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TED2011

Damon Horowitz: Philosophy in prison

デイモン・ホロヴィッツ「刑務所の哲学」

March 4, 2011

デイモン・ホロヴィッツはPrison University Project(刑務所内大学プロジェクト)を通じて、サン・クエンティン州立刑務所の在監者に高等教育水準の哲学の授業を提供しています。この短くも力強いTalkの中で善悪との遭遇について語ります。

Damon Horowitz - Philosopher, entrepreneur
Damon Horowitz explores what is possible at the boundaries of technology and the humanities. Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
Meet Tony. He's my student.
私の教え子トニーの話をします
00:15
He's about my age,
年齢は私と大差有りません
00:17
and he's in San Quentin State Prison.
彼はサン・クエンティン州立刑務所にいます
00:19
When Tony was 16 years old,
トニーが16歳だった―
00:22
one day, one moment,
ある日ある瞬間のことでした
00:25
"It was mom's gun.
「あれは母さんの銃だ
00:28
Just flash it, scare the guy. He's a punk.
チンピラを脅かしてやろうと...
00:30
He took some money; we'll take his money. That'll teach him.
金をぼられたから やり返そうと思った
00:32
Then last minute, I'm thinking, 'Can't do this. This is wrong.'
「間違ってる」とは思ったんだ」しかし
00:34
My buddy says, 'C'mon, let's do this.'
「とっとと やるぞ」と急かす友人に
00:37
I say, 'Let's do this.'"
「やっちまうか」と返事をしてしまいました
00:39
And those three words, Tony's going to remember,
銃声を耳にした彼の脳裏には
00:44
because the next thing he knows, he hears the pop.
最後の言葉が焼き付くこととなります
00:46
There's the punk on the ground, puddle of blood.
血の海に与太者が横たわっていました
00:48
And that's felony murder --
殺人 ― 大罪です
00:50
25 to life, parole at 50 if you're lucky,
禁固刑25年 運がよければ50歳で仮出所
00:52
and Tony's not feeling very lucky.
トニーは運にも見放されたようでした
00:54
So when we meet in my philosophy class in his prison
刑務所の哲学の授業でトニーと顔を合せ 私は言いました
00:57
and I say, "In this class, we will discuss the foundations of ethics,"
「このクラスでは道徳の基礎の部分を扱おうと思う」
01:00
Tony interrupts me.
トニーは不服そうに言いました
01:04
"What are you going to teach me about right and wrong?
「良いことと悪いこと?何ごとだよ?
01:06
I know what is wrong. I have done wrong.
俺は罪を犯したんだ 善悪の見境くらいつくさ
01:08
I am told every day,
毎日毎日 皆から 壁から―
01:11
by every face I see, every wall I face, that I am wrong.
「おまえは間違っている」と言い聞かされてるんだからな
01:13
If I ever get out of here, there will always be a mark by my name.
刑務所を出たとしても罪を背負って生きることになる
01:16
I'm a convict; I am branded 'wrong.'
生涯 俺は犯罪者なんだ
01:19
What are you going to tell me about right and wrong?"
善と悪についていったい何を教えてくれんだ?」
01:21
So I say to Tony,
私はトニーにこう返事をしました
01:24
"Sorry, but it's worse than you think.
「事態は君が思っているより深刻だよ
01:27
You think you know right and wrong?
君はなにが悪いことか知ってるのか?
01:30
Then can you tell me what wrong is?
じゃあ 教えてもらってもいいかな?
01:32
No, don't just give me an example.
例を挙げろと言ってるんではないよ
01:34
I want to know about wrongness itself, the idea of wrong.
”非行”という概念そのものを理解したい
01:36
What is that idea?
これは一体なんなんだ?
01:39
What makes something wrong?
なにが善と悪を分けるんだ?
01:41
How do we know that it's wrong? Maybe you and I disagree.
善と悪の境界線なんて曖昧なものだろ?
01:43
Maybe one of us is wrong about the wrong.
俺らの"非行"に対する観念すら
01:46
Maybe it's you, maybe it's me -- but we're not here to trade opinions;
間違ってるかもしれない
01:48
everyone's got an opinion.
意見交換をする気はないんだ
01:50
We are here for knowledge.
確固たる”知識”が必要なんだ
01:52
Our enemy is thoughtlessness. This is philosophy."
浅慮こそが大敵なんだ これこそ哲学だ」
01:54
And something changes for Tony.
トニーがどこか変わりました
01:58
"Could be I'm wrong. I'm tired of being wrong.
「もう道を外れるのはうんざりだ
02:03
I want to know what is wrong.
悪とはなんなのか?自分が―
02:06
I want to know what I know."
何を知りたいのか?それを知りたい」
02:08
What Tony sees in that moment is the project of philosophy,
トニーは自身の疑念の中に
02:10
the project that begins in wonder --
哲学の投企を見いだしたのです
02:13
what Kant called "admiration and awe
つまり「我が上なる星空と、我が内なる道徳法則―
02:15
at the starry sky above and the moral law within."
我はこの二つに畏敬の念を抱いてやまない」 カントの教えです
02:17
What can creatures like us know of such things?
私たちは一体何を知り得るのだろう?
02:20
It is the project that always takes us back to the condition of existence --
これこそ存在の意味について問う投企であり
02:22
what Heidegger called "the always already there."
ハイデッガーの"存在了解"に当たります
02:25
It is the project of questioning what we believe and why we believe it --
更に人は何をなぜ信じるのかという投企でもあり
02:28
what Socrates called "the examined life."
ソクラテスが説いた”生の中の螺旋"です
02:31
Socrates, a man wise enough to know that he knows nothing.
ソクラテスは自身の無知を認めた賢い人でした
02:33
Socrates died in prison,
ソクラテスは牢獄で生涯を終えましたが
02:36
his philosophy intact.
最後まで彼の哲学が変ることはありませんでした
02:39
So Tony starts doing his homework.
トニーは宿題を始めました
02:42
He learns his whys and wherefores, his causes and correlations,
彼自信の疑問点・主張・相互関係―
02:44
his logic, his fallacies.
論理・誤謬を悟ることで
02:46
Turns out, Tony's got the philosophy muscle.
哲学の基礎体力を養いました
02:48
His body is in prison, but his mind is free.
身体は牢獄の中ですが心は解き放たれていました
02:50
Tony learns about the ontologically promiscuous,
トニーはプラトンの存在論的混乱
02:52
the epistemologically anxious,
デカルトの認識論的不安
02:54
the ethically dubious, the metaphysically ridiculous.
ニーチェの倫理学的疑問とビル・クリントンの―
02:56
That's Plato, Descartes, Nietzsche
形而上学的不条理について
02:59
and Bill Clinton.
知を深めたのです (笑)
03:01
So when he gives me his final paper,
彼は最終レポートで定言命令による
03:03
in which he argues that the categorical imperative
行動は無条件であるがために
03:06
is perhaps too uncompromising
日常生活中の葛藤を
03:08
to deal with the conflict that affects our everyday
抑えられないのだと論じて
03:10
and challenges me to tell him
このため道徳的過ちを犯した人は
03:12
whether therefore we are condemned to moral failure,
糾弾されるのかと私に説明を求めました
03:14
I say, "I don't know.
トニーにこう返事をしました
03:16
Let us think about that."
「分からないよ 一緒に考えないか」
03:18
Because in that moment, there's no mark by Tony's name;
トニーには一点の汚れもなく
03:20
it's just the two of us standing there.
そこにいたのは教授と犯罪者ではなく
03:22
It is not professor and convict,
ただただ哲学を学ぼうとする
03:24
it is just two minds ready to do philosophy.
考える2本の葦でした
03:26
And I say to Tony,
トニーにこう言いました
03:28
"Let's do this."
「やっちまうか」
03:30
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
03:33
(Applause)
(拍手)
03:35
Translator:Takahiro Shimpo
Reviewer:Hidetoshi Yamauchi

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Damon Horowitz - Philosopher, entrepreneur
Damon Horowitz explores what is possible at the boundaries of technology and the humanities.

Why you should listen

Damon Horowitz is a philosophy professor and serial entrepreneur. He recently joined Google as In-House Philosopher / Director of Engineering, heading development of several initiatives involving social and search. He came to Google from Aardvark, the social search engine, where he was co-founder and CTO, overseeing product development and research strategy. Prior to Aardvark, Horowitz built several companies around applications of intelligent language processing. He co-founded Perspecta (acquired by Excite), was lead architect for Novation Biosciences (acquired by Agilent), and co-founded NewsDB (now Daylife).

Horowitz teaches courses in philosophy, cognitive science, and computer science at several institutions, including Stanford, NYU, University of Pennsylvania and San Quentin State Prison.

Get more information on the Prison University Project >>

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