20:21
TEDGlobal 2007

Jacqueline Novogratz: Patient capitalism

ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツ 「寛容な資本主義」

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ジャクリン・ノヴォグラッツが、いかにして忍耐強く寛容な資本が、世界の最貧困層に、 持続可能な仕事、サービス、そして誇りをもたらすことが出来るかを語ります。

- Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid. Full bio

I really am honored to be here, and as Chris said,
お招きありがとうございます
00:26
it's been over 20 years since I started working in Africa.
アフリカで働き初めてから20年以上たちました
00:28
My first introduction was at the Abidjan airport on a sweaty, Ivory Coast morning.
初めて着いたのは 汗ばむ朝のコートジボワール アビジャン空港
00:31
I had just left Wall Street, cut my hair to look like Margaret Mead,
ウォールストリートを辞め 髪はマーガレット・ミード風にして
00:37
given away most everything that I owned,
持ち物をすべて処分し
00:41
and arrived with all the essentials --
必需品のみ持って到着しました
00:43
some poetry, a few clothes, and, of course, a guitar --
詩集 洋服 そしてギター
00:45
because I was going to save the world,
世界を救うなら
00:47
and I thought I would just start with the African continent.
アフリカ大陸から始めようって思ったのです
00:49
But literally within days of arriving I was told, in no uncertain terms,
でも 着いたその日 何人かの西アフリカ人女性から
00:55
by a number of West African women, that Africans didn't want saving,
「気持ちはうれしいけど アフリカは救済なんて必要ないわ
00:59
thank you very much, least of all not by me.
少なくともあなたからはね」と言われました
01:04
I was too young, unmarried, I had no children,
私は若すぎ 結婚もまだ 子供もいませんでした
01:06
didn't really know Africa, and besides, my French was pitiful.
アフリカの知識もなく フランス語はひどいものでした
01:09
And so, it was an incredibly painful time in my life,
私の人生の中で ものすごく辛い時期でした
01:13
and yet it really started to give me the humility to start listening.
同時に謙虚に聞くことの大切さを学びました
01:16
I think that failure can be an incredibly motivating force as well,
失敗は大きな原動力にもなります
01:21
so I moved to Kenya and worked in Uganda,
それから私はケニアに移動し ウガンダで働き
01:25
and I met a group of Rwandan women, who asked me, in 1986,
ルワンダの女性グループに出会い 1986年に彼女達が
01:28
to move to Kigali to help them start the first microfinance institution there.
キガリ初のマイクロファイナンスを設立する手助をし
01:31
And I did, and we ended up naming it Duterimbere,
私達はそれを「デュタランブレ」と名づけました
01:35
meaning "to go forward with enthusiasm." And while we were doing it,
「情熱の赴くままに」という意味です そのうち
01:39
I realized that there weren't a lot of businesses that were viable
存続可能な 女性起業のビジネスが少ないと気付き
01:42
and started by women, and so maybe I should try to run a business, too.
ビジネスを立ち上げてみようと思いました
01:45
And so I started looking around, and I heard about a bakery
いろいろ検討し始め 20人の娼婦が経営する
01:49
that was run by 20 prostitutes.
パン屋のことを耳にしました
01:51
And, being a little intrigued, I went to go meet this group,
好奇心をそそられ そのグループに会いに行くと
01:53
and what I found was 20 unwed mothers who were trying to survive.
そこには 生き延びようと必死な未婚の母親達がいました
01:57
And it was really the beginning of my understanding the power of language,
その時から私は 言葉の持つ力を理解し始めました
02:02
and how what we call people so often distances us from them,
呼び名によって 私達は 彼らから距離を作り
02:07
and makes them little.
彼らを小さく見せているのです
02:10
I also found out that the bakery was nothing like a business,
またそのパン屋がビジネスなどではなく
02:12
that, in fact, it was a classic charity run by a well-intentioned person,
善意ある人による古典的な慈善事業であることを知りました
02:16
who essentially spent 600 dollars a month
その人は月600ドルを出資して
02:20
to keep these 20 women busy making little crafts and baked goods,
これらの女性に工芸品や焼き菓子などを作らせ
02:24
and living on 50 cents a day, still in poverty.
1日50セントを支払いますが 彼女達は貧しいままです
02:29
So, I made a deal with the women. I said, "Look, we get rid of the charity side,
私は彼女達と取引をしました「慈善はやめて
02:32
and we run this as a business and I'll help you."
事業としてやりましょう 私が手伝うから」と
02:35
They nervously agreed. I nervously started, and, of course,
彼女らは不安そうに同意し 私も不安ながら始め
02:38
things are always harder than you think they're going to be.
もちろん 物事は予想したよりも大変でした
02:42
First of all, I thought, well, we need a sales team,
最初に セールスチームが必要だと思い
02:44
and we clearly aren't the A-Team here,
私達は明らかに「Aチーム」ではないので
02:46
so let's -- I did all this training.
私がトレーニングを引き受けました
02:48
And the epitome was when I literally marched into the streets
典型的な例は 手本を見せようと 私がバケツをもって
02:51
of Nyamirambo, which is the popular quarter of Kigali, with a bucket,
キガリの繁華街ニャマランボーに乗り込んだ時の事
02:55
and I sold all these little doughnuts to people,
バケツに入ったドーナッツを全部売って
02:58
and I came back, and I was like, "You see?"
戻って 彼女達に「ほらね?」と言ったら
03:01
And the women said, "You know, Jacqueline, who in Nyamirambo is not going to buy
「あのねジャクリン ニャマランボーの誰が 背の高いアメリカ人女性に
03:03
doughnuts out of an orange bucket from a tall American woman?" And like --
オレンジのバケットから差し出されたドーナッツを買わないと思う?」と言われ
03:07
(Laughter) -- it's a good point.
(笑い)たしかに そうね
03:11
So then I went the whole American way,
それから すべてがアメリカ式でした
03:13
with competitions, team and individual. Completely failed,
競争 チームと個人 すべて失敗しました
03:15
but over time, the women learnt to sell on their own way.
でも 徐々に 彼女達は 独自の方法で売ることを学んでいきました
03:18
And they started listening to the marketplace,
そして 市場に耳を傾けるようになり
03:22
and they came back with ideas for cassava chips, and banana chips,
キャッサバやバナナチップ そしてソルガムパンといった
03:24
and sorghum bread, and before you knew it,
アイデアを持って帰ってくるようになり
03:27
we had cornered the Kigali market,
瞬く間に キガリマーケットの一角を占め
03:29
and the women were earning three to four times the national average.
国民平均の3倍から4倍の収入を得るようになりました
03:31
And with that confidence surge, I thought, "Well, it's time to create a real bakery,
自信がついたところで 本物のパン屋を仕立てようと
03:34
so let's paint it." And the women said, "That's a really great idea."
色を塗りましょうと提案すると「それは素敵なアイデアだわ」と彼女達
03:38
And I said, "Well, what color do you want to paint it?" And they said,
私が「じゃあ 何色に塗りましょうか?」と聞くと
03:42
"Well, you choose." And I said, "No, no, I'm learning to listen.
彼女達は「あなたが決めて」と言い
03:44
You choose. It's your bakery, your street, your country -- not mine."
私は「だめよ あなた達のパン屋なんだから あなた達が決めて」と言いましたが
03:47
But they wouldn't give me an answer.
彼女らは意見を聞かせてくれません
03:50
So, one week, two weeks, three weeks went by,
そうやって 1週間 2週間 3週間が過ぎ
03:52
and finally I said, "Well, how about blue?"
最後に私が「じゃあ、青はどう?」と聞くと
03:54
And they said, "Blue, blue, we love blue. Let's do it blue."
「青は大好きだわ 青にしましょう」
03:57
So, I went to the store, I brought Gaudence, the recalcitrant one of all,
私は メンバー中のでも 強情者のゴダンスと一緒に店に行き
03:59
and we brought all this paint and fabric to make curtains,
塗料とカーテンを作るための布を仕入れました
04:03
and on painting day, we all gathered in Nyamirambo,
塗装の日 皆でニャマランボーに集まり
04:07
and the idea was we would paint it white with blue as trim,
白地に青の縁取りと
04:10
like a little French bakery. But that was clearly not as satisfying
フランス風のパン屋に仕立てるつもりが 物足りず
04:13
as painting a wall of blue like a morning sky.
朝の青空のように真っ青に塗りました
04:16
So, blue, blue, everything became blue.
すべて真っ青
04:19
The walls were blue, the windows were blue,
壁は青 窓も青
04:22
the sidewalk out front was painted blue.
前の歩道も青
04:23
And Aretha Franklin was shouting "R-E-S-P-E-C-T,"
アレサ・フランクリンの 「リスペクト」を流し
04:26
the women's hips were swaying
彼女達の腰は音楽に揺れ
04:30
and little kids were trying to grab the paintbrushes, but it was their day.
子供達はブラシを奪い合い 本当に楽しそうでした
04:32
And at the end of it, we stood across the street
終わったとき 道をはさんで
04:35
and we looked at what we had done, and I said, "It is so beautiful."
仕上がりを眺めながら 私が「とっても綺麗」と言うと
04:38
And the women said, "It really is."
彼女達も「本当にそうね」
04:41
And I said, "And I think the color is perfect,"
そして私が「完璧な色よね」と言うと
04:43
and they all nodded their head, except for Gaudence,
ゴダンス以外の皆がうなずき
04:46
and I said, "What?"
私が「どうしたの?」と聞くと
04:48
And she said, "Nothing." And I said, "What?"
「べつに」と彼女 私がしつこく「なんなの?」聞くと
04:50
And she said, "Well, it is pretty, but, you know, our color, really, it is green." And --
彼女「素敵だけど、私達の色は本当は緑なの」
04:52
(Laughter)
(笑い)
04:58
-- I learned then that listening isn't just about patience,
聞くことは忍耐のみではないことを学びました
05:01
but that when you've lived on charity and dependent your whole life long,
チャリティーに依存しながら生きる人生で
05:06
it's really hard to say what you mean.
自分がどう思うかを言うのは難しいことです
05:11
And, mostly because people never really ask you,
まず 誰も意見を聞かないし
05:13
and when they do, you don't really think they want to know the truth.
聞いても 本当のことに興味はないでしょう
05:17
And so then I learned that listening is not only about waiting,
この経験で私は 聞くことは待つことではなく
05:20
but it's also learning how better to ask questions.
いかに 上手く質問するかということだと学びました
05:23
And so, I lived in Kigali for about two and a half years, doing these two things,
こうして私は キガリで2年半過ごしました
05:27
and it was an extraordinary time in my life.
それは 素晴らしい経験でした
05:31
And it taught me three lessons
そして私に3つの教訓を与えてくれました
05:33
that I think are so important for us today,
今日の私達にとって大切な教訓です
05:35
and certainly in the work that I do.
特に私の仕事において
05:38
The first is that dignity is more important to the human spirit than wealth.
最初に 人間の精神にとって大切なのは富よりも尊厳です
05:40
As Eleni has said, when people gain income, they gain choice,
エレーナが言ったように 収入を得たとき 人は選択肢を得ます
05:44
and that is fundamental to dignity.
それが尊厳の基本です
05:48
But as human beings, we also want to see each other,
しかし私達は 互いに会いたい 互いに聞いて欲しいと願う
05:50
and we want to be heard by each other, and we should never forget that.
人間であることも 忘れてはなりません
05:53
The second is that traditional charity and aid
2つめは 従来のチャリティーやエイドでは
05:57
are never going to solve the problems of poverty.
貧困問題の解決にはならないということ
06:00
I think Andrew pretty well covered that, so I will move to the third point,
アンドルーがすでに詳しく語っているので 3つめに行きます
06:02
which is that markets alone also
それは マーケットのみでも
06:05
are not going to solve the problems of poverty.
貧困問題を解決できないということです
06:07
Yes, we ran this as a business,
私達はこれをビジネスとして運営していますが
06:10
but someone needed to pay the philanthropic support
トレーニングや経営支援 戦略アドバイスを得るには
06:12
that came into the training, and the management support, the strategic advice
誰かの慈善的援助が必要でした
06:17
and, maybe most important of all,
そして たぶん最も大切なのは
06:20
the access to new contacts, networks and new markets.
新しい取引相手 ネットワーク マーケットへのアクセスです
06:23
And so, on a micro level, there's a real role for this combination
ミクロレベルでは 投資と慈善の連携に
06:27
of investment and philanthropy.
重要な役割があります
06:31
And on a macro level -- some of the speakers have inferred that
一方 マクロレベルでは 健康さえも民営化されるべきと
06:34
even health should be privatized.
何人かの講演者が提議しました
06:38
But, having had a father with heart disease,
でも私は 心臓病の父親を持って
06:40
and realizing that what our family could afford
家族で賄える分が
06:42
was not what he should have gotten,
必要な費用に満たないことを知り
06:46
and having a good friend step in to help,
親しい友人の助けを借りた経験から
06:49
I really believe that all people deserve access to health
すべての人が 支払い可能な範囲で健康への
06:52
at prices they can afford.
アクセス権利を持つべきだと信じます
06:55
I think the market can help us figure that out,
マーケットは 良い方法を教えてくれるでしょう
06:57
but there's got to be a charitable component,
でも それには慈善要素がかかせません
06:59
or I don't think we're going to create the kind of societies we want to live in.
でなければ 私達は 自分達が住みたいと思う社会を築けないでしょう
07:01
And so, it was really those lessons that made me decide to
これらの教訓があって 私は6年前に
07:05
build Acumen Fund about six years ago.
アキュメン・ファンドを創立することを決めました
07:08
It's a nonprofit, venture capital fund for the poor,
貧しい人のための 非営利のベンチャー投資資金です
07:11
a few oxymorons in one sentence.
ひと言でいうと少し矛盾してますが
07:14
It essentially raises charitable funds from individuals, foundations and corporations,
慈善基金を個人 財団 そして企業から募り
07:16
and then we turn around and we invest equity and loans
集めた資金を 南アジアやアフリカの低所得者に
07:21
in both for-profit and nonprofit entities
手が届く範囲で 健康管理 住居 エネルギー
07:23
that deliver affordable health, housing, energy, clean water
安全な水を提供する 営利または非営利の
07:25
to low income people in South Asia and Africa,
事業体に投資や融資を行います
07:29
so that they can make their own choices.
低所得者が自分で選択肢をもてるように
07:32
We've invested about 20 million dollars in 20 different enterprises,
私達は 約2000万ドルを20社に投資することで
07:34
and have, in so doing, created nearly 20,000 jobs,
2万人の雇用を創出し
07:38
and delivered tens of millions of services to people
何千万というサービスを
07:43
who otherwise would not be able to afford them.
それまで手が届かなかった人々に提供しました
07:45
I want to tell you two stories. Both of them are in Africa.
アフリカでの2つの物語を紹介します
07:49
Both of them are about investing in entrepreneurs
共に サービスに献身的で
07:52
who are committed to service, and who really know the markets.
市場に詳しい起業家への投資の話です
07:54
Both of them live at the confluence of public health and enterprise,
彼らは 公衆衛生と事業の合流点に生きています
07:58
and both of them, because they're manufacturers,
両者とも 製造業者なので
08:02
create jobs directly, and create incomes indirectly,
直接職を創出し 間接的に収入を生み出します
08:04
because they're in the malaria sector,
両者とも マラリアセクターでの仕事であり
08:07
and Africa loses about 13 billion dollars a year because of malaria.
アフリカでは年間130億ドルがマラリアによって失われているので
08:09
And so as people get healthier, they also get wealthier.
人々の健康と共に 豊かさにも貢献します
08:14
The first one is called Advanced Bio-Extracts Limited.
最初の会社は アドバンス・バイオ・エクストラクト社(ABE)
08:18
It's a company built in Kenya about seven years ago
有能な企業家パトリック・ヘンフレイと3人の同僚が
08:21
by an incredible entrepreneur named Patrick Henfrey and his three colleagues.
7年ほどまえにケニアに設立しました
08:23
These are old-hand farmers
彼らは 過去30年において
08:27
who've gone through all the agricultural ups and downs
農業の浮き沈みをすべて体験した
08:29
in Kenya over the last 30 years.
ベテランの農業家達です
08:31
Now, this plant is an Artemisia plant;
現在 アルテミシア(キク科ヨモギ属)を生産しています
08:33
it's the basic component for artemisinin,
アルテミシアは 中国や極東に原生し
08:36
which is the best-known treatment for malaria.
マラリアの治療薬として知名度の高い
08:38
It's indigenous to China and the Far East,
アルテミニシンの主要成分です
08:40
but given that the prevalence of malaria is here in Africa,
パトリック達は アフリカでのマラリアの有病率の高さと
08:44
Patrick and his colleagues said, "Let's bring it here,
その付加価値の高さを考慮し
08:46
because it's a high value-add product."
アフリカで育てることにしました
08:50
The farmers get three to four times the yields that they would with maize.
農家はトウモロコシに比べ 3-4倍の収穫を得られます
08:52
And so, using patient capital -- money that they could raise early on,
寛容な資本 つまり彼らが前もって募ったお金を使い
08:58
that actually got below market returns
-- これは 市場収益率を下回るのに
09:02
and was willing to go the long haul and be combined
長期に渡る投資を喜んで行い
09:04
with management assistance, strategic assistance --
経営や戦略の支援も行う資本です --
09:08
they've now created a company where they purchase from 7,500 farmers.
7500の農家から仕入れる企業を作りました
09:11
So that's about 50,000 people affected.
この影響は5万人に及びます
09:15
And I think some of you may have visited --
訪問された方もいると思いますが
09:17
these farmers are helped by KickStart and TechnoServe,
これらの農家はキックスタートとテクノサーブが
09:19
who help them become more self-sufficient.
自給率をあげる手伝いをしています
09:22
They buy it, they dry it and they bring it to this factory,
彼らは アルテミシアを農家から買い上げ 乾燥させ 工場に運びます
09:24
which was purchased in part by, again, patient capital from Novartis,
工場の購入資金は マラリア治療薬Coartemの
09:27
who has a real interest in getting the powder
原料確保に熱心な 製薬会社ノバルティスの
09:31
so that they can make Coartem.
寛容な資本も充てられました
09:34
Acumen's been working with ABE for the past year, year and a half,
アキュメンは過去一年半にわたってABEと一緒に働き
09:37
both on looking at a new business plan,
共に 新しい事業計画や
09:42
and what does expansion look like, helping with management support
拡張計画を見たり 経営支援を提供したり
09:44
and helping to do term sheets and raise capital.
投資条件の作成や資金調達の支援を行っています
09:47
And I really understood what patient capital meant emotionally
そして 私が寛容な資本の意味を心から理解したのは
09:51
in the last month or so. Because the company was literally
ほんの 先月あたりのことでした 彼らの生産する製品が
09:54
10 days away from proving that the product they produced
治療薬Coartemにふさわしい高品質であることを
09:58
was at the world-quality level needed to make Coartem,
証明できるまであと10日 となった時
10:02
when they were in the biggest cash crisis of their history.
会社は 最大の財政難に直面していました
10:06
And we called all of the social investors we know.
私達は知っているすべての社会投資家に連絡し
10:09
Now, some of these same social investors are really interested in Africa
かれらの中にはアフリカに大変興味を持ち
10:12
and understand the importance of agriculture,
農業の大切さを理解して
10:16
and they even helped the farmers.
農家にも助けを差し伸べました
10:18
And even when we explained that if ABE goes away,
もし ABEが倒産すれば
10:21
all those 7,500 jobs go away too,
7500人が職をなくすと説明しても
10:24
we sometimes have this bifurcation between business and the social.
ビジネスと社会性の分岐点に立たされることがあります
10:28
And it's really time we start thinking more creatively about how they can be fused.
これらをどう結合させるかもっと独創的に考えるべきです
10:33
So Acumen made not one, but two bridge loans,
アキュメンは 2つの つなぎ融資をしました
10:37
and the good news is they did indeed meet world-quality classification and are now
嬉しい事に 彼らは世界レベルの品質を認められ
10:40
in the final stages of closing a 20-million-dollar round, to move it to the next level,
次の段階に進む為の 2千万ドルの調達交渉の最終段階に来ています
10:46
and I think that this will be one of the more important companies in East Africa.
ABEは 東アフリカで最も重要な会社の一つです
10:50
This is Samuel. He's a farmer.
これが サミュエル 彼は農業家です
10:56
He was actually living in the Kibera slums
実はキベラのスラムに住んでいました
10:58
when his father called him and told him about Artemisia and the value-add potential.
彼の父親がアルテミシアについて語ったとき
11:00
So he moved back to the farm, and, long story short,
彼は農家に戻り
11:05
they now have seven acres under cultivation.
現在では 7エーカーの土地を耕作中です
11:08
Samuel's kids are in private school,
サミュエルの子供達は私立学校に通い
11:11
and he's starting to help other farmers in the area also go into Artemisia production --
周辺農家へのアルテミシア参入の手助けをしています
11:13
dignity being more important than wealth.
尊厳は富よりも大切です
11:19
The next one, many of you know.
次のケースは
11:22
I talked about it a little at Oxford two years ago,
2年前にオックスフォードで少し話しました
11:25
and some of you visited A to Z manufacturing,
AtoZ社です 訪問された方もいるでしょう
11:28
which is one of the great, real companies in East Africa.
東アフリカの偉大な企業のひとつで
11:30
It's another one that lives at the confluence of health and enterprise.
公衆衛生と事業の合流点にいるもう一つの会社です
11:34
And this is really a story about a public-private solution
これは 官民協働による解決策が上手く機能した
11:39
that has really worked.
実例と言えます
11:43
It started in Japan. Sumitomo had developed a technology
始まりは日本でした 住友化学がポリエチレン樹脂から出来た繊維に
11:45
essentially to impregnate a polyethylene-based fiber with organic insecticide,
有機殺虫剤を練りこむ技術を開発し
11:49
so you could create a bed net,
それで ベットカーテンをつくれば
11:53
a malaria bed net, that would last five years and not need to be re-dipped.
蚊帳として5年の防虫効果があります
11:55
It could alter the vector, but like Artemisia,
でもアルテミニシンと同じく
11:58
it had been produced only in East Asia. And as part of its social responsibility,
東アジアでの生産のみでしたが 社会責任の一貫として
12:01
Sumitomo said, "Why don't we experiment
「アフリカ用のものはアフリカで生産しよう」
12:05
with whether we can produce it in Africa, for Africans?"
と住友が言い
12:07
UNICEF came forward and said, "We'll buy most of the nets,
ユニセフが「私達が蚊帳を買って 世界基金の一部で
12:10
and then we'll give them away, as part of the global fund's
国連の妊婦 子供への貢献の一貫として
12:13
and the U.N.'s commitment to pregnant women and children, for free."
無料配布しましょう」と申し出ました
12:16
Acumen came in with the patient capital,
アキュメンは寛容な資本で参入し
12:22
and we also helped to identify the entrepreneur
アフリカで パートナーシップを組める
12:25
that we would all partner with here in Africa,
起業家探しを手伝い
12:27
and Exxon provided the initial resin.
エクソンが最初の樹脂を提供しました
12:30
Well, in looking around for entrepreneurs,
起業家を探していた時
12:33
there was none better that we could find on earth than Anuj Shah,
AtoZ社のアヌージュ・シャーが
12:35
in A to Z manufacturing company.
最適だと思いました
12:38
It's a 40-year-old company, it understands manufacturing.
AtoZ社は 40年の歴史を持ち 製造業に精通しています
12:40
It's gone from socialist Tanzania into capitalist Tanzania,
社会主義から資本主義のタンザニアへ移行し 繁栄を続けています
12:43
and continued to flourish. It had about 1,000 employees when we first found it.
最初に訪れた時は 1000人の従業員を雇っていま した
12:46
And so, Anuj took the entrepreneurial risk here in Africa
こうして アヌージュは アフリカで
12:51
to produce a public good that was purchased by the aid establishment
マラリア撲滅を促進するエイド機関のため 公共財を生産する
12:54
to work with malaria.
起業家リスクを請負ました
12:59
And, long story short, again, they've been so successful.
彼らは成功しています
13:02
In our first year, the first net went off the line in October of 2003.
最初の蚊帳が作られた 2003年の10月
13:05
We thought the hitting-it-out-of-the-box number was 150,000 nets a year.
当初は年間15万枚を予想していました
13:10
This year, they are now producing eight million nets a year,
今年の生産は年間800万枚になります
13:15
and they employ 5,000 people, 90 percent of whom are women, mostly unskilled.
5千人を雇用し 90パーセントが未熟練女性です
13:18
They're in a joint venture with Sumitomo.
住友とジョイントベンチャーで
13:23
And so, from an enterprise perspective for Africa,
アフリカにおける事業の視点と
13:26
and from a public health perspective, these are real successes.
公共衛生の視点 両方から 成功といえます
13:29
But it's only half the story if we're really looking at solving problems of poverty,
でも貧困撲滅の視点から見ればまだ 道半ばです
13:32
because it's not long-term sustainable.
ひとつの大顧客に頼っているため
13:36
It's a company with one big customer.
長期的に持続可能ではありません
13:38
And if avian flu hits, or for any other reason
もし鳥インフルエンザでも流行しようものなら
13:40
the world decides that malaria is no longer as much of a priority, everybody loses.
世界はマラリアどころではなくなり すべてが水の泡です
13:44
And so, Anuj and Acumen
アヌージュとアキュメンは
13:49
have been talking about testing the private sector,
民間部門への試みを話し合いました
13:52
because the assumption that the aid establishment has made is that,
エイド機関の仮定では
13:55
look, in a country like Tanzania,
タンザニアのような国は
14:00
80 percent of the population makes less than two dollars a day.
国民の80パーセントが1日2ドル以下で生活しており
14:02
It costs, at manufacturing point, six dollars to produce these,
蚊帳の生産コストは 1枚6ドル
14:04
and it costs the establishment another six dollars to distribute it,
流通網の設立にまた6ドルかかるので
14:08
so the market price in a free market would be about 12 dollars per net.
自由市場での市場価格は1枚12ドルになります
14:13
Most people can't afford that, so let's give it away free.
手が届かない値段です だから無料配布 となりますが
14:17
And we said, "Well, there's another option.
私達は言いました「他の選択肢があります
14:19
Let's use the market as the best listening device we have, and
顧客の声を聞く手段として市場を活用してみましょう
14:22
understand at what price people would pay for this, so they get the dignity of choice.
選択する誇りを得るために 買い手がいくら払うかを理解しましょう
14:25
We can start building local distribution,
現地に流通網を作るすることもできますし
14:30
and actually, it can cost the public sector much less."
公共部門にとっても安くつきます」
14:32
And so we came in with a second round of patient capital to A to Z,
そして AtoZ社に 二度目の寛容な資本を融資して
14:36
a loan as well as a grant, so that A to Z could play with pricing
A to Z が価格設定に幅を持たせられるよう 助成金も出し
14:40
and listen to the marketplace, and found a number of things.
市場調査を初めて いろんな事を知りました
14:44
One, that people will pay different prices,
まずは 人によって払ってもいいと思う価格が違うこと
14:47
but the overwhelming number of people will come forth at one dollar per net
それでも 1枚1ドルだったら買う決断を下す
14:49
and make a decision to buy it.
という人がほとんどでした
14:53
And when you listen to them, they'll also have a lot to say
彼らは他に趣向についても
14:55
about what they like and what they don't like.
沢山意見を聞かせてくれました
14:58
And that some of the channels we thought would work didn't work.
最初に大丈夫と踏んだルートが駄目だったこともありましたが
15:00
But because of this experimentation and iteration that was allowed
実験的なおかつ 反復的な試みが
15:04
because of the patient capital,
寛容な資本には許されるので
15:07
we've now found that it costs about a dollar in the private sector
やっと 民間部門での流通コストが一ドルで
15:09
to distribute, and a dollar to buy the net.
そして 購入価格は1枚1ドルと知りました
15:12
So then, from a policy perspective, when you start with the market,
方針上 市場にでれば
15:14
we have a choice.
選択肢があります
15:18
We can continue going along at 12 dollars a net, and the customer pays zero,
1枚12ドルで 顧客からお金を受け取らないか
15:19
or we could at least experiment with some of it, to charge one dollar a net,
実験的に顧客に1ドル請求して
15:25
costing the public sector another six dollars a net,
公共部門には6ドルの負担で抑えるか
15:31
give the people the dignity of choice, and have a distribution system
人々に選択の尊厳をあたえ 流通システムは
15:34
that might, over time, start sustaining itself.
将来的に自立していくかもしれません
15:38
We've got to start having conversations like this,
私達はこう話を進めるべきです
15:41
and I don't think there's any better way to start than using the market,
マーケットを有効利用するのが一番です
15:43
but also to bring other people to the table around it.
また 他の人を引き込むことも大事です
15:47
Whenever I go to visit A to Z, I think of my grandmother, Stella.
AtoZ社へ行くたびに 私の祖母ステラのことを思います
15:51
She was very much like those women sitting behind the sewing machines.
彼女は ミシンの後ろに座っている女性達によく似ています
15:58
She grew up on a farm in Austria, very poor,
彼女はオーストリアの農家で育ち 貧乏でした
16:03
didn't have very much education.
教育もあまりうけていません
16:05
She moved to the United States, where she met my grandfather,
彼女は合衆国に来て セメント運搬業者の
16:07
who was a cement hauler,
祖父と知合い
16:09
and they had nine children. Three of them died as babies.
9人の子供を授かりますが 3人は赤ん坊のうちに死亡
16:11
My grandmother had tuberculosis, and she worked in a sewing machine shop,
結核を患い 裁縫店で働き
16:17
making shirts for about 10 cents an hour.
1時間10セントでシャツをつくっていました
16:20
She, like so many of the women I see at A to Z,
彼女や AtoZ社 のほとんどの女性は
16:23
worked hard every day, understood what suffering was,
毎日必死で働き 苦難を知っています
16:27
had a deep faith in God, loved her children
信仰深く 子供を愛し
16:30
and would never have accepted a handout.
施しは絶対受け取りません
16:33
But because she had the opportunity of the marketplace,
でもそれは 市場での機会があったからです
16:36
and she lived in a society that provided the safety
安全な社会で生活し
16:40
of having access to affordable health and education,
健康や教育へのアクセスもありました
16:43
her children and their children were able to live
彼女の子供や孫は
16:47
lives of real purpose and follow real dreams.
目的を持って 夢に向かって生きることができます
16:51
I look around at my siblings and my cousins -- and as I said,
私の兄弟姉妹や 従兄弟達を見渡しても
16:54
there are a lot of us --
そのような人は沢山います
16:58
and I see teachers and musicians, hedge fund managers, designers.
教師や音楽家 ヘッジファンドのマネージャー デザイナー
17:00
One sister who makes other people's wishes come true.
姉妹の1人は他人の願いをかなえ
17:06
And my wish, when I see those women, I meet those farmers,
私の願いは 毎日一生懸命働く これらの女性や
17:09
and I think about all the people across this continent
農家の人々に会ったとき
17:14
who are working hard every day,
また大陸のすべての人を思うとき
17:17
is that they have that sense of opportunity and possibility,
彼らが 子供達が偉大な目的を持って生きるという
17:19
and that they also can believe and get access to services,
機会と可能性を感じ 確信を持って
17:23
so that their children, too, can live those lives of great purpose.
サービスを利用することです
17:28
It shouldn't be that difficult.
そんなに難しいことではないはずです
17:32
But what it takes is a commitment from all of us
でも 私達全員の貢献が必要です
17:34
to essentially refuse trite assumptions,
陳腐な仮説を信じないこと
17:38
get out of our ideological boxes.
馬鹿げた思い込みから抜け出ること
17:42
It takes investing in those entrepreneurs that are committed
サービスに そして成功に全力を傾ける起業家に
17:45
to service as well as to success.
投資をすること
17:48
It takes opening your arms, both, wide,
両腕を大きく広げて
17:52
and expecting very little love in return,
見返りを期待せず
17:55
but demanding accountability,
説明責任を要求する
17:58
and bringing the accountability to the table as well.
そして皆に説明責任を果たす
18:00
And most of all, most of all,
一番大事なのは
18:03
it requires that all of us have the courage and the patience,
私達皆が勇気と忍耐を持つこと
18:06
whether we are rich or poor, African or non-African,
貧富の差 アフリカ人かどうか
18:10
local or diaspora, left or right,
地元民か移民か 右か左か 関係なく
18:13
to really start listening to each other.
本当にお互いの話を聞くこと
18:16
Thank you.
ありがとうございました
18:18
(Applause)
(拍手)
18:20
Translated by Kayo Mizutani
Reviewed by Masaaki Ueno

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About the Speaker:

Jacqueline Novogratz - Social entrepreneur
Jacqueline Novogratz founded and leads Acumen, a nonprofit that takes a businesslike approach to improving the lives of the poor. In her book "The Blue Sweater" she tells stories from the philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

Why you should listen

One of the most innovative players shaping philanthropy today, Jacqueline Novogratz is redefining the way problems of poverty can be solved around the world. Drawing on her past experience in banking, microfinance and traditional philanthropy, Novogratz has become a leading proponent for financing entrepreneurs and enterprises that can bring affordable clean water, housing and healthcare, energy, agriculture and education to poor people so that they no longer have to depend on the disappointing results and lack of accountability seen in traditional charity and old-fashioned aid.

Acumen, which she founded in 2001, has an ambitious plan: to change the way the world tackles poverty. Indeed, Acumen has more in common with a venture capital fund than a typical nonprofit. Rather than handing out grants, Acumen invests in early stage companies and organizations that bring critical -- often life-altering -- products and services to the world's poor. Like VCs, Acumen offers not just money, but also infrastructure and management expertise. From drip-irrigation systems in India to high quality solar lighting solutions in East Africa to a low-cost mortgage program in Pakistan, Acumen's portfolio offers important case studies for entrepreneurial efforts aimed at the vastly underserved market of those making less than $4/day.

It's a fascinating model that's shaken up philanthropy and investment communities alike. Acumen manages more than $80 million in investments aimed at serving the poor. And most of their projects deliver stunning, inspiring results. Their success can be traced back to Novogratz herself, who possesses that rarest combination of business savvy and cultural sensitivity. In addition to seeking out sound business models, she places great importance on identifying solutions from within communities rather than imposing them from the outside. “People don't want handouts," Novogratz said at TEDGlobal 2005. "They want to make their own decisions, to solve their own problems.”

In her book, The Blue Sweater, she tells stories from the new philanthropy, which emphasizes sustainable bottom-up solutions over traditional top-down aid.

More profile about the speaker
Jacqueline Novogratz | Speaker | TED.com