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TED2008

Wade Davis: The worldwide web of belief and ritual

ウェイド・デイヴィス: 儀礼と信仰のワールドワイドウェブ

February 2, 2008

人類学者のウェイド・デイヴィスが世界中の信仰や儀式を紹介しつつ、私たち人類に共通する人の証しを語ります。美しい写真とともに博士が語る物語のひとつは、南アメリカのシエラネバダに住む先住民族についてです。彼らは世界の平和を保つために特別な儀式をします。

Wade Davis - Anthropologist, ethnobotanist
A National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, Wade Davis has been described as “a rare combination of scientist, scholar, poet and passionate defender of all of life’s diversity.” Full bio

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Double-click the English subtitles below to play the video.
You know, culture was born of the imagination,
文化は想像することから生まれました
00:12
and the imagination -- the imagination as we know it --
そして私たちの想像力は
00:16
came into being when our species descended
ヒトの先祖である
00:19
from our progenitor, Homo erectus,
ホモエレクタスに由来し
00:22
and, infused with consciousness, began a journey that would carry it
意識の目覚めと共に
世界中の場所に
00:25
to every corner of the habitable world.
運ばれていきました
00:28
For a time, we shared the stage with our distant cousins, Neanderthal,
しばらく 我々の祖先と共生した
遠い親戚のネアンデルタール人も
00:31
who clearly had some spark of awareness,
ある程度の知能はありましたが
00:34
but -- whether it was the increase in the size of the brain,
脳の増大
00:36
or the development of language,
言語の発達等の
00:39
or some other evolutionary catalyst --
進化の触媒の恩恵を受けた
我々の祖先は
00:41
we quickly left Neanderthal gasping for survival.
ネアンデルタール人を
進化の流れに取り残します
00:43
By the time the last Neanderthal disappeared in Europe,
ネアンデルタール人が
ヨーロッパで消滅した
00:47
27,000 years ago,
2万7千年前には
00:50
our direct ancestors had already,
私たちの直系の祖先は
00:52
and for 5,000 years,
既に5千年もの間
00:54
been crawling into the belly of the earth,
洞窟の中に入り込み
00:56
where in the light of the flickers of tallow candles,
獣脂ろうそくの揺らめく光のもと
00:58
they had brought into being
後期旧石器時代の
01:01
the great art of the Upper Paleolithic.
傑作を作り上げていたのです
01:03
And I spent two months in the caves of southwest France
私は詩人のクレイトン・エシュルマンと
フランス南西部の洞窟を2ヵ月間探索しました
01:05
with the poet Clayton Eshleman, who wrote a beautiful book called "Juniper Fuse."
彼は『ジュニパー フューズ』
という素晴らしい本の著者です
01:08
And you could look at this art and you could, of course,
この芸術品を鑑賞すると
01:11
see the complex social organization
作品を描いた人々の
01:13
of the people who brought it into being.
多様な社会性を見て取れます
01:15
But more importantly, it spoke of a deeper yearning,
それ以上に壁画が語りかけるのは
01:17
something far more sophisticated than hunting magic.
狩猟の儀式を遥かに超えた
知的な願望です
01:20
And the way Clayton put it was this way.
それをクレイトンは次の様に表現しました
01:23
He said, "You know, clearly at some point,
曰く “間違いなく我々は
動物そのものの時も
01:25
we were all of an animal nature, and at some point, we weren't."
そうではない時もあった”
01:29
And he viewed proto-shamanism as a kind of original attempt,
彼はシャーマニズムの原型は
01:31
through ritual, to rekindle a connection
永遠に失われた繋がりを儀式により
呼び戻そうとした
01:33
that had been irrevocably lost.
ものではないかと考え
01:36
So, he saw this art not as
ですから この芸術品は
01:38
hunting magic, but as postcards of nostalgia.
単に狩猟の儀式を描いたというより
郷愁のメッセージだと考えたのです
01:41
And viewed in that light,
そのような目で見ると
01:45
it takes on a whole other resonance.
まったく違う奥深さが現れます
01:47
And the most amazing thing about the Upper Paleolithic art
後期旧石器時代芸術の
01:49
is that as an aesthetic expression,
最も驚くべきことは その表現方法が
01:51
it lasted for almost 20,000 years.
2万年近く続いたこと
01:54
If these were postcards of nostalgia,
郷愁のメッセージだとしたら
01:57
ours was a very long farewell indeed.
実に長い惜別のメッセージになります
02:00
And it was also the beginning of our discontent,
これは不満の始まりでもありました
02:03
because if you wanted to distill all of our experience
と言うのも石器時代以来全ての
02:05
since the Paleolithic, it would come down to two words:
人間の体験を蒸留すると
2つの単語になります
02:07
how and why.
how (いかにして) と why (なぜ)
02:10
And these are the slivers of insight upon which cultures have been forged.
これらが文化を形成する
洞察力となったのです
02:12
Now, all people share the same
全ての民族は同様な
02:15
raw, adaptive imperatives.
生の命題を共有しています
02:17
We all have children.
皆 子どもを育て
02:19
We all have to deal with the mystery of death,
死と死後の世界の神秘や
02:21
the world that waits beyond death,
衰えて行く高齢者に
02:23
the elders who fall away into their elderly years.
向き合わねばなりません
02:25
All of this is part of our common experience,
これら全てが人間共通の体験です
02:28
and this shouldn't surprise us, because, after all,
別に驚くことではありません
02:30
biologists have finally proven it to be true,
なぜならば生物学者が
02:32
something that philosophers have always dreamt to be true.
哲学者が常に夢見ていたことを
ついに証明したからです
02:34
And that is the fact that we are all brothers and sisters.
私たちは皆 兄弟姉妹だという事です
02:37
We are all cut from the same genetic cloth.
ヒトはみんな同じ遺伝子の
生地から創られたのです
02:39
All of humanity, probably, is descended from a thousand people
全ての人類はおそらく
アフリカを約7万年前に
02:42
who left Africa roughly 70,000 years ago.
旅立った千人ほどの
ヒトの子孫です
02:45
But the corollary of that is that,
その結果
02:48
if we all are brothers and sisters
私たちは皆 兄弟姉妹で
02:50
and share the same genetic material,
同じ遺伝子を共有しているとすれば
02:52
all human populations share the same raw human genius,
全ての人類は共通のヒトの能力
02:54
the same intellectual acuity.
つまり知力を有しているわけです
02:56
And so whether that genius is placed
従って その能力を
02:58
into -- technological wizardry
西洋諸国が達成した
03:00
has been the great achievement of the West --
技術革新のために使おうが
03:02
or by contrast, into unraveling the complex threads
対照的に神話に宿る
複雑な記憶の糸を
03:05
of memory inherent in a myth,
たぐるために使おうが
03:08
is simply a matter of choice and cultural orientation.
選択と文化の姿勢しだいです
03:10
There is no progression of affairs
人間の体験は どちらが進化していると
いうものでもありません
03:12
in human experience.
人間の体験は どちらが進化していると
いうものでもありません
03:14
There is no trajectory of progress. There's no pyramid
進歩の軌跡もなければ
03:16
that conveniently places Victorian England at the apex
ビクトリア朝英国を頂点に
03:18
and descends down the flanks
ふもとの方に 原始的と呼ぶ人たちを
03:21
to the so-called primitives of the world.
置くようなピラミッド型の階層もありません
03:23
All peoples are simply cultural options,
全ての民族は単に文化の選択肢で
03:25
different visions of life itself.
異なった生き方をしているだけです
03:28
But what do I mean by different visions of life
では異なった生き方とは何でしょう
03:30
making for completely different
見方により全く異なる
03:32
possibilities for existence?
可能性が存在するのです
03:34
Well, let's slip for a moment into the greatest culture sphere
ではここで
想像が作り上げた
03:36
ever brought into being by the imagination,
世界の偉大な
文化圏を訪れてみましょう
03:38
that of Polynesia.
まずはポリネシアです
03:41
10,000 square kilometers,
1万平方キロにおよぶ
03:43
tens of thousands of islands flung like jewels upon the southern sea.
南洋の何万もの宝石のような島々
03:45
I recently sailed on the Hokulea,
私は最近ホクレアという
03:48
named after the sacred star of Hawaii,
ハワイの神聖な星に由来する名の船で
03:50
throughout the South Pacific to make a film
南太平洋を航海し
03:53
about the navigators.
島を行き来する人たちの映画をつくりました
03:55
These are men and women who, even today, can name
彼らは今でも夜空に輝く
03:57
250 stars in the night sky.
星を250も言い当てられます
03:59
These are men and women who can sense the presence of distant atolls
彼らは船体にあたる波の振動を
04:01
of islands beyond the visible horizon,
読むだけで水平線のかなたにある
04:04
simply by watching the reverberation of waves
遠い環礁を感じ取れます
04:07
across the hull of their vessel, knowing full well
太平洋にある島々が
04:09
that every island group in the Pacific
それぞれ独自の形で
04:11
has its unique refractive pattern
波を屈曲させる知識を持ち
04:13
that can be read with the same perspicacity
それを読み取る能力は鑑識官が
04:15
with which a forensic scientist would read a fingerprint.
指紋を読む洞察力と変わりません
04:18
These are sailors who in the darkness, in the hull of the vessel,
この船乗りたちは暗闇の船内から
04:21
can distinguish as many as 32 different sea swells
カヌーにあたる潮の流れを
04:23
moving through the canoe at any one point in time,
32通りに識別できます
04:26
distinguishing local wave disturbances
局地的な潮の崩れと
04:29
from the great currents that pulsate across the ocean,
大洋全体で脈動する
潮流を区別する様は
04:31
that can be followed with the same ease
地上の探検家が川を下ると
04:34
that a terrestrial explorer would follow a river to the sea.
海に出られるのと同じ位容易なことです
04:36
Indeed, if you took all of the genius
実際 月に人間を送り込むために
04:39
that allowed us to put a man on the moon
費やしたのと同程度の能力を
04:41
and applied it to an understanding of the ocean,
大洋の理解として持っているのが
04:43
what you would get is Polynesia.
ポリネシアなのです
04:45
And if we slip from the realm of the sea
次に海の世界から
04:47
into the realm of the spirit of the imagination,
想像の精霊の世界に飛ぶと
04:49
you enter the realm of Tibetan Buddhism.
チベット仏教の世界に入ります
04:52
And I recently made a film called "The Buddhist Science of the Mind."
私は最近『仏教徒 心の科学』
という映画を作りました
04:54
Why did we use that word, science?
なぜ科学という言葉を使ったのでしょう
04:57
What is science but the empirical pursuit of the truth?
科学は実証に基づいた真理の追究です
05:00
What is Buddhism but 2,500 years
仏教は2千5百年におよぶ
05:02
of empirical observation
心理の経験的観測です
05:04
as to the nature of mind?
心理の経験的観測です
05:06
I travelled for a month in Nepal with our good friend, Matthieu Ricard,
親しい友人のマチウ・リカールと
1か月間ネパールを旅しました
05:08
and you'll remember Matthieu famously said to all of us
マチウは以前 TEDにて
05:11
here once at TED,
有名な発言をしました
05:13
"Western science is a major response to minor needs."
“西洋科学は些細なニーズに
対する大げさな回答だ”
05:15
We spend all of our lifetime trying to live to be 100
私たちは皆 歯を失うことなく
05:18
without losing our teeth.
百歳まで生きようとします
05:20
The Buddhist spends all their lifetime trying to understand the nature of existence.
仏教徒は生涯を存在の意義を
理解することに捧げます
05:22
Our billboards celebrate naked children in underwear.
私たちの広告は下着姿の
子供を賞賛するようなものです
05:25
Their billboards are manuals,
彼らの広告は手引書
05:27
prayers to the well-being of all sentient creatures.
生きとし生けるものの呪文です
05:29
And with the blessing of Trulshik Rinpoche, we began a pilgrimage
テュルシク・リンポシェの祈りを受け
05:32
to a curious destination,
偉大な医者を引き連れて
05:34
accompanied by a great doctor.
私たちは異郷へ巡礼しました
05:36
And the destination was a single room in a nunnery,
目的地はある修行場の個室
05:38
where a woman had gone into lifelong retreat
そこで一人の女性が
05:41
55 years before.
55年前から生涯の静修をしています
05:43
And en route, we took darshan from Rinpoche,
途中私たちはリンポシェの
ダルシャンを受けました
05:46
and he sat with us and told us about the Four Noble Truths,
彼は一行に向かって
仏教の四聖諦 すなわち
05:49
the essence of the Buddhist path.
「4つの聖なる真理」を語りました
05:52
All life is suffering. That doesn't mean all life is negative.
生は苦しみです
しかし悪い事ばかりではありません
05:54
It means things happen.
いろんな出来事があります
05:57
The cause of suffering is ignorance.
苦しみの原因は無知です
05:59
By that, the Buddha did not mean stupidity;
ブッダは愚かさを指したのではありません
06:01
he meant clinging to the illusion
人生は普遍であり
予測できるという妄想に
06:03
that life is static and predictable.
駆られることを戒めたのです
06:05
The third noble truth said that ignorance can be overcome.
三番目の真理は無知は
克服できるとしています
06:07
And the fourth and most important, of course,
そして四番目は
あきらかに最も重要な
06:09
was the delineation of a contemplative practice
瞑想の実践修行を説き
06:11
that not only had the possibility
それは人間の心の
06:13
of a transformation of the human heart,
変容の可能性と
06:15
but had 2,500 years of empirical evidence
2千5百年の経験的観測に裏打ちされた
06:17
that such a transformation was a certainty.
悟りの境地を示しています
06:20
And so, when this door opened onto the face of a woman
そして55年に渡り
06:23
who had not been out of that room in 55 years,
修行尼が閉じこもる扉が開いた時
06:25
you did not see a mad woman.
現れたのは狂女ではなく
06:28
You saw a woman who was more clear
山あいの沢水ほどに
06:30
than a pool of water in a mountain stream.
透き通った一人の女性でした
06:32
And of course, this is what the Tibetan monks told us.
もちろんチベット教の僧侶は
次のように言いました
06:35
They said, at one point, you know, we don't really believe
“私たちは 皆さんが月にいったなんて
信じないけど事実でしょう
06:39
you went to the moon, but you did.
“私たちは 皆さんが月にいったなんて
信じないけど事実でしょう
06:42
You may not believe that we achieve enlightenment
皆さんは私たちが生涯に悟りを開くなんて
信じないけど これも事実です”
06:44
in one lifetime, but we do.
皆さんは私たちが生涯に悟りを開くなんて
信じないけど これも事実です”
06:46
And if we move from the realm of the spirit
精霊の世界から
06:49
to the realm of the physical,
体力の世界に飛ぶと
06:51
to the sacred geography of Peru --
ペルーの神聖な地に降りたちます
06:53
I've always been interested in the relationships of indigenous people
私は常に先住民族の
関係に興味を持ってきました
06:55
that literally believe that the Earth is alive,
彼らは文字どおり地球は生きていて
06:58
responsive to all of their aspirations,
彼らの願望と欲求に
07:00
all of their needs.
応えるものと信じています
07:02
And, of course, the human population
当然人間には独自の
07:04
has its own reciprocal obligations.
共生義務があります
07:06
I spent 30 years living amongst
私は30年に渡りチンチェロ族と
07:08
the people of Chinchero
生活を共にしました
07:10
and I always heard about an event that I always wanted to participate in.
そしていつかは参加したいと
思った行事を耳にしました
07:12
Once each year, the fastest young boy
毎年一度だけ各部落の
07:15
in each hamlet is given the honor of becoming a woman.
最速の少年が女性になるのです
07:18
And for one day, he wears the clothing of his sister
この日だけ少年は姉妹の服をまとい
07:21
and he becomes a transvestite,
ワイラカという女装者
として一日中
07:23
a waylaka. And for that day,
ワイラカという女装者
として一日中
07:25
he leads all able-bodied men on a run,
部落の走れる男たち全員を
先導して走ります
07:27
but it's not your ordinary run.
普通に走るのとは違います
07:30
You start off at 11,500 feet.
標高3,500m から出発して
07:32
You run down to the base of the sacred mountain, Antakillqa.
神聖な山のふもと
アンタキルガに駈け下り
07:35
You run up to 15,000 feet,
4,500m まで駆け上がり
07:37
descend 3,000 feet.
900m 下ります
07:39
Climb again over the course of 24 hours.
そして24時間中登るのです
07:41
And of course, the waylakama spin,
もちろんワイラカは糸も紡ぎます
07:44
the trajectory of the route,
走る経路上には神聖な土盛りがあり
07:46
is marked by holy mounds of Earth,
走る経路上には神聖な土盛りがあり
07:48
where coke is given to the Earth, libations of alcohol to the wind,
そこでコカを祀り
風に献酒をささげ
07:50
the vortex of the feminine is brought to the mountaintop.
渦巻きをイメージした女性のエネルギーを
呼びこみます
07:53
And the metaphor is clear: you go into the mountain as an individual,
たとえは明快です
個人として山に分け入り
07:56
but through exhaustion, through sacrifice,
疲労と犠牲を重ねるうちに
07:59
you emerge as a community that has once again
仲間の連帯感が高まり
08:02
reaffirmed its sense of place in the planet.
地球上の役割を再認識するのです
08:04
And at 48, I was the only outsider ever to go through this,
私は48才にしてこの行事に
外部者として唯一参加し
08:07
only one to finish it.
唯一完走しました
08:10
I only managed to do it by chewing more coca leaves in one day
でも4千年に渡るこの歴史上で私は一日に
08:12
than anyone in the 4,000-year history of the plant.
もっとも多くコカの葉を噛んだ人になりました
08:15
But these localized rituals become pan-Andean,
この地域の儀式はアンデスに拡がり
08:19
and these fantastic festivals,
素晴らしい祭になりました
08:21
like that of the Qoyllur Rit'i, which occurs
例えばコイユル・リティ この祭は
08:23
when the Pleiades reappear in the winter sky.
プレアデス星団が冬空に
見えた時期に行なわれます
08:25
It's kind of like an Andean Woodstock:
まるでアンデス版ウッドストックです
08:28
60,000 Indians on pilgrimage
6万人のインカ人が巡礼に出て
08:30
to the end of a dirt road
砂利道の果てにある
08:32
that leads to the sacred valley, called the Sinakara,
シナカラ山塊の神聖な谷を目指します
08:34
which is dominated by three tongues
そこでは巨大な氷河の突端が
08:36
of the great glacier.
3つに割れています
08:38
The metaphor is so clear. You bring the crosses from your community,
たとえは明快です
部落から十字架を担ぐ
08:40
in this wonderful fusion of Christian
キリスト教と先コロンビア思想の
08:43
and pre-Columbian ideas.
融合した祭です
08:45
You place the cross into the ice,
十字架を氷上に立てます
08:47
in the shadow of Ausangate, the most sacred of all Apus,
そこは最も神聖なアプス
インカで最も神聖な山
08:49
or sacred mountains of the Inca.
アウサンガテの陰です
08:52
And then you do the ritual dances that empower the crosses.
そして儀式の踊りをして
十字架に力をつけます
08:54
Now, these ideas and these events
これらの思想や行事のおかげで
08:57
allow us even to deconstruct iconic places
マチュピチュのように大勢が
訪れる有名な場所を
08:59
that many of you have been to, like Machu Picchu.
違う角度から見ることができます
09:02
Machu Picchu was never a lost city.
マチュピチュは失われた都市ではありません
09:04
On the contrary, it was completely linked in
この都市はインカが1世紀位かけて
09:06
to the 14,000 kilometers of royal roads
作り上げた1万4千キロにおよぶ王道と
09:08
the Inca made in less than a century.
完全に連結していました
09:11
But more importantly, it was linked in
さらに重要なことに この都市は
09:13
to the Andean notions of sacred geography.
アンデスの神聖な
地形の一部でした
09:15
The intiwatana, the hitching post to the sun,
太陽のつなぎ柱と
呼ばれるインティワタナは
09:18
is actually an obelisk that constantly reflects the light
実際には石柱で常に光を反射して
09:21
that falls on the sacred Apu of Machu Picchu,
マチュピチュの神聖なアプを照らしています
09:24
which is Sugarloaf Mountain, called Huayna Picchu.
アプとは円錐形の山
ワイナピチュのことです
09:27
If you come to the south of the intiwatana, you find an altar.
インティワタナの南側には祭壇があります
09:30
Climb Huayna Picchu, find another altar.
ワイナピチュにも祭壇があります
09:33
Take a direct north-south bearing,
南北方向を見ると
09:35
you find to your astonishment
驚くべきことに
09:37
that it bisects the intiwatana stone,
インティワタナの石柱に当たります
09:39
goes to the skyline,
さらに上方に目を向けると
09:41
hits the heart of Salcantay, the second of the most important mountains
インカ帝国2番目に重要な山
09:43
of the Incan empire.
サルカンタイが見えます
09:46
And then beyond Salcantay, of course,
さらにサルカンタイのかなたには
09:48
when the southern cross reaches the southernmost point in the sky,
南十字星が天空最南端の位置に輝き
09:50
directly in that same alignment, the Milky Way overhead.
その延長線上の頭上には
天の川が広がります
09:53
But what is enveloping Machu Picchu from below?
一方マチュピチュを下から包み込むのは
09:56
The sacred river, the Urubamba, or the Vilcanota,
神聖な川 ウルバンバ 別名ヴィルカノタ
09:59
which is itself the Earthly equivalent of the Milky Way,
この川こそ地上の天の川であり
10:02
but it's also the trajectory that Viracocha walked
創造神ヴィラコチャが宇宙を
10:05
at the dawn of time when he brought the universe into being.
創造した時に歩いたとされます
10:08
And where does the river rise?
川の源流はどこでしょうか
10:11
Right on the slopes of the Koariti.
コアリティの山腹です
10:13
So, 500 years after Columbus,
コロンブスから5百年経過しても
10:17
these ancient rhythms of landscape
地形の太古なリズムが儀式を通じて
10:19
are played out in ritual.
奏でられるのです
10:22
Now, when I was here at the first TED,
TED 初めての講演のとき
10:24
I showed this photograph: two men of the Elder Brothers,
私はこの写真をお見せしました
2人のコギ族の男
10:26
the descendants, survivors of El Dorado.
黄金郷の末裔たちです
10:29
These, of course, are the descendants
彼らはもちろん
10:32
of the ancient Tairona civilization.
太古タイロナ文明の子孫です
10:35
If those of you who are here remember that I mentioned
その時私がお話ししたのは
10:38
that they remain ruled by a ritual priesthood,
彼らを支配するのは
儀式的な聖職であり
10:40
but the training for the priesthood is extraordinary.
聖職者になる修行は
過酷だということです
10:43
Taken from their families, sequestered in a shadowy world of darkness
家族から離れ薄暗い影の世界に
10:45
for 18 years -- two nine-year periods deliberately chosen
9年づつ2回 計18年間幽閉されます
10:48
to evoke the nine months they spend in the natural mother's womb.
9年は自然の母親の子宮で
過ごす9ヵ月を意味します
10:51
All that time, the world only exists as an abstraction,
その間 世界は抽象的な存在でしかなく
10:54
as they are taught the values of their society.
彼らは社会の価値を教えられます
10:58
Values that maintain the proposition that their prayers,
その価値とは彼らが捧げる祈りだけが
11:00
and their prayers alone, maintain the cosmic balance.
宇宙のバランスを保つというのです
11:03
Now, the measure of a society is not only what it does,
社会の尺度とは
社会が行うこと以外にも
11:06
but the quality of its aspirations.
社会が目指す質で決まります
11:09
And I always wanted to go back into these mountains,
それが本当か見るために
11:11
to see if this could possibly be true,
私はこの山岳地帯に戻って
11:13
as indeed had been reported by the great anthropologist,
偉大な人類学者ライヘル=ドルマトフ
が提唱したことを検証しようと思いました
11:16
Reichel-Dolmatoff.
偉大な人類学者ライヘル=ドルマトフ
が提唱したことを検証しようと思いました
11:19
So, literally two weeks ago,
ちょうど2週間前
11:21
I returned from having spent six weeks with the Elder Brothers
コギ族と6週間過ごして帰ってきたばかりです
11:23
on what was clearly the most
まちがいなく 私の人生で
11:26
extraordinary trip of my life.
もっとも特別な旅でした
11:28
These really are a people who live and breathe
彼らの生活は本当に
11:30
the realm of the sacred,
神聖な世界に浸り
11:33
a baroque religiosity that is simply awesome.
信仰深さは称賛に値します
11:35
They consume more coca leaves than any human population,
彼らが消費するコカの葉は
毎日一人当たり 250g で
11:37
half a pound per man, per day.
その量は世界有数です
11:40
The gourd you see here is --
ここに見える ひょうたんはじめ
11:42
everything in their lives is symbolic.
彼らの生活の全ては何かの象徴です
11:45
Their central metaphor is a loom.
彼らのたとえの中心は はた織です
11:48
They say, "Upon this loom, I weave my life."
彼ら曰く “これで自分の人生のはたを織る”
11:50
They refer to the movements as they exploit the ecological niches of the gradient
彼らは斜面の生態系を糸と
11:52
as "threads."
呼んで活用します
11:55
When they pray for the dead, they make these gestures with their hands,
死者に祈りを捧げる際には
11:57
spinning their thoughts into the heavens.
天国への思いを手で紡ぐ仕草をします
12:00
You can see the calcium buildup on the head of the poporo gourd.
ひょうたんの頭部にカルシウムが
堆積しているのが見えます
12:03
The gourd is a feminine aspect; the stick is a male.
ひょうたんが女性で棒が男性です
12:06
You put the stick in the powder
ひょうたん内の神聖な灰_
12:09
to take the sacred ashes -- well, they're not ashes,
石灰岩を焼いた粉末ですが
12:11
they're burnt limestone --
これを棒で取って
12:14
to empower the coca leaf, to change
コカの葉の作用を高めるために
使います
12:15
the pH of the mouth to facilitate the absorption
葉と一緒に噛むと
粉が口中の酸度を変えて
12:17
of cocaine hydrochloride.
塩酸コカインの吸収を助けるのです
12:19
But if you break a gourd, you cannot simply throw it away,
ひょうたんは たとえ割れても捨てません
12:21
because every stroke of that stick
カルシウムを堆積する
12:24
that has built up that calcium,
棒の一振り一振りが
12:26
the measure of a man's life,
男性の生き様の象徴であり
12:28
has a thought behind it.
意味があるからです
12:30
Fields are planted in such an extraordinary way,
畑に作物を植え付ける際には
12:33
that the one side of the field
一方は女性により この方向に
12:35
is planted like that by the women.
一方は女性により この方向に
12:37
The other side is planted like that by the men. Metaphorically,
他方は男性により この方向に
植え付けられます
12:39
you turn it on the side, and you have a piece of cloth.
折り曲げて重ねると
生地になるという たとえです
12:42
And they are the descendants of the ancient Tairona civilization,
彼らは南米一の金細工職人であった
古代タイロナ文明の子孫で
12:45
the greatest goldsmiths of South America,
彼らは南米一の金細工職人であった
古代タイロナ文明の子孫で
12:48
who in the wake of the conquest,
西洋の征服とともに
12:49
retreated into this isolated volcanic massif
カリブ海沿岸地帯にそそり立つ
12:51
that soars to 20,000 feet
標高6,000m の火山地帯の
12:54
above the Caribbean coastal plain.
奥地に逃げ込んだのです
12:56
There are four societies:
4つの部族がいます
12:58
the Kogi, the Wiwa, the Kankwano and the Arhuacos.
コギ、ウィワ、カンカワノ、アラワコス です
13:00
I traveled with the Arhuacos,
私はアラワコス族と過ごしました
13:03
and the wonderful thing about this story
素晴らしいことに
13:05
was that this man, Danilo Villafane --
この男性 ダニロ・ビラファンニャは
13:07
if we just jump back here for a second.
ちょっと振り返ってみると―
13:10
When I first met Danilo, in the Colombian embassy in Washington,
初めて彼にあったのはワシントンの
コロンビア大使館でした―
13:13
I couldn't help but say, "You know,
私は思わず言いました
13:16
you look a lot like an old friend of mine."
“あなたは私の旧友に
まるでそっくりだ”
13:18
Well, it turns out he was the son of my friend, Adalberto,
なんと彼は私の1974年来の
友人でコロンビア革命軍に
13:20
from 1974, who had been killed by the FARC.
殺されたアダルベルトの
息子だったのです
13:23
And I said, "Danilo, you won't remember this,
私は言いました
“覚えていないだろうが
13:26
but when you were an infant, I carried you on my back,
幼児の時には あなたを背負って
13:29
up and down the mountains."
山を登り降りしたんだよ”
13:31
And because of that, Danilo invited us
おかげで ダニロは私を
13:33
to go to the very heart of the world,
もっとも神聖な場所に
連れて行ってくれたのです
13:35
a place where no journalist had ever been permitted.
外部者は誰も行ったことがない場所です
13:37
Not simply to the flanks of the mountains,
山の中腹ではなくて
13:39
but to the very iced peaks which are the destiny of the pilgrims.
巡礼の到着地点である
雪山の頂上です
13:41
And this man sitting cross-legged
あぐらをかいている男が
13:44
is now a grown-up Eugenio,
今や大人のユーへニオです
13:46
a man who I've known since 1974.
1974年以来知っている男です
13:48
And this is one of those initiates.
そしてこちらが修行中の男の子の1人です
13:51
No, it's not true that they're kept in the darkness for 18 years,
実際 闇の中で18年間
過ごすわけではないのです
13:53
but they are kept within the confines
しかし彼らは儀礼的な
13:56
of the ceremonial men's circle
男たちの輪の中で
13:58
for 18 years.
18年間過ごしたのです
14:00
This little boy will never step outside
儀式のために旅立つ日が
14:02
of the sacred fields
来るまでの間 この少年は
14:04
that surround the men's hut for all that time,
男たちの小屋を取り囲む
14:06
until he begins his journey of initiation.
神聖な土地を離れることはありません
14:09
For that entire time, the world only exists as an abstraction,
それまでの間 世界は
抽象的な存在です
14:12
as he is taught the values of society,
そして祈りのみが宇宙の均衡を
14:15
including this notion that their prayers alone
守るという社会の価値を
14:17
maintain the cosmic balance.
教えられるのです
14:19
Before we could begin our journey,
私たちは出発に先立って
14:22
we had to be cleansed at the portal of the Earth.
地球の泉で清められました
14:24
And it was extraordinary to be taken by a priest.
神聖者による荘厳な儀式です
14:26
And you see that the priest never wears shoes because holy feet --
見てのとおり神聖者は靴を履きません
14:28
there must be nothing between the feet
聖人の足は直に地上に
14:31
and the Earth for a mamo.
触れなければならないのです
14:33
And this is actually the place where the Great Mother
そしてこの地こそは偉大なる母が
14:36
sent the spindle into the world
世界を紡ぐ糸巻を垂れて
14:38
that elevated the mountains and created the homeland
山々を引き上げ 彼らが世界の中心と
14:40
that they call the heart of the world.
呼ぶ祖国を作った場所です
14:42
We traveled high into the paramo,
私たちは山奥深く進みました
14:44
and as we crested the hills,
山頂を超すたびに
14:46
we realized that the men were interpreting
男たちがあらゆる地形にある
14:48
every single bump on the landscape
宗教上の意味を
14:50
in terms of their own intense religiosity.
読んでいるのが分かりました
14:52
And then of course, as we reached our final destination,
そして最終目的地である
14:55
a place called Mamancana,
ママナカナ到着寸前に
14:58
we were in for a surprise,
事件が発生します
15:00
because the FARC were waiting to kidnap us.
コロンビア革命軍が
待ち伏せしていたのです
15:02
And so we ended up being taken aside into these huts,
そこで私たちは脇道の小屋で
15:04
hidden away until the darkness.
暗闇まで隠れることにしました
15:07
And then, abandoning all our gear,
そして全ての装備を捨てて
15:09
we were forced to ride out in the middle of the night,
真夜中に大胆な逃避行をするのです
15:11
in a quite dramatic scene.
真夜中に大胆な逃避行をするのです
15:14
It's going to look like a John Ford Western.
まるでジョン・フォードの西部劇です
15:16
And we ran into a FARC patrol at dawn, so it was quite harrowing.
明け方に革命軍の巡回に
遭遇してひどい目に遭いました
15:18
It will be a very interesting film. But what was fascinating
とても面白い映画になるでしょう
15:21
is that the minute there was a sense of dangers,
興味深いのは危険が迫ると
15:24
the mamos went into a circle of divination.
男たちは占いを始めるのです
15:26
And of course, this is a photograph
この写真は文字通り
15:29
literally taken the night we were in hiding,
逃避行中のものです
15:31
as they divine their route
山中を下る経路を
15:33
to take us out of the mountains.
探そうとしている最中です
15:35
We were able to, because we had trained
映画製作に精通している
15:37
people in filmmaking,
人たちのおかげで
15:39
continue with our work,
撮影を続行し
15:41
and send our Wiwa and Arhuaco filmmakers
ウィワ族とアルワコ族の協力者を
15:43
to the final sacred lakes
目的地の神聖な湖に送り込んで
15:46
to get the last shots for the film,
映画の最後を撮影し
15:48
and we followed the rest of the Arhuaco back to the sea,
残るアルワコ族と共に海に出ました
15:50
taking the elements from the highlands to the sea.
高地から海岸へたどる旅だったのです
15:52
And here you see how their sacred landscape
このとおり彼らの聖なる地は
15:55
has been covered by brothels and hotels and casinos,
売春宿 ホテル カジノでらけでした
15:57
and yet, still they pray.
それでも彼らは祈ります
16:00
And it's an amazing thing to think
マイアミからこんなに近い
16:03
that this close to Miami,
マイアミから2時間たらずの所で
16:05
two hours from Miami, there is an entire civilization of people
毎日全人類のために祈りを捧げる
16:08
praying every day for your well-being.
人々の文明があるとは驚きです
16:11
They call themselves the Elder Brothers.
彼らは自分たちを兄と呼びます
16:14
They dismiss the rest of us who have ruined the world
世界を破壊する私たちのことは
16:16
as the Younger Brothers. They cannot understand
弟と呼びます 私たちがすることは
16:19
why it is that we do what we do to the Earth.
彼らには到底理解できません
16:21
Now, if we slip to another end of the world,
それでは別の世界の果て
16:24
I was up in the high Arctic
北極圏に行ってみましょう
16:26
to tell a story about global warming,
私は地球温暖化に興味があります
16:28
inspired in part by
元副大統領の素晴らしい本も
16:30
the former Vice President's wonderful book.
きっかけになりました
16:32
And what struck me so extraordinary
私にとってはイヌイットとの
16:34
was to be again with the Inuit --
再会は特別なことでした
16:36
a people who don't fear the cold, but take advantage of it.
彼らは寒さを恐れず
逆に利用する民族です
16:38
A people who
想像力を駆使して
16:41
find a way, with their imagination,
凍てついて土地で
16:43
to carve life out of that very frozen.
生命をはぐくむ民族です
16:45
A people for whom blood on ice
彼らには氷上の血は
16:48
is not a sign of death, but an affirmation of life.
死の象徴ではなく
生の証なのです
16:50
And yet tragically, when you now go to those northern communities,
悲しいことに今日
最北の部落を訪れると
16:53
you find to your astonishment
驚くことにグリーンランド北部の
16:55
that whereas the sea ice used to come in in September
カナック等の場所では
16:57
and stay till July,
以前は9月に接岸して
16:59
in a place like Kanak in northern Greenland,
7月まであった海氷が
17:01
it literally comes in now in November
今は11月に接岸して
17:03
and stays until March.
3月までしかないのです
17:05
So, their entire year has been cut in half.
彼らの一年が半分に
なってしまったのです
17:07
Now, I want to stress that none of these peoples
私が強調したいのは
17:10
that I've been quickly talking about here
今話している どの民族も
17:12
are disappearing worlds.
消え去ろうとしているのではない
17:14
These are not dying peoples.
死にゆく民族ではないのです
17:16
On the contrary, you know,
その反対で 感じる心と
17:18
if you have the heart to feel and the eyes to see,
見る目があれば地球は
17:20
you discover that the world is not flat.
平らではないと気づくでしょう
17:22
The world remains a rich tapestry.
世界は多岐にわたるペタストリーです
17:24
It remains a rich topography of the spirit.
世界には多様な精神が存在します
17:27
These myriad voices of humanity
これらの人々が織りなすのは
17:30
are not failed attempts at being new,
新しいことや近代化に
17:32
failed attempts at being modern.
失敗した嘆きではありません
17:34
They're unique facets of the human imagination.
それぞれが独自の想像を
訴えているのです
17:36
They're unique answers to a fundamental question:
どれもが根本的な質問への
独自の答えなのです
17:38
what does it mean to be human and alive?
人間として生きる意味は何なのか?
17:41
And when asked that question, they respond
この問いに対して人類は
17:44
with 6,000 different voices.
6千の異なる声をあげました
17:46
And collectively, those voices become our human repertoire
総合的にその声全てが私たち人類が
17:48
for dealing with the challenges that will confront us
向こう千年間に遭遇する危機に
17:51
in the ensuing millennia.
対応するための知恵なのです
17:53
Our industrial society is scarcely
私たちの産業社会の歴史はわずか
17:55
300 years old.
3百年に過ぎません
17:57
That shallow history shouldn't suggest to anyone
そんな浅い歴史では到底
17:59
that we have all of the answers
向こう千年間に遭遇する危機に
18:01
for all of the questions that will confront us
対応するための全ての答えを
18:03
in the ensuing millennia.
持っているとは言えません
18:05
The myriad voices of humanity are not failed attempts at being us.
人類の織りなす声は失敗を
嘆いてはいません
18:07
They are unique answers to that fundamental question:
どれもが根本的な質問への
独自の答えなのです
18:10
what does it mean to be human and alive?
人間として生きる意味は何なのか?
18:13
And there is indeed a fire burning over the Earth,
地球上では火が燃え盛っています
18:15
taking with it not only plants and animals,
植物や動物が滅び行くと共に
18:18
but the legacy of humanity's brilliance.
人類の英知も失われつつあります
18:21
Right now, as we sit here in this room,
今現在この部屋にいる間にも
18:23
of those 6,000 languages spoken the day that you were born,
皆さんが生まれた時に
話されていた6千の言語のうち
18:25
fully half aren't being taught to children.
半分が子孫に伝わりません
18:28
So, you're living through a time
皆さんは実質的に人類の
知的 社会的 精神的資産の
18:31
when virtually half of humanity's intellectual,
皆さんは実質的に人類の
知的 社会的 精神的資産の
18:32
social and spiritual legacy
半分が失われつつある
18:35
is being allowed to slip away.
時代に住んでいるのです
18:37
This does not have to happen.
そうであっては いけません
18:39
These peoples are not failed attempts at being modern --
彼らが織りなすのは近代化に
失敗した嘆きではありません
18:41
quaint and colorful and destined to fade away
奇妙で活気があるのに
自然の摂理によって
18:44
as if by natural law.
消え去るのではありません
18:46
In every case, these are dynamic, living peoples
いずれも躍動する生活を
おくる民族が
18:48
being driven out of existence by identifiable forces.
特定可能な力によって
排除されつつある事例です
18:50
That's actually an optimistic observation,
でもそうだとしたら
希望もあります
18:53
because it suggests that if human beings
もし人間が文化を破壊する
仲介者だとするならば
18:56
are the agents of cultural destruction,
もし人間が文化を破壊する
仲介者だとするならば
18:58
we can also be, and must be,
人間は文化を存続する
支援者となれるに違いありません
19:00
the facilitators of cultural survival.
人間は文化を存続する
支援者となれるに違いありません
19:02
Thank you very much.
大変ありがとうございました
19:04
Translator:Akira Kan
Reviewer:Jarred Tucker

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Wade Davis - Anthropologist, ethnobotanist
A National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, Wade Davis has been described as “a rare combination of scientist, scholar, poet and passionate defender of all of life’s diversity.”

Why you should listen

Wade Davis is perhaps the most articulate and influential western advocate for the world's indigenous cultures. A National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, he has been described as “a rare combination of scientist, scholar, poet and passionate defender of all of life’s diversity.” Trained in anthropology and botany at Harvard, he travels the globe to live alongside indigenous people, and document their cultural practices in books, photographs, and film. His stunning photographs and evocative stories capture the viewer's imagination. As a speaker, he parlays that sense of wonder into passionate concern over the rate at which cultures and languages are disappearing -- 50 percent of the world's 7,000 languages, he says, are no longer taught to children. He argues, in the most beautiful terms, that language is much more than vocabulary and grammatical rules. Every language is an old-growth forest of the mind.  

Indigenous cultures are not failed attempts at modernity, let alone failed attempts to be us. They are unique expressions of the human imagination and heart, unique answers to a fundamental question: What does it mean to be human and alive? When asked this question, the peoples of the world respond in 7,000 different voices, and these collectively comprise our human repertoire for dealing with all the challenges that will confront us as a species over the coming centuries.

Davis is the author of 15 books including The Serpent and the RainbowOne River, and The Wayfinders. His many film credits include Light at the Edge of the World, an eight-hour documentary series produced for the National Geographic. In 2009 he received the Gold Medal from the Royal Canadian Geographical Society for his contributions to anthropology and conservation, and he is the 2011 recipient of the Explorers Medal, the highest award of the Explorers’ Club, and the 2012 recipient of the Fairchild Medal for Plant Exploration. His latest books are Into the Silence: The Great War, Mallory and the Conquest of Everest and The Sacred Headwaters: the Fight to Save the Stikine, Skeena and the Nass.

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