wanted to communicate my passion and love.
なぜなら子供の頃からずっと、私は自分の情熱と愛を伝えたくて
14:43
And that means the complete cycle of coming from inside,
それはサイクル全体が私の中からわき上がり
14:48
out to the physical, to someone perceiving it.
外に出て形になって、誰かがそれを認識するということです
14:53
So I'll just let this chair come down.
それで、あの椅子が戻ってくるのを待ちましょう
15:01
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:33
Thank you.
ありがとう
15:34
(Applause)
(拍手)
15:35
Translated by Masahiro Kyushima
Reviewed by Akira KAKINOHANA

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About the speaker:

Arthur Ganson - Sculptor
Arthur Ganson's kinetic metal sculptures mix high art with gearhead humor. He's also the inventor of the kids' construction toy Toobers & Zots.

Why you should listen

A modern-day creator of "twittering machines," Arthur Ganson uses simple, plain materials to build witty mechanical art. But the wit is not simply about Rube Goldberg-ian chain-reaction gags (though you'll find a few of those). His work examines the quiet drama of physical motion, whether driven by a motor or by the actions of the viewer. Notions of balance, of rising and falling, of action and reaction and consequence, play themselves out in wire and steel and plastic.

Ganson has been an artist-in-residence at MIT (where the Lemelson-MIT Award Program named him an Inventor of the Week, and where his show "Gestural Engineering" is ongoing) and has shown his work at art and science museums around the world -- including the legendary "Machine with Concrete," which will put on quite a show ... in 2 trillion years.

More profile about the speaker
Arthur Ganson | Speaker | TED.com